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EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334339


Persistent symptoms are common after SARS-CoV-2 infection but the correlation with objective measures is unclear. We utilized the deCODE Health Study to compare multiple symptoms and physical measures between 1,721 Icelanders with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection (cases) and 546 contemporary and 13,842 historical controls. Cases participated in the study five to 17 months after the acute infection. One percent reported still suffering severe symptoms more than a year after the infection. 46 of the 88 symptoms explored associated with prior infection, most significantly disturbed smell and taste, memory disturbance, and dyspnea. On the contrary, only a handful of objective measures associated with prior infection. Cases were more likely to have measured impairment in smell and taste, lower grip strength, and poorer immediate and delayed memory recall than controls. No other objective measure associated with prior infection including heart rate, blood pressure, postural orthostatic tachycardia, oxygen saturation, exercise tolerance, hearing, and traditional inflammatory, cardiac, liver and kidney blood biomarkers. There was no evidence of more anxiety or depression among cases. We estimated the prevalence of long Covid to be 7–8%. Thus, in our large case-control study of mostly non-hospitalized Icelanders, diverse symptoms were common after SARS-CoV-2 infection while objective differences between cases and controls were few and, except for smell and taste, small. Discrepancies between symptoms and objective measures suggest a more complicated biological or biopsychosocial contribution to symptoms related to prior infection than is captured by conventional tests. Traditional clinical assessment would thus not be expected to be particularly informative in relating symptoms to a past SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Blood Cancer J ; 11(12): 191, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545601


Multiple myeloma (MM) patients have increased risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) when infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), the precursor of MM has been associated with immune dysfunction which may lead to severe COVID-19. No systematic data have been published on COVID-19 in individuals with MGUS. We conducted a large population-based cohort study evaluating the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 among individuals with MGUS. We included 75,422 Icelanders born before 1976, who had been screened for MGUS in the Iceland Screens Treats or Prevents Multiple Myeloma study (iStopMM). Data on SARS-CoV-2 testing and COVID-19 severity were acquired from the Icelandic COVID-19 Study Group. Using a test-negative study design, we included 32,047 iStopMM participants who had been tested for SARS-CoV-2, of whom 1754 had MGUS. Among these participants, 1100 participants, tested positive, 65 of whom had MGUS. Severe COVID-19 developed in 230 participants, including 16 with MGUS. MGUS was not associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection (Odds ratio (OR): 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81-1.36; p = 0.72) or severe COVID-19 (OR: 0.99; 95%CI: 0.52-1.91; p = 0.99). These findings indicate that MGUS does not affect the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 or the severity of COVID-19.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Iceland/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2