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1.
Economic Change and Restructuring ; 56(3):1367-1431, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20235178

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the global economy has witnessed several uncertainty-inducing events. However, empirical evidence in Africa on the effects of economic policy uncertainty (EPU) on economic activities remains scanty. Besides, the moderating effect of governance institutions on the uncertainty-economic performance relationship in Africa and the likelihood of regional differences in the response of economic activities to EPU on the continent are yet to be investigated. To address these gaps, we applied system GMM and quantile regressions on a panel of forty-seven African countries from 2010 to 2019. We find that while global EPU and EPUs from China, USA and Canada exert considerable influence on economic performance in Africa, the effects of domestic EPU and EPUs from Europe, UK, Japan, and Russia were negligible, suggesting that African economies are resilient to these sources of uncertainty shocks. We also find that governance institutions in Africa are not significantly moderating the uncertainty-economic performance relationship. However, our results highlighted regional differences in the response of economic activities to uncertainty, such that when compared to East and West Africa, economic performance in Central, North and Southern Africa is generally more resilient to global EPU and EPUs from China, USA, Europe and UK. We highlighted the policy implications of these findings.

2.
Pastoral Interventions During the Pandemic: Pentecostal Perspectives on Christian Ministry in South Africa ; : 45-70, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2325336

ABSTRACT

Times of trouble provide opportunities for innovation within religion. The current pandemic opens opportunities to create a new, global, inclusive ecclesiology by connecting Christians from all over the world and all walks of life, with the sole purpose of focusing on the Christian faith and mission of the church to the world. Although the term "virtual ecclesiology” can be attenuated to mean "not real”, it is also a strong, virtuous way of structuring the church in technology-driven societies. It can provide a new church model, and allows for open, inclusive, and diverse technology-based options to communicate God's love both inside the global church and to the world. The African Pentecostalisation process serves as an example of a possible first step towards developing a virtual ecclesiology. © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2022.

4.
Sci Immunol ; 5(54)2020 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161788

ABSTRACT

Understanding the nature of immunity following mild/asymptomatic infection with SARS-CoV-2 is crucial to controlling the pandemic. We analyzed T cell and neutralizing antibody responses in 136 healthcare workers (HCW) 16-18 weeks after United Kingdom lockdown, 76 of whom had mild/asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection captured by serial sampling. Neutralizing antibodies (nAb) were present in 89% of previously infected HCW. T cell responses tended to be lower following asymptomatic infection than in those reporting case-definition symptoms of COVID-19, while nAb titers were maintained irrespective of symptoms. T cell and antibody responses were sometimes discordant. Eleven percent lacked nAb and had undetectable T cell responses to spike protein but had T cells reactive with other SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Our findings suggest that the majority of individuals with mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection carry nAb complemented by multispecific T cell responses at 16-18 weeks after mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
6.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology ; 33:370, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2126052

ABSTRACT

Background: In 2009, a novel Influenza A(H1N1) virus caused the first pandemic of the twenty-first century. Patients commonly presented mild phenotypes, similar to seasonal influenza, however some developed complications requiring hospitalisation. Often critically ill patients exhibited major renal sequalae of acute kidney injury (AKI), leading to renal failure. Injury progression is poorly understood, with debates over development originating from direct viral infection of renal cells or pre-renal systemic inflammation. Method(s): Renal tissue and urine was taken from Babraham pigs (n=54) either daily (0-13 days) or weekly (0-3 weeks) following intranasal Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection. IHC determined histological status of kidney tissue. Influenza A mRNA and nucleoprotein were detected by in situ hybridisation and IHC, respectively. Presence of H1N1 mRNA within urine was determined using qRT-PCR. Localised renal pro-/antiinflammatory cytokine expression profiles were developed using qRT-PCR. CD4+ and CD8alpha+ T-cell infiltration and IgA deposition were detected by IF. Result(s): Viral mRNA and protein was detected within kidney tissue at 1-6 days post-infection, similar to the timeline in respiratory tissue. Despite this, IHC revealed microscopic renal structure to be unchanged at all time points, with no evidence of necrosis/fibrosis. Consistent with this, pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA decreased oneweek post-infection (TNF-alpha, IFN-beta, IFN-gamma, and IL-4;p<0.05). Expression recovers after 7-14 days, often reaching levels greater than control (TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-4;p<0.05). Interstitial infiltration of CD4+ and CD8alpha+ cells, together with glomerular deposition of IgA, follows a similar trend (CD4 and IgA p<0.05). Urine samples were absent of H1N1 mRNA. Conclusion(s): This work creates an infection timeline within the porcine renal system and highlights the ability of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus to reach the kidney without causing direct injury. Viral presence within renal tissue is cleared one-week postinfection, corresponding with a localised dampening of the immune system. This work demonstrates a direct role of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in the kidney, and with current literature documenting AKI in COVID-19 patients, it is important to understand how respiratory viruses can contribute to AKI and mortality.

7.
European journal of public health ; 32(Suppl 3), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2124643

ABSTRACT

Background Public mental health (PMH) services address social determinants of mental health, such as poverty, poor housing, and job insecurity. Austerity and welfare reform in the UK has led to cuts to social and welfare support, increasing poor mental health and widening inequalities, exacerbated by COVID-19. State health services lack capacity to tackle social issues that contribute to a large proportion of expressed mental health need. Co-locating PMH services within community spaces is a potential solution to increase early access and improve quality of services. Using a realist evaluation, we sought to develop the theory on how community co-location affects PMH outcomes, who this works best for, and how this is impacted by the context of delivery. Methods We collected data from service-users and service-providers at six case study sites across England, UK, using interviews (n = 62), four focus groups (n = 40) and two stakeholder workshops (n = 19). Results We identified four overarching theories. First, community providers do not operate under the same limits as state services allowing them the flexibility and time to build trust and ongoing relationships with service users. Second, the ethos and culture of services is to empower users to access help and be independent. Third, accessing support from a shared local space allows a coordinated and holistic response reducing barriers such as distance, cost, and anxiety. Four, as they are recreational services and spaces for access by all with no predefined/required level of need they are better at promoting wellbeing and primary prevention. Conclusions Community co-location of PMH services can strengthen the overall mental health system by widening reach to people vulnerable to poor mental health and enabling earlier intervention on associated social determinants. This has potential to reduce mental health inequalities and demand on the state health system. Key messages Community co-location of PMH services can provide early and holistic support for complex social issues. There is potential to support the state health system by alleviating demand for help with ‘non-health’ issues.

8.
Verbum et Ecclesia ; 43(1), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2080616

ABSTRACT

The fourth revolution world turned our comfortable lives into a rollercoaster ride of challenges, changes and choices. Apart from the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the Fourth Communication Revolution and the Fourth Self-awareness Revolution brought major disruptions to our world to which we were just coming to terms with when coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) struck and brought a firm halt to almost everything, including the way we were used to practice our faith. This confluence of circumstances has provided Christians in South Africa with an opportunity to do introspection and carve a new way forward for being followers of Christ and doing what their faith requires from them to be true to their religion and regain credibility in a time when the institutionalised churches are struggling to survive. The need to redefine what it means to be church, and the role Christians should play in society are on the table since the last decade of the previous century. This article identified four basics and, to a great extent, neglected pillars – two from the New Testament Scriptures and two from the Reformation movements – that could form the foundation for a transformed and alternative way of being ecclesia in the current fast-paced, demanding world. This article serves as an introduction and broad overview to stimulate debate and further development of the ideas presented to contribute towards positive reformation and transformation of South African Christianity. The study was conducted through historical research and document analysis. Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: A call to discuss the pillars of faith that could assist the traditional or mainstream institutional churches to do introspection at the current crossroads. Four pillars of faith are identified to assist in carving a new path forward for South African Christianity, drawing from the disciplines of Church History, Practical Theology and Missiology. © 2022. The Author.

9.
arxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-ARXIV | ID: ppzbmed-2210.02055v1

ABSTRACT

In this work we present a framework which may transform research and praxis in epidemic planning. Introduced in the context of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, we provide a concrete demonstration of the way algorithms may learn from epidemiological models to scale their value for epidemic preparedness. Our contributions in this work are two fold: 1) a novel platform which makes it easy for decision making stakeholders to interact with epidemiological models and algorithms developed within the Machine learning community, and 2) the release of this work under the Apache-2.0 License. The objective of this paper is not to look closely at any particular models or algorithms, but instead to highlight how they can be coupled and shared to empower evidence-based decision making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
10.
Science ; 377(6603): eabq1841, 2022 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891726

ABSTRACT

The Omicron, or Pango lineage B.1.1.529, variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) carries multiple spike mutations with high transmissibility and partial neutralizing antibody (nAb) escape. Vaccinated individuals show protection against severe disease, often attributed to primed cellular immunity. We investigated T and B cell immunity against B.1.1.529 in triple BioNTech BNT162b2 messenger RNA-vaccinated health care workers (HCWs) with different SARS-CoV-2 infection histories. B and T cell immunity against previous variants of concern was enhanced in triple-vaccinated individuals, but the magnitude of T and B cell responses against B.1.1.529 spike protein was reduced. Immune imprinting by infection with the earlier B.1.1.7 (Alpha) variant resulted in less durable binding antibody against B.1.1.529. Previously infection-naïve HCWs who became infected during the B.1.1.529 wave showed enhanced immunity against earlier variants but reduced nAb potency and T cell responses against B.1.1.529 itself. Previous Wuhan Hu-1 infection abrogated T cell recognition and any enhanced cross-reactive neutralizing immunity on infection with B.1.1.529.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Reactions , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
11.
Nature ; 601(7891): 110-117, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510600

ABSTRACT

Individuals with potential exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) do not necessarily develop PCR or antibody positivity, suggesting that some individuals may clear subclinical infection before seroconversion. T cells can contribute to the rapid clearance of SARS-CoV-2 and other coronavirus infections1-3. Here we hypothesize that pre-existing memory T cell responses, with cross-protective potential against SARS-CoV-2 (refs. 4-11), would expand in vivo to support rapid viral control, aborting infection. We measured SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells, including those against the early transcribed replication-transcription complex (RTC)12,13, in intensively monitored healthcare workers (HCWs) who tested repeatedly negative according to PCR, antibody binding and neutralization assays (seronegative HCWs (SN-HCWs)). SN-HCWs had stronger, more multispecific memory T cells compared with a cohort of unexposed individuals from before the pandemic (prepandemic cohort), and these cells were more frequently directed against the RTC than the structural-protein-dominated responses observed after detectable infection (matched concurrent cohort). SN-HCWs with the strongest RTC-specific T cells had an increase in IFI27, a robust early innate signature of SARS-CoV-2 (ref. 14), suggesting abortive infection. RNA polymerase within RTC was the largest region of high sequence conservation across human seasonal coronaviruses (HCoV) and SARS-CoV-2 clades. RNA polymerase was preferentially targeted (among the regions tested) by T cells from prepandemic cohorts and SN-HCWs. RTC-epitope-specific T cells that cross-recognized HCoV variants were identified in SN-HCWs. Enriched pre-existing RNA-polymerase-specific T cells expanded in vivo to preferentially accumulate in the memory response after putative abortive compared to overt SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our data highlight RTC-specific T cells as targets for vaccines against endemic and emerging Coronaviridae.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/immunology , Memory T Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroconversion , Cell Proliferation , Cohort Studies , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/metabolism , Evolution, Molecular , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Memory T Cells/cytology , Multienzyme Complexes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Transcription, Genetic/immunology
12.
medrxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.06.26.21259239

ABSTRACT

Individuals with likely exposure to the highly infectious SARS-CoV-2 do not necessarily develop PCR or antibody positivity, suggesting some may clear sub-clinical infection before seroconversion. T cells can contribute to the rapid clearance of SARS-CoV-2 and other coronavirus infections1-5. We hypothesised that pre-existing memory T cell responses, with cross-protective potential against SARS-CoV-26-12, would expand in vivo to mediate rapid viral control, potentially aborting infection. We studied T cells against the replication transcription complex (RTC) of SARS-CoV-2 since this is transcribed first in the viral life cycle13-15 and should be highly conserved. We measured SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells in a cohort of intensively monitored healthcare workers (HCW) who remained repeatedly negative by PCR, antibody binding, and neutralisation for SARS-CoV-2 (exposed seronegative, ES). 16-weeks post-recruitment, ES had memory T cells that were stronger and more multispecific than an unexposed pre-pandemic cohort, and more frequently directed against the RTC than the structural protein-dominated responses seen post-detectable infection (matched concurrent cohort). The postulate that HCW with the strongest RTC-specific T cells had an abortive infection was supported by a low-level increase in IFI27 transcript, a robust early innate signature of SARS-CoV-2 infection16. We showed that the RNA-polymerase within RTC was the largest region of high sequence conservation across human seasonal coronaviruses (HCoV) and was preferentially targeted by T cells from UK and Singapore pre-pandemic cohorts and from ES. RTC epitope-specific T cells capable of cross-recognising HCoV variants were identified in ES. Longitudinal samples from ES and an additional validation cohort, showed pre-existing RNA-polymerase-specific T cells expanded in vivo following SARS-CoV-2 exposure, becoming enriched in the memory response of those with abortive compared to overt infection. In summary, we provide evidence of abortive seronegative SARS-CoV-2 infection with expansion of cross-reactive RTC-specific T cells, highlighting these highly conserved proteins as targets for future vaccines against endemic and emerging Coronaviridae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Abortion, Septic
13.
Acta Theologica ; : 25-47, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1278820

ABSTRACT

Having to cope in the revolution-driven world of the 21st century as well as the new-normal COVID-19 society brought theology to yet another crossroad. Theology (both theory and praxis) must react positively to the changes and lessons learned from some of the major revolutions. Just as the Fourth Industrial Revolution blurs the distinctive lines between physical, digital, and biological, so should the separated boxes of personal faith, institutionalised religion, and spirituality be wiped out. Human self-awareness helps us know ourselves and improve our ability to glorify God, while the Communication Revolution empowers Christians to spread the gospel globally. Christianity is also in need of a revolution back to its origin of an un-institutionalised, nonhierarchical, living faith that is changing the lives of people both in the present and eternally. From a South African perspective, the article evaluates the major mistakes that Christians made, some achievements on which they could build and expand, and the ideals that should pave the way forward. It is time to ask some hard questions and provide appropriate answers in the quest for Christian renewal. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Acta Theologica is the property of Acta Theologica and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

14.
Modern Pathology ; 34(SUPPL 2):1166-1167, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1173277
15.
The New Zealand Journal of Music Therapy ; 18:87-114, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1017495

ABSTRACT

The Raukatauri Music Therapy Trust (RMTT) provides music therapy services via its centre in Auckland, two regional centres in Hawke's Bay and Northland, five Auckland satellite services, and outreach programmes in partnership with over 20 schools and organisations. In 2019 the Trust was awarded a grant by the NZ Lottery Grants Board to commission an independent evaluation of its services. The evaluation was designed to identify the values and impacts that RMTT services have for its clients, whānau1, and outreach partner organisations, and the factors that support and challenge participation in RMTT services. Following a literature review of relevant music therapy practice and outcomes, the evaluation team collected both quantitative and qualitative data through a survey and interviews with a range of present and past clients, whānau, and outreach partner organisations, and through discussion groups with RMTT staff. Five overarching key questions guided the evaluation and its findings. A theory of change provided a reference point for adherence to intention, and links are made between the data collected and Enabling Good Lives principles. The evaluation provides learning for future activity within RMTT and the field of music therapy in Aotearoa New Zealand, particularly around public understanding of music therapy and the value of relationships within music therapy and the wider disability community. The timing of the evaluation also enabled some reflection on adaptations to service delivery in the face of COVID-19.

16.
Journal of Community Nursing ; 34(5):59-64, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1011987

ABSTRACT

There is no doubt that families affected by dementia have faced many new challenges as a result of Covid-19. The suspension and closure of support services, enforced lockdown and changes to important daily routines have influenced the way in which families affected by dementia have gained support. Health and social care services have recognised the need to adapt by incorporating telehealth as a substitute to existing care models;however, some have faced challenges in providing such care to this patient population. This paper explores the use of telephone helplines as a means of support for families affected by dementia during Covid-19, commenting on the advantages and disadvantages and reflecting on the experience of a dementia specialist helpline nurse. © 2020, JCN. All rights reserved

17.
medrxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.10.13.20211763

ABSTRACT

Studies of adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 include characterisation of lethal, severe and mild cases. Understanding how long immunity lasts in people who have had mild or asymptomatic infection is crucial. Healthcare worker (HCW) cohorts exposed to and infected by SARS-CoV-2 during the early stages of the pandemic are an invaluable resource to study this question. The UK COVIDsortium is a longitudinal, London hospital HCW cohort, followed from the time of UK lockdown; weekly PCR, serology and symptom diaries allowed capture of asymptomatic infection around the time of onset, so duration of immunity could be tracked. Here, we conduct a cross-sectional, case-control, sub-study of 136 HCW at 16-18 weeks after UK lockdown, with 76 having had laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 mild or asymptomatic infection. Neutralising antibodies (nAb) were present in 90% of infected HCW sampled after the first wave; titres, likely to correlate with functional protection, were present in 66% at 16-18 weeks. T cell responses tended to be lower in asymptomatic infected HCW than those reporting case-definition symptoms of COVID-19, while nAb titres were maintained irrespective of symptoms. T cell and antibody responses were discordant. HCW lacking nAb also showed undetectable T cells to Spike protein but had T cells of other specificities. Our findings suggest that the majority of HCW with mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection carry nAb complemented by multi-specific T cell responses for at least 4 months after mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Agricultural Workers' Diseases
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