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AJOG Glob Rep ; 2(1): 100046, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740277


BACKGROUND: Initial studies on COVID-19 in pregnancy have demonstrated a range of neutralizing activity, but little has been published on the full profile of SARS CoV-2 related antibodies in maternal and cordblood. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the profile and specificity of maternal and neonatal cord blood antibody profiles in response to SARS-CoV-2 virus exposure. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study of delivering patients at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital from April 2020 to February 2021. The primary objective was to describe unique maternal and fetal antibody epitope titers and specificity in patients with COVID-19 history. Serologic profile was assessed with a multiplex platform. Antigens used were hemagglutinin trimer influenza A (Hong Kong H3); spike trimers for SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and betacoronaviruses HKU-1 and OC43; and spike N-terminal domain, spike receptor-binding domain, and nucleocapsid protein (full length) for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Here, 112 maternal samples and 101 maternal and cord blood pairs were analyzed. Of note, 37 patients had a known history of COVID-19 (positive polymerase chain reaction test) during pregnancy. Of 36 patients, 16 (44%) were diagnosed with COVID-19 within 7 days of delivery. Moreover, 15 of the remaining 76 patients (20%) without a known diagnosis had positive maternal serology. For those with a history of COVID-19, we identified robust immunoglobulin G response in maternal blood to CoV-2 nucleocapsid, spike (full length), and spike (receptor-binding domain) antigens with more modest responses to the spike (N-terminal domain) antigen. In contrast, the maternal blood immunoglobulin M response seemed more specific to spike (full length) epitopes than nucleocapsid, spike (receptor-binding domain), or spike (N-terminal domain) epitopes. There were significantly higher maternal and cord blood immunoglobulin G responses not only to CoV-2 spike (127.1-fold; standard deviation, 2.0; P<.00001) but also to CoV-1 spike (21.1-fold higher; standard deviation, 1.8; P<.00001) and Middle East respiratory syndrome spike (6.9-fold higher; standard deviation, 2.5; P<.00001). In contrast, maternal immunoglobulin M responses were more specific to CoV-2 spike (15.8-fold; standard deviation, 2.1; P<.00001) but less specific to CoV-1 (2.5-fold higher; standard deviation, 0.71; P<.00001) and no significant difference for Middle East respiratory syndrome. Maternal and cord blood immunoglobulin G antibodies were highly correlated for both spike and nucleocapsid (R2=0.96 and 0.94, respectively). CONCLUSION: Placental transfer was efficient, with robust nucleocapsid and spike responses. Both nucleocapsid and spike antibody responses should be studied for a better understanding of COVID-19 immunity. Immunoglobulin G antibodies were cross-reactive with related CoV-1 and Middle East respiratory syndrome spike epitopes, whereas immunoglobulin M antibodies, which cannot cross the placenta to provide neonatal passive immunity, were more SARS-CoV-2 specific. Neonatal cord blood may have significantly different fine specificity than maternal blood, despite the high efficiency of immunoglobulin G transfer.

J Epidemiol Community Health ; 2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209000


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has created a period of global economic uncertainty. Financial strain, personal debt, recent job loss and housing insecurity are important risk factors for the mental health of working-age adults. Community interventions have the potential to attenuate the mental health impact of these stressors. We examined the effectiveness of community interventions for protecting and promoting the mental health of working-age adults in high-income countries during periods of financial insecurity. METHODS: Eight electronic databases were systematically screened for experimental and observational studies published since 2000 measuring the effectiveness of community interventions on mental health outcomes. We included any non-clinical intervention that aimed to address the financial, employment, food or housing insecurity of participants. A review protocol was registered on the PROSPERO database (CRD42019156364) and results are reported in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. RESULTS: From 2326 studies screened, 15 met our inclusion criteria. Five categories of community intervention were identified: advice services colocated in healthcare settings; link worker social prescribing; telephone debt advice; food insecurity interventions; and active labour market programmes. In general, the evidence for effective and cost-effective community interventions delivered to individuals experiencing financial insecurity was lacking. From the small number of studies without a high risk of bias, there was some evidence that financial insecurity and associated mental health problems were amenable to change and differences by subpopulations were observed. CONCLUSION: There is a need for well-controlled studies and trials to better understand effective ingredients and to identify those interventions warranting wider implementation.

Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 2(2): 100110, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-15435


This document addresses the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic for providers and patients in labor and delivery (L&D). The goals are to provide guidance regarding methods to appropriately screen and test pregnant patients for COVID-19 prior to, and at admission to L&D reduce risk of maternal and neonatal COVID-19 disease through minimizing hospital contact and appropriate isolation; and provide specific guidance for management of L&D of the COVID-19-positive woman, as well as the critically ill COVID-19-positive woman. The first 5 sections deal with L&D issues in general, for all women, during the COVID-19 pandemic. These include Section 1: Appropriate screening, testing, and preparation of pregnant women for COVID-19 before visit and/or admission to L&D Section 2: Screening of patients coming to L&D triage; Section 3: General changes to routine L&D work flow; Section 4: Intrapartum care; Section 5: Postpartum care; Section 6 deals with special care for the COVID-19-positive or suspected pregnant woman in L&D and Section 7 deals with the COVID-19-positive/suspected woman who is critically ill. These are suggestions, which can be adapted to local needs and capabilities.

COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Postnatal Care/methods , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Workflow , Anesthesia, Epidural/methods , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Labor, Induced/methods , Labor, Obstetric , Length of Stay , Mass Screening , Patient Discharge , Patient Isolation , Personal Protective Equipment , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage/methods