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1.
Cytokine ; 158: 155997, 2022 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982909

ABSTRACT

The recently discovered truncated, non-functional, ACE2 transcript (dACE2), but not the full-length ACE2 (f-lACE2), is induced by IFNs in differentiated airway cells. We measured expression of both ACE2 isoforms in SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative subjects, in relation to Interferon-stimulated genes. A significant activation of dACE2 transcript was found, in SARS-CoV-2 positive adults either hospitalized or not, showing a positive correlation with ISG15; f-lACE2 expression was weakly activated and not ISG-related. We confirmed a specific activation of dACE2 transcript in nasopharyngeal cells, related to the mucosal IFN response.

2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 873232, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974655

ABSTRACT

Children generally develop a mild disease after SARS-CoV-2 infection whereas older adults are at risk of developing severe COVID-19. Recent transcriptomic analysis showed pre-activated innate immunity in children, resulting in a more effective anti-SARS-CoV-2 response upon infection. To further characterize age-related differences, we studied type I and III interferon (IFN) response in SARS-CoV-2 infected and non-infected individuals of different ages. Specifically, levels of expression of type I (IFN-α, -ß, -ε and -ω), type III (IFN-λ1, -λ2 and -λ3) IFNs and of the IFN-stimulated genes, ISG15 and ISG56 were quantified in nasopharyngeal cells from diagnostic swabs. Basal transcription of type I/III IFN genes was highest among children and decreased with age. Among SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals, only IFN-ε and -ω levels were significantly higher in children and young adults whereas ISGs were overexpressed in infected adults. The occurrence of symptoms in children and the need for hospitalization in adults were associated to higher transcription of several IFN genes. Starting from a pre-activated transcription level, the expression of type I and III IFNs was not highly up-regulated in children upon SARS-CoV-2 infection; young adults activated IFNs' transcription at intermediate levels whereas older adults were characterized by higher ISGs and lower IFN-ε and -ω relative expression levels. Overall, our findings contribute to recognize components of a protective IFN response as a function of age, in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Aged , Antiviral Agents , Cell Line , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 886-891, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898895

ABSTRACT

Italy was one of the most affected nations by coronavirus disease 2019 outside China. The infections, initially limited to Northern Italy, spread to all other Italian regions. This study aims to provide a snapshot of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemiology based on a single-center laboratory experience in Rome. The study retrospectively included 6565 subjects tested for SARS-CoV-2 at the Laboratory of Virology of Sapienza University Hospital in Rome from 6 March to 4 May. A total of 9995 clinical specimens were analyzed, including nasopharyngeal swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, gargle lavages, stools, pleural fluids, and cerebrospinal fluids. Positivity to SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 8% (527/6565) of individuals, increased with age, and was higher in male patients (P < .001). The number of new confirmed cases reached a peak on 18 March and then decreased. The virus was detected in respiratory samples, in stool and in pleural fluids, while none of gargle lavage or cerebrospinal fluid samples gave a positive result. This analysis allowed to gather comprehensive information on SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology in our area, highlighting positivity variations over time and in different sex and age group and the need for a continuous surveillance of the infection, mostly because the pandemic evolution remains unknown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Feces/virology , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Pleural Effusion/virology , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Acta Paediatr ; 111(7): 1399-1403, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735870

ABSTRACT

AIM: Emergency room admissions have decreased globally during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly for respiratory diseases. We evaluated hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in the first year of the Italian pandemic and compared them with the corresponding period in 2016-2017. METHODS: The study was carried out at the Sapienza University in Rome, Italy, and covered 9 March to 28 February 2020-2021 and 2016-2017. We tested 85 hospitalised children who were negative for the virus that causes COVID-19 in 2020-2021 and compared them with 476 hospitalised children from 2016-2017, as we had also tested nasal washing samples for 14 respiratory viruses during that period. RESULTS: Hospitalisations for acute respiratory tract infections were 82.2% lower in 2020-2021 than 2016-2017. The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and several other viruses were detected less frequently during the pandemic. An extraordinary finding was that rhinoviruses remained seasonal. In 2020-2021, we detected a virus in 54.1% of the hospitalised children: rhinoviruses in 41, RSV in 4 and other viruses in 1. This was significantly lower than the 71.6% in 2016-2017: RSV in 130, rhinoviruses in 128 and other viruses in 83. CONCLUSION: Pandemic measures dramatically reduced childhood respiratory infections, particularly RSV, but were less effective at reducing rhinoviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Rhinovirus
6.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 43(4): 347-364, 2022 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713429

ABSTRACT

Alteration of micro-RNAs (miRNAs) expression, including miRNA-122a, -146a and -205 family members, can have profound effects on inflammatory and IFN pathways (miRNA-146a), known as hallmarks of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2-infected patients were recruited at Policlinico Umberto I Hospital of Sapienza University of Rome (Italy). MiRNA-122a, -146a, -205 and IFI27 (Interferon Alpha Inducible Protein 27) levels were screened in SARS-CoV-2 patients (n = 14) and healthy controls (n = 10) by real-time RT-PCR assays. Then, miRNA-146a rs2910164 GC single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was genotyped in a larger group of COVID-19 patients (n = 129), and its relationship with severe disease [Intensive Care Unit (ICU) support or survival/death] was assessed. SARS-CoV-2-positive patients had increased PCR, D-Dimer and Fibrinogen levels compared to healthy controls (p < .05 for all measurements). MiRNA-122a and -146a serum levels were upregulated in COVID-19 patients (miRNA-122a: p = .002; miRNA-146a: p < .001). Decreased IFI27 levels were observed in COVID-19 patients with higher miRNA-146a levels (p = .047). Moreover, miRNA-146a rs2910164 C/G genotypes distributions were similar in COVID-19 patients and in validated European healthy subjects (n = 37,214). MiRNA-146a SNP was not associated with severe COVID-19 outcome (ICU or death). MiRNA-122a and -146a levels were elevated in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients, with miRNA-146a upregulation possibly contributing to IFN pathways dysregulation (e.g., reduced IFI27 levels) observed in severe COVID-19, although there is no evidence for the involvement of rs2910164 SNP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Circulating MicroRNA , MicroRNAs , COVID-19/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Nucleotides , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Microorganisms ; 10(2)2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674732

ABSTRACT

Type III interferons (IFN-III), also known as IFN-Lambda, have a pivotal role during SARS-CoV-2 infection. IFN-Lambda response among individuals is heterogeneous and its association with COVID-19 symptoms severity needs to be further clarified. We analyzed the genotype frequencies of IFNL4 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11322783 in patients with COVID-19 (n = 128), in comparison with a validated data set of European healthy controls (n = 14152). The IFNL4 SNP was also analyzed according to the haematological and clinical parameters of patients with COVID-19. The distributions of IFNL4 genotypes among SARS-CoV-2 positive patients [TT/TT 41.4% (n = 53), TT/ΔG 47.7% (n = 61) and ΔG/ΔG 10.9% (n = 14)] and healthy controls were comparable. Different levels of white blood cells (p = 0.036) and neutrophils (p = 0.042) were found in the IFNL4 different genotypes in patients with COVID-19; the ΔG/ΔG genotype was more represented in the groups with low white blood cells and neutrophils. There were no differences in major inflammation parameters (C-reactive protein, D-dimer, Albumin, and Lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH)] and survival rate according to the IFNL4 genotypes. In conclusion, although patients with COVID-19 did not exhibit a different distribution of the IFNL4 SNP, the ΔG/ΔG genotype was associated with a lower count of immune cell populations. These findings need to be confirmed in larger groups of patients with COVID-19 and the role of IFNL4 SNP needs to be also investigated in other respiratory viral infections.

8.
J Virol Methods ; 298: 114276, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401673

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical performance of FTD SARS-CoV-2 compared to the RealStar RT-PCR kit 1.0. The analysis of 100 nasopharyngeal swabs showed an overall agreement of 88 %. The positive percentage agreement was 85.6 % and the negative percentage agreement was 91 %. In conclusion we observed a substantial agreement among the two methods, with discrepancies mainly observed in specimens with relatively low amount of viral RNA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frontotemporal Dementia , Humans , Nasopharynx , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Cytokine ; 140: 155430, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385381

ABSTRACT

In vitro interferon (IFN)α treatment of primary human upper airway basal cells has been shown to drive ACE2 expression, the receptor of SARS-CoV-2. The protease furin is also involved in mediating SARS-CoV-2 and other viral infections, although its association with early IFN response has not been evaluated yet. In order to assess the in vivo relationship between ACE2 and furin expression and the IFN response in nasopharyngeal cells, we first examined ACE2 and furin levels and their correlation with the well-known marker of IFNs' activation, ISG15, in children (n = 59) and adults (n = 48), during respiratory diseases not caused by SARS-CoV-2. A strong positive correlation was found between ACE2 expression, but not of furin, and ISG15 in all patients analyzed. In addition, type I and III IFN stimulation experiments were performed to examine the IFN-mediated activation of ACE2 isoforms (full-length and truncated) and furin in epithelial cell lines. Following all the IFNs treatments, only the truncated ACE2 levels, were upregulated significantly in the A549 and Calu3 cells, in particular by type I IFNs. If confirmed in vivo following IFNs' activation, the induction of the truncated ACE2 isoform only would not enhance the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the respiratory tract.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Gene Expression/drug effects , Interferons/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , A549 Cells , Adult , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Child , Cytokines/genetics , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , Lung/cytology , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Ubiquitins/genetics
10.
Microorganisms ; 9(1)2021 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389447

ABSTRACT

The expression rate of SARS-CoV-2 entry genes, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the main viral receptor and the proteases, furin and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) in cystic fibrosis (CF) individuals is poorly known. Hence, we examined their levels in upper respiratory samples of CF patients (n = 46) and healthy controls (n = 45). Moreover, we sought to understand the interplay of type I interferon (IFN-I) with ACE2, furin and TMPRSS2 by evaluating their gene expression with respect to ISG15, a well-known marker of IFN activation, in upper respiratory samples and after ex vivo IFNß exposure. Lower ACE2 levels and trends toward the reduction of furin and TMPRSS2 were found in CF patients compared with the healthy controls; decreased ACE2 amounts were also detected in CF individuals with pancreatic insufficiency and in those receiving inhaled antibiotics. Moreover, there was a strong positive correlation between ISG15 and ACE2 levels. However, after ex vivo IFNß stimulation of nasopharyngeal cells, the truncated isoform (dACE2), recently demonstrated as the IFN stimulated one with respect to the full-length isoform (flACE2), slightly augmented in cells from CF patients whereas in those from healthy donors, dACE2 levels showed variable levels of upregulation. An altered expression of SARS-COV-2 entry genes and a poor responsiveness of dACE2 to IFN-I stimulation might be crucial in the diffusion of SARS-CoV-2 infection in CF.

11.
Microorganisms ; 9(6)2021 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264494

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been declared a global pandemic. Our goal was to determine whether co-infections with respiratory polyomaviruses, such as Karolinska Institutet polyomavirus (KIPyV) and Washington University polyomavirus (WUPyV) occur in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Oropharyngeal swabs from 150 individuals, 112 symptomatic COVID-19 patients and 38 healthcare workers not infected by SARS-CoV-2, were collected from March 2020 through May 2020 and tested for KIPyV and WUPyV DNA presence. Of the 112 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, 27 (24.1%) were co-infected with KIPyV, 5 (4.5%) were positive for WUPyV, and 3 (2.7%) were infected simultaneously by KIPyV and WUPyV. Neither KIPyV nor WUPyV DNA was detected in samples of healthcare workers. Significant correlations were found in patients co-infected with SARS-CoV-2 and KIPyV (p < 0.05) and between SARS-CoV-2 cycle threshold values and KIPyV, WUPyV and KIPyV and WUPyV concurrently detected (p < 0.05). These results suggest that KIPyV and WUPyV may behave as opportunistic respiratory pathogens. Additional investigations are needed to understand the epidemiology and the prevalence of respiratory polyomavirus in COVID-19 patients and whether KIPyV and WUPyV could potentially drive viral interference or influence disease outcomes by upregulating SARS-CoV-2 replicative potential.

12.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4399-4404, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263104

ABSTRACT

The role of viruses in community acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been largely underestimated in the pre-coronavirus disease 2019 age. However, during flu seasonal early identification of viral infection in CAP is crucial to guide treatment and in-hospital management. Though recommended, the routine use of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) to detect viral infection has been poorly scaled-up, especially in the emergency department (ED). This study sought to assess the prevalence and associated clinical outcomes of viral infections in patients with CAP during peak flu season. In this retrospective, observational study adults presenting at the ED of our hospital (Rome, Italy) with CAP from January 15th to February 22th, 2019 were enrolled. Each patient was tested on admission with Influenza rapid test and real time multiplex assay. Seventy five consecutive patients were enrolled. 30.7% (n = 23) tested positive for viral infection. Of these, 52.1% (n = 12) were H1N1/FluA. 10 patients had multiple virus co-infections. CAP with viral infection did not differ for any demographic, clinic and laboratory features by the exception of CCI and CURB-65. All intra-ED deaths and mechanical ventilations were recorded among CAP with viral infection. Testing only patients with CURB-65 score ≥2, 10 out of 12 cases of H1N1/FluA would have been detected saving up to 40% tests. Viral infection occurred in one-third of CAP during flu seasonal peak 2019. Since not otherwise distinguishable, NPS is so far the only reliable mean to identify CAP with viral infection. Testing only patients with moderate/severe CAP significantly minimize the number of tests.


Subject(s)
Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/virology , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 886-891, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196414

ABSTRACT

Italy was one of the most affected nations by coronavirus disease 2019 outside China. The infections, initially limited to Northern Italy, spread to all other Italian regions. This study aims to provide a snapshot of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemiology based on a single-center laboratory experience in Rome. The study retrospectively included 6565 subjects tested for SARS-CoV-2 at the Laboratory of Virology of Sapienza University Hospital in Rome from 6 March to 4 May. A total of 9995 clinical specimens were analyzed, including nasopharyngeal swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, gargle lavages, stools, pleural fluids, and cerebrospinal fluids. Positivity to SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 8% (527/6565) of individuals, increased with age, and was higher in male patients (P < .001). The number of new confirmed cases reached a peak on 18 March and then decreased. The virus was detected in respiratory samples, in stool and in pleural fluids, while none of gargle lavage or cerebrospinal fluid samples gave a positive result. This analysis allowed to gather comprehensive information on SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology in our area, highlighting positivity variations over time and in different sex and age group and the need for a continuous surveillance of the infection, mostly because the pandemic evolution remains unknown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Feces/virology , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Pleural Effusion/virology , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4399-4404, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156883

ABSTRACT

The role of viruses in community acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been largely underestimated in the pre-coronavirus disease 2019 age. However, during flu seasonal early identification of viral infection in CAP is crucial to guide treatment and in-hospital management. Though recommended, the routine use of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) to detect viral infection has been poorly scaled-up, especially in the emergency department (ED). This study sought to assess the prevalence and associated clinical outcomes of viral infections in patients with CAP during peak flu season. In this retrospective, observational study adults presenting at the ED of our hospital (Rome, Italy) with CAP from January 15th to February 22th, 2019 were enrolled. Each patient was tested on admission with Influenza rapid test and real time multiplex assay. Seventy five consecutive patients were enrolled. 30.7% (n = 23) tested positive for viral infection. Of these, 52.1% (n = 12) were H1N1/FluA. 10 patients had multiple virus co-infections. CAP with viral infection did not differ for any demographic, clinic and laboratory features by the exception of CCI and CURB-65. All intra-ED deaths and mechanical ventilations were recorded among CAP with viral infection. Testing only patients with CURB-65 score ≥2, 10 out of 12 cases of H1N1/FluA would have been detected saving up to 40% tests. Viral infection occurred in one-third of CAP during flu seasonal peak 2019. Since not otherwise distinguishable, NPS is so far the only reliable mean to identify CAP with viral infection. Testing only patients with moderate/severe CAP significantly minimize the number of tests.


Subject(s)
Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/virology , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
15.
Microorganisms ; 9(1)2021 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011585

ABSTRACT

The expression rate of SARS-CoV-2 entry genes, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the main viral receptor and the proteases, furin and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) in cystic fibrosis (CF) individuals is poorly known. Hence, we examined their levels in upper respiratory samples of CF patients (n = 46) and healthy controls (n = 45). Moreover, we sought to understand the interplay of type I interferon (IFN-I) with ACE2, furin and TMPRSS2 by evaluating their gene expression with respect to ISG15, a well-known marker of IFN activation, in upper respiratory samples and after ex vivo IFNß exposure. Lower ACE2 levels and trends toward the reduction of furin and TMPRSS2 were found in CF patients compared with the healthy controls; decreased ACE2 amounts were also detected in CF individuals with pancreatic insufficiency and in those receiving inhaled antibiotics. Moreover, there was a strong positive correlation between ISG15 and ACE2 levels. However, after ex vivo IFNß stimulation of nasopharyngeal cells, the truncated isoform (dACE2), recently demonstrated as the IFN stimulated one with respect to the full-length isoform (flACE2), slightly augmented in cells from CF patients whereas in those from healthy donors, dACE2 levels showed variable levels of upregulation. An altered expression of SARS-COV-2 entry genes and a poor responsiveness of dACE2 to IFN-I stimulation might be crucial in the diffusion of SARS-CoV-2 infection in CF.

16.
Virus Res ; 295: 198283, 2021 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009920

ABSTRACT

The natural course of type I and III interferon (IFN) response in the respiratory tract of COVID-19 patients needs to be better defined. We showed that type I/III IFNs, IFN-regulatory factor 7 (IRF7), and IFN stimulated genes (ISGs), are highly expressed in the oropharyngeal cells of SARS-CoV-2 positive patients compared to healthy controls. Notably, the subgroup of critically-ill patients that required invasive mechanical ventilation had a general decrease in expression of IFN/ISG genes. Heterogeneous patterns of IFN-I/III response in the respiratory tract of COVID-19 patients may be associated to COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferons/genetics , Oropharynx/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
18.
J Clin Virol ; 128: 104385, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-141649

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children. We described viral aetiologies, with particular interest in detecting SARS-CoV-2, in hospitalized pneumonia children. Human rhinovirus was the most frequently detected agent. No children tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Our findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection is rare in children and it was not circulating in Rome before COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Community-Acquired Infections/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Demography , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Rome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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