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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(8): ofac397, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295076

ABSTRACT

Background: "Long COVID" is characterized by a variety of symptoms and an important burden for affected people. Our objective was to describe long COVID symptomatology according to initial coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity. Methods: Predi-COVID cohort study participants, recruited at the time of acute COVID-19 infection, completed a detailed 12-month symptom and quality of life questionnaire. Frequencies and co-occurrences of symptoms were assessed. Results: Among the 289 participants who fully completed the 12-month questionnaire, 59.5% reported at least 1 symptom, with a median of 6 symptoms. Participants with an initial moderate or severe acute illness declared more frequently 1 or more symptoms (82.6% vs 38.6%, P < .001) and had on average 6.8 more symptoms (95% confidence interval, 4.18-9.38) than initially asymptomatic participants who developed symptoms after the acute infection. Overall, 12.5% of the participants could not envisage coping with their symptoms in the long term. Frequently reported symptoms, such as neurological and cardiovascular symptoms, but also less frequent ones such as gastrointestinal symptoms, tended to cluster. Conclusions: Frequencies and burden of symptoms present 12 months after acute COVID-19 infection increased with the severity of the acute illness. Long COVID likely consists of multiple subcategories rather than a single entity. This work will contribute to the better understanding of long COVID and to the definition of precision health strategies. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT04380987.

2.
Microbiome ; 11(1): 46, 2023 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256593

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infections with SARS-CoV-2 have a pronounced impact on the gastrointestinal tract and its resident microbiome. Clear differences between severe cases of infection and healthy individuals have been reported, including the loss of commensal taxa. We aimed to understand if microbiome alterations including functional shifts are unique to severe cases or a common effect of COVID-19. We used high-resolution systematic multi-omic analyses to profile the gut microbiome in asymptomatic-to-moderate COVID-19 individuals compared to a control group. RESULTS: We found a striking increase in the overall abundance and expression of both virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance genes in COVID-19. Importantly, these genes are encoded and expressed by commensal taxa from families such as Acidaminococcaceae and Erysipelatoclostridiaceae, which we found to be enriched in COVID-19-positive individuals. We also found an enrichment in the expression of a betaherpesvirus and rotavirus C genes in COVID-19-positive individuals compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses identified an altered and increased infective competence of the gut microbiome in COVID-19 patients. Video Abstract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Microbiota , Humans , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Multiomics
3.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1055440, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248225

ABSTRACT

Psychological disturbances are frequent following COVID-19. However, there is not much information about whether pre-existing psychological disorders are associated with the severity and evolution of COVID-19. We aimed to explore the associations between regular psychotropic medication use (PM) before infection as a proxy for mood or anxiety disorders with COVID-19 recovery trajectories. We used data from the Predi-COVID study. We followed adults, tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and collected demographics, clinical characteristics, comorbidities and daily symptoms 14 days after inclusion. We calculated a score based on 16 symptoms and modeled latent class trajectories. We performed polynomial logistic regression with PM as primary exposure and the different trajectories as outcome. We included 791 participants, 51% were men, and 5.3% reported regular PM before infection. We identified four trajectories characterizing recovery dynamics: "Almost asymptomatic," "Quick recovery," "Slow recovery," and "Persisting symptoms". With a fully adjusted model for age, sex, socioeconomic, lifestyle and comorbidity, we observed associations between PM with the risks of being in more severe trajectories than "Almost Asymptomatic": "Quick recovery" (relative risk (95% confidence intervals) 3.1 (2.7, 3.4), "Slow recovery" 5.2 (3.0, 9.2), and "Persisting symptoms"11.7 (6.9, 19.6) trajectories. We observed a gradient of risk between PM before the infection and the risk of slow or no recovery in the first 14 days. These results suggest that a pre-existing psychological condition increases the risk of a poorer evolution of COVID-19 and may increase the risk of Long COVID. Our findings can help to personalize the care of people with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Adult , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Prospective Studies , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20048, 2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133612

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) can be asymptomatic or lead to a wide symptom spectrum, including multi-organ damage and death. Here, we explored the potential of microRNAs in delineating patient condition and predicting clinical outcome. Plasma microRNA profiling of hospitalized COVID-19 patients showed that miR-144-3p was dynamically regulated in response to COVID-19. Thus, we further investigated the biomarker potential of miR-144-3p measured at admission in 179 COVID-19 patients and 29 healthy controls recruited in three centers. In hospitalized patients, circulating miR-144-3p levels discriminated between non-critical and critical illness (AUCmiR-144-3p = 0.71; p = 0.0006), acting also as mortality predictor (AUCmiR-144-3p = 0.67; p = 0.004). In non-hospitalized patients, plasma miR-144-3p levels discriminated mild from moderate disease (AUCmiR-144-3p = 0.67; p = 0.03). Uncontrolled release of pro-inflammatory cytokines can lead to clinical deterioration. Thus, we explored the added value of a miR-144/cytokine combined analysis in the assessment of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. A miR-144-3p/Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) combined score discriminated between non-critical and critical hospitalized patients (AUCmiR-144-3p/EGF = 0.81; p < 0.0001); moreover, a miR-144-3p/Interleukin-10 (IL-10) score discriminated survivors from nonsurvivors (AUCmiR-144-3p/IL-10 = 0.83; p < 0.0001). In conclusion, circulating miR-144-3p, possibly in combination with IL-10 or EGF, emerges as a noninvasive tool for early risk-based stratification and mortality prediction in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Humans , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Epidermal Growth Factor , Interleukin-10 , MicroRNAs/blood
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(23)2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143158

ABSTRACT

The increasing number of people living with Long COVID requires the development of more personalized care; currently, limited treatment options and rehabilitation programs adapted to the variety of Long COVID presentations are available. Our objective was to design an easy-to-use Long COVID classification to help stratify people with Long COVID. Individual characteristics and a detailed set of 62 self-reported persisting symptoms together with quality of life indexes 12 months after initial COVID-19 infection were collected in a cohort of SARS-CoV-2 infected people in Luxembourg. A hierarchical ascendant classification (HAC) was used to identify clusters of people. We identified three patterns of Long COVID symptoms with a gradient in disease severity. Cluster-Mild encompassed almost 50% of the study population and was composed of participants with less severe initial infection, fewer comorbidities, and fewer persisting symptoms (mean = 2.9). Cluster-Moderate was characterized by a mean of 11 persisting symptoms and poor sleep and respiratory quality of life. Compared to the other clusters, Cluster-Severe was characterized by a higher proportion of women and smokers with a higher number of Long COVID symptoms, in particular vascular, urinary, and skin symptoms. Our study evidenced that Long COVID can be stratified into three subcategories in terms of severity. If replicated in other populations, this simple classification will help clinicians improve the care of people with Long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Cohort Studies , Quality of Life
6.
PLOS Digit Health ; 1(10): e0000112, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089315

ABSTRACT

People with COVID-19 can experience impairing symptoms that require enhanced surveillance. Our objective was to train an artificial intelligence-based model to predict the presence of COVID-19 symptoms and derive a digital vocal biomarker for easily and quantitatively monitoring symptom resolution. We used data from 272 participants in the prospective Predi-COVID cohort study recruited between May 2020 and May 2021. A total of 6473 voice features were derived from recordings of participants reading a standardized pre-specified text. Models were trained separately for Android devices and iOS devices. A binary outcome (symptomatic versus asymptomatic) was considered, based on a list of 14 frequent COVID-19 related symptoms. A total of 1775 audio recordings were analyzed (6.5 recordings per participant on average), including 1049 corresponding to symptomatic cases and 726 to asymptomatic ones. The best performances were obtained from Support Vector Machine models for both audio formats. We observed an elevated predictive capacity for both Android (AUC = 0.92, balanced accuracy = 0.83) and iOS (AUC = 0.85, balanced accuracy = 0.77) as well as low Brier scores (0.11 and 0.16 respectively for Android and iOS when assessing calibration. The vocal biomarker derived from the predictive models accurately discriminated asymptomatic from symptomatic individuals with COVID-19 (t-test P-values<0.001). In this prospective cohort study, we have demonstrated that using a simple, reproducible task of reading a standardized pre-specified text of 25 seconds enabled us to derive a vocal biomarker for monitoring the resolution of COVID-19 related symptoms with high accuracy and calibration.

7.
Methods Enzymol ; 675: 351-381, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007357

ABSTRACT

After more than two years, COVID-19 still represents a global health burden of unprecedented extent and assessing the degree of immunity of individuals against SARS-CoV-2 remains a challenge. Virus neutralization assays represent the gold standard for assessing antibody-mediated protection against SARS-CoV-2 in sera from recovered and/or vaccinated individuals. Neutralizing antibodies block the interaction of viral spike protein with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor in vitro and prevent viral entry into host cells. Classical viral neutralization assays using full replication-competent viruses are restricted to specific biosafety level 3-certified laboratories, limiting their utility for routine and large-scale applications. We developed therefore a cell-fusion-based assay building on the interaction between viral spike and ACE2 receptor expressed on two different cell lines, substantially reducing biosafety risks associated with classical viral neutralization assays. This chapter describes this simple, sensitive, safe and cost-effective approach for rapid and high-throughput evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies relying on high-affinity NanoLuc® luciferase complementation technology (HiBiT). When applied to a variety of standards and patient samples, this method yields highly reproducible results in 96-well, as well as in 384-well format. The use of novel NanoLuc® substrates with increased signal stability like Nano-Glo® Endurazine™ furthermore allows for high flexibility in assay set-up and full automatization of all reading processes. Lastly, the assay is suitable to evaluate the neutralizing capacity of sera against the existing spike variants, and potentially variants that will emerge in the future.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Cell Fusion , Humans , Luciferases , Neutralization Tests/methods , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
8.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(4): 100600, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004609

ABSTRACT

While immunopathology has been widely studied in patients with severe COVID-19, immune responses in non-hospitalized patients have remained largely elusive. We systematically analyze 484 peripheral cellular or soluble immune features in a longitudinal cohort of 63 mild and 15 hospitalized patients versus 14 asymptomatic and 26 household controls. We observe a transient increase of IP10/CXCL10 and interferon-ß levels, coordinated responses of dominant SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 and fewer CD8 T cells, and various antigen-presenting and antibody-secreting cells in mild patients within 3 days of PCR diagnosis. The frequency of key innate immune cells and their functional marker expression are impaired in hospitalized patients at day 1 of inclusion. T cell and dendritic cell responses at day 1 are highly predictive for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses after 3 weeks in mild but not hospitalized patients. Our systematic analysis reveals a combinatorial picture and trajectory of various arms of the highly coordinated early-stage immune responses in mild COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 9(8), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1989536

ABSTRACT

Background “Long COVID” is characterized by a variety of symptoms and an important burden for affected people. Our objective was to describe long COVID symptomatology according to initial coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity. Methods Predi-COVID cohort study participants, recruited at the time of acute COVID-19 infection, completed a detailed 12-month symptom and quality of life questionnaire. Frequencies and co-occurrences of symptoms were assessed. Results Among the 289 participants who fully completed the 12-month questionnaire, 59.5% reported at least 1 symptom, with a median of 6 symptoms. Participants with an initial moderate or severe acute illness declared more frequently 1 or more symptoms (82.6% vs 38.6%, P < .001) and had on average 6.8 more symptoms (95% confidence interval, 4.18–9.38) than initially asymptomatic participants who developed symptoms after the acute infection. Overall, 12.5% of the participants could not envisage coping with their symptoms in the long term. Frequently reported symptoms, such as neurological and cardiovascular symptoms, but also less frequent ones such as gastrointestinal symptoms, tended to cluster. Conclusions Frequencies and burden of symptoms present 12 months after acute COVID-19 infection increased with the severity of the acute illness. Long COVID likely consists of multiple subcategories rather than a single entity. This work will contribute to the better understanding of long COVID and to the definition of precision health strategies. Clinical Trials Registration NCT04380987.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928575

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants raise concern because of their high transmissibility and their ability to evade neutralizing antibodies elicited by prior infection or by vaccination. Here, we compared the neutralizing abilities of sera from 70 unvaccinated COVID-19 patients infected before the emergence of variants of concern (VOCs) and of 16 vaccine breakthrough infection (BTI) cases infected with Gamma or Delta against the ancestral B.1 strain, the Gamma, Delta and Omicron BA.1 VOCs using live virus. We further determined antibody levels against the Nucleocapsid (N) and full Spike proteins, the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the Spike protein. Convalescent sera featured considerable variability in the neutralization of B.1 and in the cross-neutralization of different strains. Their neutralizing capacity moderately correlated with antibody levels against the Spike protein and the RBD. All but one convalescent serum failed to neutralize Omicron BA.1. Overall, convalescent sera from patients with moderate disease had higher antibody levels and displayed a higher neutralizing ability against all strains than patients with mild or severe forms of the disease. The sera from BTI cases fell into one of two categories: half the sera had a high neutralizing activity against the ancestral B.1 strain as well as against the infecting strain, while the other half had no or a very low neutralizing activity against all strains. Although antibody levels against the spike protein and the RBD were lower in BTI sera than in unvaccinated convalescent sera, most neutralizing sera also retained partial neutralizing activity against Omicron BA.1, suggestive of a better cross-neutralization and higher affinity of vaccine-elicited antibodies over virus-induced antibodies. Accordingly, the IC50: antibody level ratios were comparable for BTI and convalescent sera, but remained lower in the neutralizing convalescent sera from patients with moderate disease than in BTI sera. The neutralizing activity of BTI sera was strongly correlated with antibodies against the Spike protein and the RBD. Together, these findings highlight qualitative differences in antibody responses elicited by infection in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. They further indicate that breakthrough infection with a pre-Omicron variant boosts immunity and induces cross-neutralizing antibodies against different strains, including Omicron BA.1.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , COVID-19 Serotherapy
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e057863, 2022 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832458

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate if the physical activity (PA) prior to infection is associated with the severity of the disease in patients positively tested for COVID-19, as well as with the most common symptoms. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study using baseline data from a prospective, hybrid cohort study (Predi-COVID) in Luxembourg. Data were collected from May 2020 to June 2021. SETTING: Real-life setting (at home) and hospitalised patients. PARTICIPANTS: All volunteers aged >18 years with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, as determined by reverse transcription-PCR, and having completed the PA questionnaire (n=452). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was disease severity (asymptomatic, mild illness and moderate illness). The secondary outcomes were self-reported symptoms. RESULTS: From the 452 patients included, 216 (48%) were female, the median (IQR) age was 42 (31-51) years, 59 (13%) were classified as asymptomatic, 287 (63%) as mild illness and 106 (24%) as moderate illness. The most prevalent symptoms were fatigue (n=294; 65%), headache (n=281; 62%) and dry cough (n=241; 53%). After adjustment, the highest PA level was associated with a lower risk of moderate illness (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.98, p=0.045), fatigue (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.97, p=0.040), dry cough (OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.32 to 0.96, p=0.034) and chest pain (OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.77, p=0.010). CONCLUSIONS: PA before COVID-19 infection was associated with a reduced risk of moderate illness severity and a reduced risk of experiencing fatigue, dry cough and chest pain, suggesting that engaging in PA may be an effective approach to minimise the severity of COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04380987.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chest Pain/virology , Cohort Studies , Cough/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fatigue/virology , Female , Humans , Luxembourg/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
12.
J Clin Med ; 10(10)2021 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234755

ABSTRACT

Asymptomatic individuals, called "silent spreaders" spread SARS-CoV-2 efficiently and have complicated control of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. As seen in previous influenza pandemics, socioeconomic and life-trajectory factors are important in disease progression and outcome. The demographics of the asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers are unknown. We used the CON-VINCE cohort of healthy, asymptomatic, and oligosymptomatic individuals that is statistically representative of the overall population of Luxembourg for age, gender, and residency to characterise this population. Gender (male), not smoking, and exposure to early-life or adult traumatic experiences increased the risk of IgA seropositivity, and the risk associated with early-life exposure was a dose-dependent metric, while some other known comorbidities of active COVID-19 do not impact it. As prior exposure to adversity is associated with negative psychobiological reactions to external stressors, we recorded psychological wellbeing during the study period. Exposure to traumatic events or concurrent autoimmune or rheumatic disease were associated with a worse evolution of anxiety and depressive symptoms throughout the lockdown period. The unique demographic profile of the "silent spreaders" highlights the role that the early-life period plays in determining our lifelong health trajectory and provides evidence that the developmental origins of health and disease is applicable to infectious diseases.

13.
Allergy ; 76(6): 1640-1660, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165739

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are essential public health tools with a favorable safety profile and prophylactic effectiveness that have historically played significant roles in reducing infectious disease burden in populations, when the majority of individuals are vaccinated. The COVID-19 vaccines are expected to have similar positive impacts on health across the globe. While serious allergic reactions to vaccines are rare, their underlying mechanisms and implications for clinical management should be considered to provide individuals with the safest care possible. In this review, we provide an overview of different types of allergic adverse reactions that can potentially occur after vaccination and individual vaccine components capable of causing the allergic adverse reactions. We present the incidence of allergic adverse reactions during clinical studies and through post-authorization and post-marketing surveillance and provide plausible causes of these reactions based on potential allergenic components present in several common vaccines. Additionally, we review implications for individual diagnosis and management and vaccine manufacturing overall. Finally, we suggest areas for future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Hypersensitivity/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines/adverse effects
14.
Allergy ; 76(11): 3504-3516, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114987

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As in many fields of medical care, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) resulted in an increased uncertainty regarding the safety of allergen immunotherapy (AIT). Therefore, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) aimed to analyze the situation in different countries and to systematically collect all information available regarding tolerability and possible amendments in daily practice of sublingual AIT (SLIT), subcutaneous AIT (SCIT) for inhalant allergies and venom AIT. METHODS: Under the framework of the EAACI, a panel of experts in the field of AIT coordinated by the Immunotherapy Interest Group set-up a web-based retrospective survey (SurveyMonkey® ) including 27 standardized questions on practical and safety aspects on AIT in worldwide clinical routine. RESULTS: 417 respondents providing AIT to their patients in daily routine answered the survey. For patients (without any current symptoms to suspect COVID-19), 60% of the respondents informed of not having initiated SCIT (40% venom AIT, 35% SLIT) whereas for the maintenance phase of AIT, SCIT was performed by 75% of the respondents (74% venom AIT, 89% SLIT). No tolerability concern arises from this preliminary analysis. 16 physicians reported having performed AIT despite (early) symptoms of COVID-19 and/or a positive test result for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). CONCLUSIONS: This first international retrospective survey in atopic diseases investigated practical aspects and tolerability of AIT during the COVID-19 pandemic and gave no concerns regarding reduced tolerability under real-life circumstances. However, the data indicate an undertreatment of AIT, which may be temporary, but could have a long-lasting negative impact on the clinical care of allergic patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Desensitization, Immunologic , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 4: 100056, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To accompany the lifting of COVID-19 lockdown measures, Luxembourg implemented a mass screening (MS) programme. The first phase coincided with an early summer epidemic wave in 2020. METHODS: rRT-PCR-based screening for SARS-CoV-2 was performed by pooling of samples. The infrastructure allowed the testing of the entire resident and cross-border worker populations. The strategy relied on social connectivity within different activity sectors. Invitation frequencies were tactically increased in sectors and regions with higher prevalence. The results were analysed alongside contact tracing data. FINDINGS: The voluntary programme covered 49% of the resident and 22% of the cross-border worker populations. It identified 850 index cases with an additional 249 cases from contact tracing. Over-representation was observed in the services, hospitality and construction sectors alongside regional differences. Asymptomatic cases had a significant but lower secondary attack rate when compared to symptomatic individuals. Based on simulations using an agent-based SEIR model, the total number of expected cases would have been 42·9% (90% CI [-0·3, 96·7]) higher without MS. Mandatory participation would have resulted in a further difference of 39·7% [19·6, 59·2]. INTERPRETATION: Strategic and tactical MS allows the suppression of epidemic dynamics. Asymptomatic carriers represent a significant risk for transmission. Containment of future outbreaks will depend on early testing in sectors and regions. Higher participation rates must be assured through targeted incentivisation and recurrent invitation. FUNDING: This project was funded by the Luxembourg Ministries of Higher Education and Research, and Health.

16.
Allergy ; 76(6): 1629-1639, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1031015

ABSTRACT

The first approved COVID-19 vaccines include Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162B2, Moderna mRNA-1273 and AstraZeneca recombinant adenoviral ChAdOx1-S. Soon after approval, severe allergic reactions to the mRNA-based vaccines that resolved after treatment were reported. Regulatory agencies from the European Union, Unites States and the United Kingdom agree that vaccinations are contraindicated only when there is an allergy to one of the vaccine components or if there was a severe allergic reaction to the first dose. This position paper of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) agrees with these recommendations and clarifies that there is no contraindication to administer these vaccines to allergic patients who do not have a history of an allergic reaction to any of the vaccine components. Importantly, as is the case for any medication, anaphylaxis may occur after vaccination in the absence of a history of allergic disease. Therefore, we provide a simplified algorithm of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of severe allergic reactions and a list of recommended medications and equipment for vaccine centres. We also describe potentially allergenic/immunogenic components of the approved vaccines and propose a workup to identify the responsible allergen. Close collaboration between academia, regulatory agencies and vaccine producers will facilitate approaches for patients at risks, such as incremental dosing of the second injection or desensitization. Finally, we identify unmet research needs and propose a concerted international roadmap towards precision diagnosis and management to minimize the risk of allergic reactions to COVID-19 vaccines and to facilitate their broader and safer use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , BNT162 Vaccine , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
17.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e041834, 2020 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-941669

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A few major clinical factors such as sex, obesity or comorbidities have already been associated with COVID-19 severity, but there is a need to identify new epidemiological, clinical, digital and biological characteristics associated with severity and perform deep phenotyping of patients according to severity. The objectives of the Predi-COVID study are (1) to identify new determinants of COVID-19 severity and (2) to conduct deep phenotyping of patients by stratifying them according to risk of complications, as well as risk factors for infection among household members of Predi-COVID participants (the Predi-COVID-H ancillary study). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Predi-COVID is a prospective, hybrid cohort study composed of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases in Luxembourg who will be followed up remotely for 1 year to monitor their health status and symptoms. Predi-COVID-H is an ancillary cohort study on household members of index cases included in Predi-COVID to monitor symptoms and household clusters in this high-risk population. A subcohort of up to 200 Predi-COVID and 300 Predi-COVID-H participants with biological samples will be included. Severity of infection will be evaluated by occurrence and duration of hospitalisation, admission and duration of stay in intensive care units or equivalent structures, provision of and duration of supplemental oxygen and ventilation therapy, transfer to another hospital, as well as the impact of infection on daily activities following hospital discharge. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by the National Research Ethics Committee of Luxembourg (study number 202003/07) in April 2020. An informed consent is signed by study participants. Scientific articles will be submitted to international peer-reviewed journals, along with press releases for lay audience for major results. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04380987.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Family Characteristics , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Luxembourg/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
18.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 17(2): 639-651, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932630

ABSTRACT

Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are involved in vasculogenesis and cardiovascular diseases. However, the phenotype of circulating EPCs remains elusive but they are more often described as CD34+KDR+. The aim of the study was to extensively characterize circulating potential vasculogenic stem cell candidates in two populations of patients with cardiovascular disease by powerful multidimensional single cell complementary cytometric approaches (mass, imaging and flow). We identified cellular candidates in one patient before and after bioprosthetic total artificial heart implantation and results were confirmed in healthy peripheral and cord blood by mass cytometry. We also quantified cellular candidates in 10 patients with different COVID-19 severity. Both C-TAH implantation and COVID-19 at critical stage induce a redistribution of circulating CD34+ and CD19+ sub-populations in peripheral blood. After C-TAH implantation, circulating CD34+ progenitor cells expressed c-Kit stem marker while specific subsets CD34+CD133-/+CD45-/dimc-Kit+KDR- were mobilized. KDR was only expressed by CD19+ B-lymphocytes and CD14+ monocytes subpopulations in circulation. We confirmed by mass cytometry this KDR expression on CD19+ in healthy peripheral and cord blood, also with a VE-cadherin expression, confirming absence of endothelial lineage marker on CD34+ subtypes. In COVID-19, a significant mobilization of CD34+c-Kit+KDR- cells was observed between moderate and critical COVID-19 patients regardless CD133 or CD45 expression. In order to better evaluate EPC phenotype, we performed imaging flow cytometry measurements of immature CD34+KDR+ cells in cord blood and showed that, after elimination of non-circular events, those cells were all CD19+. During COVID-19, a significant mobilization of CD19+KDR+ per million of CD45+ cells was observed between moderate and critical COVID-19 patients regardless of CD34 expression. CD34+c-Kit+ cells are mobilized in both cardiovascular disease described here. KDR cells in peripheral blood are CD19 positive cells and are not classic vasculogenic stem and/or progenitor cells. A better evaluation of c-Kit and KDR expressing cells will lead to the redefinition of circulating endothelial progenitors.Graphical abstract Central illustration figure. Multidimensional proteomic approach of endothelial progenitors demonstrate expression of KDR restricted to CD19 cells. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are involved in cardiovascular diseases, however their phenotype remains elusive. We elucidated here EPCs phenotype by a deep characterization by multidimensional single cell complementary cytometric approaches after Bioprosthetic total artificial heart implantation and during COVID-19. We showed a redistribution of circulating CD34+ and CD19+ sub-populations in both situations. None of the immature cell population expresses KDR. Mobilized CD34+ expressed c-Kit. Imaging flow cytometry demonstrated that CD34+KDR+ cells, after elimination of non-circular events, are all CD19+. Our results suggest a new definition of circulating EPCs and emphasize involvement of CD19 cells in cardiovascular disease.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD19/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Endothelial Progenitor Cells/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Heart, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/metabolism , Endothelial Progenitor Cells/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proteomics
19.
Allergol Select ; 4: 53-68, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the treatment of patients with allergic and atopy-associated diseases has faced major challenges. Recommendations for "social distancing" and the fear of patients becoming infected during a visit to a medical facility have led to a drastic decrease in personal doctor-patient contacts. This affects both acute care and treatment of the chronically ill. The immune response after SARS-CoV-2 infection is so far only insufficiently understood and could be altered in a favorable or unfavorable way by therapy with monoclonal antibodies. There is currently no evidence for an increased risk of a severe COVID-19 course in allergic patients. Many patients are under ongoing therapy with biologicals that inhibit type 2 immune responses via various mechanisms. There is uncertainty about possible immunological interactions and potential risks of these biologicals in the case of an infection with SARS-CoV-2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A selective literature search was carried out in PubMed, Livivo, and the internet to cover the past 10 years (May 2010 - April 2020). Additionally, the current German-language publications were analyzed. Based on these data, the present position paper provides recommendations for the biological treatment of patients with allergic and atopy-associated diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: In order to maintain in-office consultation services, a safe treatment environment must be created that is adapted to the pandemic situation. To date, there is a lack of reliable study data on the care for patients with complex respiratory, atopic, and allergic diseases in times of an imminent infection risk from SARS-CoV-2. Type-2-dominant immune reactions, as they are frequently seen in allergic patients, could influence various phases of COVID-19, e.g., by slowing down the immune reactions. Theoretically, this could have an unfavorable effect in the early phase of a SARS-Cov-2 infection, but also a positive effect during a cytokine storm in the later phase of severe courses. However, since there is currently no evidence for this, all data from patients treated with a biological directed against type 2 immune reactions who develop COVID-19 should be collected in registries, and their disease courses documented in order to be able to provide experience-based instructions in the future. CONCLUSION: The use of biologicals for the treatment of bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, and spontaneous urticaria should be continued as usual in patients without suspected infection or proven SARS-CoV-2 infection. If available, it is recommended to prefer a formulation for self-application and to offer telemedical monitoring. Treatment should aim at the best possible control of difficult-to-control allergic and atopic diseases using adequate rescue and add-on therapy and should avoid the need for systemic glucocorticosteroids. If SARS-CoV-2 infection is proven or reasonably suspected, the therapy should be determined by weighing the benefits and risks individually for the patient in question, and the patient should be involved in the decision-making. It should be kept in mind that the potential effects of biologicals on the immune response in COVID-19 are currently not known. Telemedical offers are particularly desirable for the acute consultation needs of suitable patients.

20.
Allergo J ; 29(4): 14-27, 2020.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-606497
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