Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 7 de 7
Filter
1.
J Med Internet Res ; 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264576

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 data have been generated across the UK as a by-product of clinical care and public health provision, and numerous bespoke and repurposed research endeavours. Analysis of these data has underpinned the UK's response to the pandemic and informed public health policies and clinical guidelines. However, these data are held by different organisations and this fragmented landscape has presented challenges for public health agencies and researchers as they struggle to find, navigate permissions to access and interrogate the data they need to inform the pandemic response at pace. OBJECTIVE: To transform UK COVID-19 diagnostic datasets to be Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable (FAIR). METHODS: A federated infrastructure model was rapidly built to enable the automated and reproducible mapping of health Data Partners' pseudonymised data to the OMOP common data model without the need for any data to leave the data controllers' secure environments and to support federated cohort discovery queries and meta-analysis. RESULTS: 56 datasets from 19 organisations are being connected to the federated network. The data includes research cohorts and COVID-19 data collected through routine health care provision linked to longitudinal healthcare records and demographics. The infrastructure is live, supporting aggregate level querying of data across the UK. CONCLUSIONS: CO-CONNECT was developed by a multidisciplinary team enabling rapid COVID-19 data discovery, instantaneous meta-analysis across data sources, and is researching streamlined data extraction for egress into a Trusted Research Environment (TRE) for research and public health analysis. CO-CONNECT has the potential to make UK health data more interconnected and better able to answer national-level research questions whilst maintaining patient confidentiality and local governance procedures.

2.
EBioMedicine ; 81: 104101, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906945

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a respiratory illness named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is one of the main global health problems since 2019. Glycans attached to the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G (IgG) are important modulators of IgG effector functions. Fc region binds to different receptors on the surface of various immune cells, dictating the type of immune response. Here, we performed a large longitudinal study to determine whether the severity and duration of COVID-19 are associated with altered IgG glycosylation. METHODS: Using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of released glycans, we analysed the composition of the total IgG N-glycome longitudinally during COVID-19 from four independent cohorts. We analysed 77 severe COVID-19 cases from the HR1 cohort (74% males, median age 72, age IQR 25-80); 31 severe cases in the HR2 cohort (77% males, median age 64, age IQR 41-86), 18 mild COVID-19 cases from the UK cohort (17% males, median age 50, age IQR 26-71) and 28 mild cases from the BiH cohort (71% males, median age 60, age IQR 12-78). FINDINGS: Multiple statistically significant changes in IgG glycome composition were observed during severe COVID-19. The most statistically significant changes included increased agalactosylation of IgG (meta-analysis 95% CI [0.03, 0.07], adjusted meta-analysis P= <0.0001), which regulates proinflammatory actions of IgG via complement system activation and indirectly as a lack of sialylation and decreased presence of bisecting N-acetylglucosamine on IgG (meta-analysis 95% CI [-0.11, -0.08], adjusted meta-analysis P= <0.0001), which indirectly affects antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. On the contrary, no statistically significant changes in IgG glycome composition were observed in patients with mild COVID-19. INTERPRETATION: The IgG glycome in severe COVID-19 patients is statistically significantly altered in a way that it indicates decreased immunosuppressive action of circulating immunoglobulins. The magnitude of observed changes is associated with the severity of the disease, indicating that aberrant IgG glycome composition or changes in IgG glycosylation may be an important molecular mechanism in COVID-19. FUNDING: This work has been supported in part by Croatian Science Foundation under the project IP-CORONA-2020-04-2052 and Croatian National Centre of Competence in Molecular Diagnostics (The European Structural and Investment Funds grant #KK.01.2.2.03.0006), by the UKRI/MRC (Cov-0331 - MR/V027883/1) and by the National Institutes for Health Research Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre and by Ministry Of Science, Higher Education and Youth Of Canton Sarajevo, grant number 27-02-11-4375-10/21.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin G , Adolescent , Aged , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Observational Studies as Topic , Polysaccharides/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e058526, 2022 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832460

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, changes to established care pathways and discharge thresholds for patients with fragility fractures were made. This was to increase hospital bed capacity and minimise the inpatient risk of contracting COVID-19. This study aims to identify the excess death rate in this population during the first wave of the pandemic. DESIGN: A longitudinal cohort study of patients with fragility fractures identified by specific International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 codes. The first wave of the pandemic was defined as the 3-month period between 1 March and 1 June 2020. The control group presented between 1 March and 1 June 2019. SETTING: Two acute National Health Service hospitals within the East Midlands region of England. PARTICIPANTS: 1846 patients with fragility fractures over the aforementioned two specified matched time points. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Four-month mortality of all patients with fragility fractures with a subanalysis of patients with fragility hip fractures. RESULTS: 832 patients with fragility fracture were admitted during the pandemic period (104 diagnosed with COVID-19). 1014 patients presented with fragility fractures in the control group. Mortality in patients with fragility fracture without COVID-19 was significantly higher among pandemic period admissions (14.7%) than the pre-pandemic cohort (10.2%) (HR=1.86; 95% CI 1.41 to 2.45; p<0.001) adjusted for age and sex. Length of stay was shorter during the pandemic period (effect size=-4.2 days; 95% CI -5.8 to -3.1, p<0.001). Subanalysis of patients with fragility hip fracture revealed a mortality of 8.4% in the pre-pandemic cohort, and 15.48% during pandemic admissions with no COVID-19 diagnosis (HR=2.08; 95% CI 1.11 to 3.90; p=0.021). CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant increase in excess death, not explained by confirmed COVID-19 infections. Altered care pathways and aggressive discharge criteria during the pandemic are likely responsible for the increase in excess deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hip Fractures , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Critical Pathways , Hip Fractures/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , State Medicine
4.
Immunology ; 166(1): 68-77, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685320

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection results in different outcomes ranging from asymptomatic infection to mild or severe disease and death. Reasons for this diversity of outcome include differences in challenge dose, age, gender, comorbidity and host genomic variation. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphisms may influence immune response and disease outcome. We investigated the association of HLAII alleles with case definition symptomatic COVID-19, virus-specific antibody and T-cell immunity. A total of 1364 UK healthcare workers (HCWs) were recruited during the first UK SARS-CoV-2 wave and analysed longitudinally, encompassing regular PCR screening for infection, symptom reporting, imputation of HLAII genotype and analysis for antibody and T-cell responses to nucleoprotein (N) and spike (S). Of 272 (20%) HCW who seroconverted, the presence of HLA-DRB1*13:02 was associated with a 6·7-fold increased risk of case definition symptomatic COVID-19. In terms of immune responsiveness, HLA-DRB1*15:02 was associated with lower nucleocapsid T-cell responses. There was no association between DRB1 alleles and anti-spike antibody titres after two COVID vaccine doses. However, HLA DRB1*15:01 was associated with increased spike T-cell responses following both first and second dose vaccination. Trial registration: NCT04318314 and ISRCTN15677965.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , HLA-DRB1 Chains/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(609): eabj0847, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406600

ABSTRACT

Understanding the impact of prior infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on the response to vaccination is a priority for responding to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In particular, it is necessary to understand how prior infection plus vaccination can modulate immune responses against variants of concern. To address this, we sampled 20 individuals with and 25 individuals without confirmed previous SARS-CoV-2 infection from a large cohort of health care workers followed serologically since April 2020. All 45 individuals had received two doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 vaccine with a delayed booster at 10 weeks. Absolute and neutralizing antibody titers against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and variants were measured using enzyme immunoassays and pseudotype neutralization assays. We observed antibody reactivity against lineage A, B.1.351, and P.1 variants with increasing antigenic exposure, through either vaccination or natural infection. This improvement was further confirmed in neutralization assays using fixed dilutions of serum samples. The impact of antigenic exposure was more evident in enzyme immunoassays measuring SARS-CoV-2 spike protein­specific IgG antibody concentrations. Our data show that multiple exposures to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in the context of a delayed booster expand the neutralizing breadth of the antibody response to neutralization-resistant SARS-CoV-2 variants. This suggests that additional vaccine boosts may be beneficial in improving immune responses against future SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibody Formation , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans
6.
EClinicalMedicine ; 34: 100835, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1184950

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: : Healthcare workers (HCWs) have increased rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with the general population. We aimed to understand ethnic differences in SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among hospital healthcare workers depending on their hospital role, socioeconomic status, Covid-19 symptoms and basic demographics. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal observational cohort study. 1364 HCWs at five UK hospitals were studied with up to 16 weeks of symptom questionnaires and antibody testing (to both nucleocapsid and spike protein) during the first UK wave in five NHS hospitals between March 20 and July 10 2020. The main outcome measures were SARS-CoV-2 infection (seropositivity at any time-point) and symptoms. Registration number: NCT04318314. FINDINGS: 272 of 1364 HCWs (mean age 40.7 years, 72% female, 74% White, ≥6 samples per participant) seroconverted, reporting predominantly mild or no symptoms. Seropositivity was lower in Intensive Therapy Unit (ITU) workers (OR=0.44 95%CI 0.24, 0.77; p=0.0035). Seropositivity was higher in Black (compared to White) participants, independent of age, sex, role and index of multiple deprivation (OR=2.61 95%CI 1.47-4.62 p=0.0009). No association was seen between White HCWs and other minority ethnic groups. INTERPRETATION: In the UK first wave, Black ethnicity (but not other ethnicities) more than doubled HCWs likelihood of seropositivity, independent of age, sex, measured socio-economic factors and hospital role.

7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 607786, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069727

ABSTRACT

Background: Most respiratory viruses show pronounced seasonality, but for SARS-CoV-2, this still needs to be documented. Methods: We examined the disease progression of COVID-19 in 6,914 patients admitted to hospitals in Europe and China. In addition, we evaluated progress of disease symptoms in 37,187 individuals reporting symptoms into the COVID Symptom Study application. Findings: Meta-analysis of the mortality risk in seven European hospitals estimated odds ratios per 1-day increase in the admission date to be 0.981 (0.973-0.988, p < 0.001) and per increase in ambient temperature of 1°C to be 0.854 (0.773-0.944, p = 0.007). Statistically significant decreases of comparable magnitude in median hospital stay, probability of transfer to the intensive care unit, and need for mechanical ventilation were also observed in most, but not all hospitals. The analysis of individually reported symptoms of 37,187 individuals in the UK also showed the decrease in symptom duration and disease severity with time. Interpretation: Severity of COVID-19 in Europe decreased significantly between March and May and the seasonality of COVID-19 is the most likely explanation.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL