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16th ROOMVENT Conference, ROOMVENT 2022 ; 356, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2234601


Radiators play an important role in providing a comfortable and safe indoor environment while maintaining high-energy efficiency. In the perspective of future climate change with expected larger temperature fluctuations and the rapidly changing heat supply and demand, it is required that the current radiator technology is adaptable. The heat supply is changing towards a lower supply temperature to enable an increase in energy efficiency and an increase in the share of renewable energy. Simultaneously, both the heat supply and demand are expected to have more variations in the future. An additional concern that has come into more focus after the experience with the COVID 19 pandemic is the prevention of the spread of infection in indoor environments. Researchers have extensively studied several innovations in radiator technologies and their deployment that addresses these challenges. Some of the solutions available in the literature include floor heating, ceiling heating, ventilation radiator, stratum ventilation. Researchers have used advanced modeling and experimental techniques to understand how to deploy different types of radiator technologies. This review summarizes solutions in the literature that address these challenges and identifies knowledge gaps that need to be addressed. In particular, this study explores the gaps in knowledge of practical issues, such as the position of furniture and the position of people, which have received less attention in the literature. Research that addresses the effect of radiators on ventilation and a healthy indoor environment is also of particular interest in this review. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (

Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:163-164, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2008909


Background: Some factors associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes have been identifed in patients with psoriasis (PsO) and infammatory/autoimmune rheumatic diseases, namely older age, male sex, comorbidity burden, higher disease activity, and certain medications such as rituximab. However, information about specifcities of patients with PsO, psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), including disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) specifcally licensed for these conditions, such as IL-17 inhibitors (IL-17i), IL-23/IL-12 + 23 inhibitors (IL-23/IL-12 + 23i), and apremilast, is lacking. Objectives: To determine characteristics associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes in people with PsO, PsA and axSpA. Methods: This study was a pooled analysis of data from two physician-reported registries: the Psoriasis Patient Registry for Outcomes, Therapy and Epidemiology of COVID-19 Infection (PsoProtect), comprising patients with PsO/PsA, and the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance (GRA) registry, comprising patients with PsA/axSpA. Data from the beginning of the pandemic up to 25 October, 2021 were included. An ordinal severity outcome was defned as: 1) not hospitalised, 2) hospitalised without death, and 3) death. A multivariable ordinal logistic regression model was constructed to assess the relationship between COVID-19 severity and demographic characteristics (age, sex, time period of infection), comorbidities (hypertension, other cardiovascular disease [CVD], chronic obstructive lung disease [COPD], asthma, other chronic lung disease, chronic kidney disease, cancer, smoking, obesity, diabetes mellitus [DM]), rheumatic/skin disease (PsO, PsA, axSpA), physician-reported disease activity, and medication exposure (methotrexate, lefunomide, sulfasalazine, TNFi, IL17i, IL-23/IL-12 + 23i, Janus kinase inhibitors (JAKi), apremilast, glucocorticoids [GC] and NSAIDs). Age-adjustment was performed employing four-knot restricted cubic splines. Country-adjustment was performed using random effects. Results: A total of 5008 individuals with PsO (n=921), PsA (n=2263) and axSpA (n=1824) were included. Mean age was 50 years (SD 13.5) and 51.8% were male. Hospitalisation (without death) was observed in 14.6% of cases and 1.8% died. In the multivariable model, the following variables were associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes: older age (Figure 1), male sex (OR 1.53, 95%CI 1.29-1.82), CVD (hypertension alone: 1.26, 1.02-1.56;other CVD alone: 1.89, 1.22-2.94;vs no hypertension and no other CVD), COPD or asthma (1.75, 1.32-2.32), other lung disease (2.56, 1.66-3.97), chronic kidney disease (2.32, 1.50-3.59), obesity and DM (obesity alone: 1.36, 1.07-1.71;DM alone: 1.85, 1.39-2.47;obesity and DM: 1.89, 1.34-2.67;vs no obesity and no DM), higher disease activity and GC intake (remission/low disease activity and GC intake: 1.96, 1.36-2.82;moderate/severe disease activity and no GC intake: 1.35, 1.05-1.72;moderate/severe disease activity and GC intake 2.30, 1.41-3.74;vs remission/low disease activity and no GC intake). Conversely, the following variables were associated with less severe COVID-19 outcomes: time period after 15 June 2020 (16 June 2020-31 December 2020: 0.42, 0.34-0.51;1 January 2021 onwards: 0.52, 0.41-0.67;vs time period until 15 June 2020), a diagnosis of PsO (without arthritis) (0.49, 0.37-0.65;vs PsA), and exposure to TNFi (0.58, 0.45-0.75;vs no DMARDs), IL17i (0.63, 0.45-0.88;vs no DMARDs), IL-23/IL-12 + 23i (0.68, 0.46-0.997;vs no DMARDs) and NSAIDs (0.77, 0.60-0.98;vs no NSAIDs). Conclusion: More severe COVID-19 outcomes in PsO, PsA and axSpA are largely driven by demographic factors (age, sex), comorbidities, and active disease. None of the DMARDs typically used in PsO, PsA and axSpA, were associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes, including IL-17i, IL-23/IL-12 + 23i, JAKi and apremilast.