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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233665

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical benefit of Molnupiravir (MPV) in COVID-19 infected sub-populations is unclear. METHODS: We used a matched cohort study design to determine the rate of hospitalization or death within 30 days of COVID-19 diagnosis among MPV treated and untreated controls. Participants were non-hospitalized, previously uninfected Veterans with a first confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between January 1 and August 31, 2022, who were prescribed MPV within 3 days of COVID-19 diagnosis, and matched individuals who were not prescribed MPV. RESULTS: Among 1,459 matched pairs, the incidence of hospitalization/death was not different among MPV treated vs. untreated controls (48 vs. 44 cases; ARD [95% CI] 0.27 [-0.94,1.49]). No benefit was observed among those >60 or ≤60 years old (ARD 0.27 [-1.25,1.79] vs. -0.29 [-1.22,1.80]), those with specific comorbidities, or by vaccination status. A significant benefit was observed in asymptomatic but not in symptomatic persons (ARD -2.80 [-4.74, -0.87] vs. 1.12 [-0.31,2.55]). Kaplan-Meier curves did not show a difference in proportion of persons who were hospitalized or died among MPV treated compared with untreated controls (logrank P = 0.7). CONCLUSION: MPV was not associated with a reduction in hospitalization or death within 30 days of COVID-19 diagnosis. A subgroup of patients presenting without symptoms experienced a benefit.

2.
Vaccine ; 41(25): 3683-3687, 2023 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313647

ABSTRACT

Parental hesitancy poses a serious threat to the success of the COVID-19 childhood vaccination campaign. We investigate whether adults' opinions on childhood vaccination can be influenced via two survey experiments in Italy (n = 3,633 participants) and the UK (n = 3,314 participants). Respondents were randomly assigned to: a "risk treatment" that highlighted the potential risks of COVID-19 to a child, a "herd immunity treatment" that emphasized the community benefits of pediatric vaccination, or a control message. Participants' probability of supporting COVID-19 childhood vaccination was then assessed on a 0-100 scale. We find that the "risk treatment" reduced the proportion of Italian parents strongly against vaccination by up to 29.6 %, while increasing the proportion of neutral parents by up to 45.0 %. The "herd immunity treatment", instead, was only effective among non-parents, resulting in a lower proportion of individuals against pediatric vaccination and a higher proportion of individuals in favor (both shifted by around 20 %).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Herd , Immunization Programs , Italy/epidemiology , Vaccination
3.
Sci Immunol ; 8(83): eadh3455, 2023 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312885

ABSTRACT

Rare immune-mediated cardiac tissue inflammation can occur after vaccination, including after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines. However, the underlying immune cellular and molecular mechanisms driving this pathology remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated a cohort of patients who developed myocarditis and/or pericarditis with elevated troponin, B-type natriuretic peptide, and C-reactive protein levels as well as cardiac imaging abnormalities shortly after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. Contrary to early hypotheses, patients did not demonstrate features of hypersensitivity myocarditis, nor did they have exaggerated SARS-CoV-2-specific or neutralizing antibody responses consistent with a hyperimmune humoral mechanism. We additionally found no evidence of cardiac-targeted autoantibodies. Instead, unbiased systematic immune serum profiling revealed elevations in circulating interleukins (IL-1ß, IL-1RA, and IL-15), chemokines (CCL4, CXCL1, and CXCL10), and matrix metalloproteases (MMP1, MMP8, MMP9, and TIMP1). Subsequent deep immune profiling using single-cell RNA and repertoire sequencing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells during acute disease revealed expansion of activated CXCR3+ cytotoxic T cells and NK cells, both phenotypically resembling cytokine-driven killer cells. In addition, patients displayed signatures of inflammatory and profibrotic CCR2+ CD163+ monocytes, coupled with elevated serum-soluble CD163, that may be linked to the late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac MRI, which can persist for months after vaccination. Together, our results demonstrate up-regulation in inflammatory cytokines and corresponding lymphocytes with tissue-damaging capabilities, suggesting a cytokine-dependent pathology, which may further be accompanied by myeloid cell-associated cardiac fibrosis. These findings likely rule out some previously proposed mechanisms of mRNA vaccine--associated myopericarditis and point to new ones with relevance to vaccine development and clinical care.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Humans , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Contrast Media , COVID-19/prevention & control , Gadolinium , Killer Cells, Natural , Cytokines
4.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 2022 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294658

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic led to a worldwide lockdown and school closures, which have placed a substantial mental health burden on children and college students. Through a systematic search of the literature on PubMed and Collabovid of studies published January 2020-July 2021, our findings of five studies on children and 16 studies on college students found that both groups reported feeling more anxious, depressed, fatigued, and distressed than prior to the pandemic. Several risk factors such as living in rural areas, low family socioeconomic status, and being a family member or friend to a healthcare worker were strongly associated with worse mental health outcomes. As schools and researchers discuss future strategies on how to combine on-site teaching with online courses, our results indicate the importance of considering social contacts in students' mental health to support students at higher risk of social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic.

5.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(7): ofac311, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271426

ABSTRACT

Background: Comparative effectiveness of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines across patient subgroups is poorly understood and essential to precisely targeting vaccination strategies. Methods: We used the US Department of Veterans Affairs COVID-19 Shared Data Resource to identify veterans who utilize VA health care and had no documented severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection before December 11, 2020. Using a test-negative case-control design (TND), we used conditional logistic regression with adjustment for covariates to estimate vaccine effectiveness (VE) over time for veterans who received 2 doses of mRNA vaccines or 1 dose of Ad26.Cov2.S. Results: We identified 4.8 million veterans with a mean age of 64 years, of whom 58% had ≥1 chronic disease. Vaccine effectiveness for symptomatic infections, hospitalizations, and ICU admission or death declined over time and varied by the type of vaccine (P < 0.01). VE estimates against symptomatic infection during months 1 and 7 for mRNA-1273 compared with BNT162b2 were 89.7% (95% CI, 84.4%-93.0%) and 57.3% (95% CI, 48.4%-64.7%) vs 81.6% (95% CI, 75.9%-85.9%) and 22.5% (95% CI, 7.2%-35.2%) for individuals age <65 years and 78.4% (95% CI, 71.1%-83.9%) and 36.2% (95% CI, 27.7%-43.6%) vs 66.3% (95% CI, 55.7%-74.4%) and -23.3% (95% CI, -40.5% to -8.2%) in subjects age ≥65 years; against hospitalization 92.0% (95% CI, 76.1%-97.3%) and 83.1% (95% CI, 66.8%-91.4%) vs 85.6% (95% CI, 72.6%-92.4%) and 57.0% (95% CI, 31.2%-73.2%) in subjects age <65 years and 66.1% (95% CI, 45.3%-79.0%) and 64.7% (95% CI, 55.2%-72.3%) vs 61.0% (95% CI, 41.3%-74.2%) and 1.7% (95% CI, -22.0% to 20.8%) in those age ≥65 years; against ICU admission or death 89.2% (95% CI, 49.5%-97.7%) and 84.4% (95% CI, 59.0%-94.1%) vs 87.6% (95% CI, 61.0%-96.1%) and 66.4% (95% CI, 7.7%-87.8%) in subjects age <65 years and 75.4% (95% CI, 51.7%-87.5%) and 73.8 (95% CI, 62.9%-81.5%) vs 67.4% (95% CI, 32.6%-84.3%) and 29.3% (95% CI, 2.3%-48.9%) in subjects age ≥65 years, respectively (P interaction < .01 for all comparisons). Similarly, mRNA-1273 was more effective than BNT162b2 in veterans with >1 chronic disease. Conclusions: mRNA-1273 was more effective than BNT162b2 in older veterans and those with chronic diseases.

6.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 894, 2023 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288432

ABSTRACT

We examined the effectiveness of maternal vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 infection in 30,311 infants born at Kaiser Permanente Northern California from December 15, 2020, to May 31, 2022. Using Cox regression, the effectiveness of ≥2 doses of COVID-19 vaccine received during pregnancy was 84% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 66, 93), 62% (CI: 39, 77) and 56% (CI: 34,71) during months 0-2, 0-4 and 0- 6 of a child's life, respectively, in the Delta variant period. In the Omicron variant period, the effectiveness of maternal vaccination in these three age intervals was 21% (CI: -21,48), 14% (CI: -9,32) and 13% (CI: -3,26), respectively. Over the entire study period, the incidence of hospitalization for COVID-19 was lower during the first 6 months of life among infants of vaccinated mothers compared with infants of unvaccinated mothers (21/100,000 person-years vs. 100/100,000 person-years). Maternal vaccination was protective, but protection was lower during Omicron than during Delta. Protection during both periods decreased as infants aged.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Child , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Infant , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mothers , Vaccination , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
7.
Genome Biol Evol ; 15(4)2023 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276330

ABSTRACT

Developing a timely and effective response to emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) is of paramount public health importance. Global health surveillance does not rely on genomic data alone to identify concerning variants when they emerge. Instead, methods that utilize genomic data to estimate the epidemiological dynamics of emerging lineages have the potential to serve as an early warning system. However, these methods assume that genomic data are uniformly reported across circulating lineages. In this study, we analyze differences in reporting delays among SARS-CoV-2 VOCs as a plausible explanation for the timing of the global response to the former VOC Mu. Mu likely emerged in South America in mid-2020, where its circulation was largely confined. In this study, we demonstrate that Mu was designated as a VOC ∼1 year after it emerged and find that the reporting of genomic data for Mu differed significantly than that of other VOCs within countries, states, and individual laboratories. Our findings suggest that nonsystematic biases in the reporting of genomic data may have delayed the global response to Mu. Until they are resolved, the surveillance gaps that affected the global response to Mu could impede the rapid and accurate assessment of future emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Bias , Genomics
8.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 1299, 2023 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264553

ABSTRACT

mRNA-based vaccines dramatically reduce the occurrence and severity of COVID-19, but are associated with rare vaccine-related adverse effects. These toxicities, coupled with observations that SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with autoantibody development, raise questions whether COVID-19 vaccines may also promote the development of autoantibodies, particularly in autoimmune patients. Here we used Rapid Extracellular Antigen Profiling to characterize self- and viral-directed humoral responses after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination in 145 healthy individuals, 38 patients with autoimmune diseases, and 8 patients with mRNA vaccine-associated myocarditis. We confirm that most individuals generated robust virus-specific antibody responses post vaccination, but that the quality of this response is impaired in autoimmune patients on certain modes of immunosuppression. Autoantibody dynamics are remarkably stable in all vaccinated patients compared to COVID-19 patients that exhibit an increased prevalence of new autoantibody reactivities. Patients with vaccine-associated myocarditis do not have increased autoantibody reactivities relative to controls. In summary, our findings indicate that mRNA vaccines decouple SARS-CoV-2 immunity from autoantibody responses observed during acute COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunity, Humoral , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines , Humans , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmunity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Myocarditis/immunology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects , mRNA Vaccines/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/therapeutic use
10.
Sci Transl Med ; 15(683): eade6023, 2023 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240695

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron sublineages resulted in increased transmission rates and reduced protection from vaccines. To counteract these effects, multiple booster strategies were used in different countries, although data comparing their efficiency in improving protective immunity remain sparse, especially among vulnerable populations, including older adults. The inactivated CoronaVac vaccine was among the most widely distributed vaccine worldwide and was essential in the early control of SARS-CoV-2-related hospitalizations and deaths. However, it is not well understood whether homologous versus heterologous booster doses in those fully vaccinated with CoronaVac induce distinct humoral responses or whether these responses vary across age groups. We analyzed plasma antibody responses from CoronaVac-vaccinated younger or older individuals who received a homologous CoronaVac or heterologous BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 booster vaccine. All three evaluated boosters resulted in increased virus-specific IgG titers 28 days after the booster dose. However, we found that both IgG titers against SARS-CoV-2 Spike or RBD and neutralization titers against Omicron sublineages were substantially reduced in participants who received homologous CoronaVac compared with the heterologous BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 booster. This effect was specifically prominent in recipients >50 years of age. In this group, the CoronaVac booster induced low virus-specific IgG titers and failed to elevate neutralization titers against any Omicron sublineage. Our results point to the notable inefficiency of CoronaVac immunization and boosting in mounting protective antiviral humoral immunity, particularly among older adults, during the Omicron wave. These observations also point to benefits of heterologous regimens in high-risk populations fully vaccinated with CoronaVac.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , BNT162 Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228468

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current SARS-CoV-2 vaccines may be less effective against the Omicron variant. With recent resurgence of SARS-CoV-2 cases, the role of booster doses of the vaccine needs to be highlighted. METHODS: Using a retrospective cohort study design emulating a target trial, we determined the relative effectiveness of a homologous booster dose of a SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine compared with primary series alone in preventing infection, hospitalization, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death in the Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare system in the US. Among infection-free survivors who received two doses of an mRNA vaccine prior to April 30, 2021, we identified those who received a booster between September 22 and December 25, 2021 and 1:1 matched individuals who did not receive a booster. RESULTS: Among 2,384,272 previously uninfected persons with two doses of an mRNA vaccine by April 30, 2021, we identified 462,950 booster recipients between September 22 and December 25, 2021 who were matched 1:1 with non-booster recipients. RVE (95% CI) was 19% (17-22%) for confirmed infection, 52% (46-57%) for hospitalization, and 83% (65-92%) for ICU admission or death. Recipients of the mRNA-1273 vaccine had a lower cumulative incidence of infections and hospitalizations compared with BNT-162b2 vaccine (log-rank p-value <0.001 for both comparisons). CONCLUSION: While the RVE of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA booster vaccine dose in preventing infection against the Omicron variant is low, the RVE is substantial in preventing hospitalization and high in preventing the most severe/critical disease.

13.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 13(1): 55-66, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lebanon endured its worst economic and financial crisis in 2020-2021. To minimize the impact of COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to improve the overall COVID-19 vaccination rate. Given that vaccine hesitancy among health care workers (HCWs) affects the general population's decision to be vaccinated, our study assessed COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among Lebanon HCWs and identified barriers, demographic differences, and the most trusted sources of COVID-19 information. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and May 2021 among HCWs across nine hospitals, the Orders of Physicians, Nurses, and Pharmacists in Lebanon. Descriptive statistics were performed to evaluate the COVID-19 vaccine acceptance, and univariate and multivariable to identify their predictors. RESULTS: Among 879 participants, 762 (86.8%) were willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, 52 (5.9%) refused, and 64 (7.3%) were undecided. Males (226/254; 88.9%) and those ≥ 55 years (95/100; 95%) had the highest rates of acceptance. Of the 113 who were not willing to receive the vaccine, 54.9% reported that the vaccine was not studied well enough. Participants with a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and those who did not know if they had a previous infection (p = 0.002) were less likely to accept the vaccine compared to those with no previous infection. The most trusted COVID-19 sources of information were WHO (69.3%) and healthcare providers (68%). CONCLUSION: Lebanese HCWs had a relatively high acceptance rate for COVID-19 vaccination compared to other countries. Our findings are important in informing the Lebanese health care authorities to establish programs and interventions to improve vaccine uptake among HCWs and the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Lebanon , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Personnel , Vaccination
15.
Vaccine ; 41(3): 630-635, 2023 01 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184277

ABSTRACT

In October 2021, Emergency Use Authorization of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines was granted for children aged 5-11. To ensure vaccine uptake in children upon approval, California will implement a state-wide executive order mandating COVID-19 vaccination for school children following full US FDA approval. This study uses survey data collected between November 6th, 2020 and December 14th, 2020 (n = 2091) to identify how sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes towards childhood vaccines among California parents were associated with their intentions to vaccinate their child against COVID-19. About one quarter (26 %) of surveyed California parents did not intend to vaccinate their child, suggesting skepticism towards the COVID-19 vaccine for children and the potential for pushback to a COVID-19 vaccine school-entry mandate. However, 17 % were unsure of their decision, suggesting the potential for public health messaging to make a positive impact on COVID-19 vaccine confidence and uptake. This study identifies characteristics of hesitant parents in California to prioritize for research and outreach. These data also provide a baseline for parental attitudes towards vaccinating children against COVID-19 in California, which will be useful for characterizing changes in attitudes towards childhood COVID-19 vaccination over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intention , Humans , Child , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , California , Parents , Vaccination , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
16.
J Glob Health ; 12: 05049, 2022 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203063

ABSTRACT

Background: New data on COVID-19 may influence the stringency of containment policies, but these potential effect are not understood. We aimed to understand the associations of new COVID-19 cases and deaths with policy stringency globally and regionally. Methods: We modelled the marginal effects of new COVID-19 cases and deaths on policy stringency (scored 0-100) in 175 countries and territories, adjusting for gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and health expenditure (% of GDP), and public expenditure on health. The time periods examined were March to August 2020, September 2020 to February 2021, and March to August 2021. Results: Policy response to new cases and deaths was faster and more stringent early in the COVID-19 pandemic (March to August 2020) compared to subsequent periods. New deaths were more strongly associated with stringent policies than new cases. In an average week, one new death per 100 000 people was associated with a stringency increase of 2.1 units in the March to August 2020 period, 1.3 units in the September 2020 to February 2021 period, and 0.7 units in the March to August 2021 period. New deaths in Africa and the Western Pacific were associated with more stringency than in other regions. Higher health expenditure as a percentage of GDP was associated with less stringent policies. Similarly, higher public expenditure on health by governments was mostly associated with less stringency across all three periods. GDP per capita did not have consistent patterns of associations with stringency. Conclusions: The stringency of COVID-19 policies was more strongly associated with new deaths than new cases. Our findings demonstrate the need for enhanced mortality surveillance to ensure policy alignment during health emergencies. Countries that invest less in health or have a lower public expenditure on health may be inclined to enact more stringent policies. This new empirical understanding of COVID-19 policy drivers can help public health officials anticipate and shape policy responses in future health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Expenditures , Humans , Gross Domestic Product , Pandemics , Emergencies , Policy
17.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 19(5): 328-343, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2174984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The discovery of vaccines significantly reduced morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases and led to the elimination and eradication of some. Development of safe and effective vaccines is a critical step to the control of infectious diseases; however, there is the need to address vaccine hesitancy because of its potential impact on vaccine uptake. METHODS: We conducted a narrative review of studies on interventions to address measles and human papillomavirus vaccine hesitancy. We discussed how lessons learned from these studies could be applied towards COVID-19 and future human immunodeficiency virus vaccines. RESULTS: We found that there are several successful approaches to improving vaccine acceptance. Interventions should be context specific and build on the challenges highlighted in various settings. CONCLUSION: Strategies could be used alone or in combination with others. The most successful interventions directly targeted the population for vaccination. Use of financial incentives could be a potential tool to improve vaccine uptake.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Measles , Papillomavirus Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Vaccination Hesitancy
18.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278622, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140713

ABSTRACT

Amidst an unprecedented Monkeypox outbreak, we aimed to measure knowledge, attitudes, practices and Monkeypox vaccination intentions among the U.S. adult population. We conducted an online cross-sectional survey, representative of the U.S. adult general public in June 2022. We asked participants whether they would receive a Monkeypox vaccine, if they were recommended to do so. Participants also answered questions on their self-assessed level of Monkeypox knowledge, risk perception, perceived exaggeration of the threat, and self-efficacy around Monkeypox. Furthermore, we asked about their trusted sources of information, COVID-19 vaccination status and administered the 6-item Vaccine Trust Indicator (VTI). Survey weights were created based on age, gender and race. We analyzed predictors of Monkeypox vaccination intentions using logistic regression, adjusted for education, age, race and ethnicity. A total of 856 respondents completed the survey, of which 51% (n = 436) were female and 41% (n = 348) had a college degree or higher. If recommended, 46% of respondents intended to get vaccinated against Monkeypox, 29% would not get vaccinated and 25% did not know. Almost half the respondents (47%) found their own knowledge level about Monkeypox poor or very poor. The most trusted sources of information about the outbreak were healthcare professionals and officials, but also known doctors and researchers with a large online following. Only 24% indicated that the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention should be in charge of the outbreak response. Being vaccinated against COVID-19 was a strong predictor of intention to receive a Monkeypox if recommended (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) 29.2, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 13.1-65.3). Increased risk perception was positively associated with vaccination intentions (aOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.8-3.6), scoring high on the VTI as well (5.4, 95% CI (3.2-9.1). The low levels of self-assessed knowledge, vaccination intentions and influence of COVID-19 vaccination status point to a lack of clear communication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Smallpox Vaccine , United States/epidemiology , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Intention , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2238507, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084943

ABSTRACT

Importance: Patients from racially and ethnically minoritized populations, such as Black and Hispanic patients, may be less likely to receive evidence-based COVID-19 treatments than White patients, contributing to adverse clinical outcomes. Objective: To determine whether clinical treatments and outcomes among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were associated with race. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in 130 Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs) between March 1, 2020, and February 28, 2022, with a 60-day follow-up period until May 1, 2022. Participants included veterans hospitalized with COVID-19. Data were analyzed from May 6 to June 2, 2022. Exposures: Self-reported race. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical care processes (eg, intensive care unit [ICU] admission; organ support measures, including invasive and noninvasive mechanical ventilation; prone position therapy, and COVID-19-specific medical treatments) were quantified. Clinical outcomes of interest included in-hospital mortality, 60-day mortality, and 30-day readmissions. Outcomes were assessed with multivariable random effects logistic regression models to estimate the association of race with outcomes not attributable to known mediators, such as socioeconomic status and age, while adjusting for potential confounding between outcomes and mediators. Results: A total of 43 222 veterans (12 135 Black veterans [28.1%]; 31 087 White veterans [71.9%]; 40 717 [94.2%] men) with a median (IQR) age of 71 (62-77) years who were hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. Controlling for site of treatment, Black patients were equally likely to be admitted to the ICU (4806 Black patients [39.6%] vs 13 427 White patients [43.2%]; within-center adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.95; 95% CI, 0.88-1.02; P = .17). Two-thirds of patients treated with supplemental oxygen or noninvasive or invasive mechanical ventilation also received systemic steroids, but Black veterans were less likely to receive steroids (within-center aOR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.80-0.96; P = .004; between-center aOR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48-0.96; P = .03). Similarly, Black patients were less likely to receive remdesivir (within-center aOR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83-0.95; P < .001; between-center aOR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47-0.99; P = .02) or treatment with immunomodulatory drugs (within-center aOR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.67-0.87; P < .001). After adjusting for patient demographic characteristics, chronic health conditions, severity of acute illness, and receipt of COVID-19-specific treatments, there was no association of Black race with hospital mortality (within-center aOR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.86-1.10; P = .71) or 30-day readmission (within-center aOR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.88-1.04; P = .28). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that Black veterans hospitalized with COVID-19 were less likely to be treated with evidence-based COVID-19 treatments, including systemic steroids, remdesivir, and immunomodulatory drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Veterans , Male , Humans , Aged , Female , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Oxygen
20.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2124781, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082169

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the early vaccine landscape relative to challenges faced by low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), we conducted a cross-sectional study of all COVID-19 vaccines in clinical trials in 2021 (n = 123) using a structured 13-point analytic framework. Supply sustainability was defined as a composite metric of four manufacturing and regulation variables. Vaccine desirability was defined as a composite metric of nine development and distribution variables. Ten vaccines in phases 2/3, 3, or 4 and five vaccines in phases 1 and 1/2 had a sustainability score equal to or above 0.5. Ten vaccines in phases 2/3, 3, or 4 and seven vaccines in phases 1 and 1/2 had a desirability score equal to or above 0.5. No vaccines in Phases 2/3, 3, or 4 met more than one distribution criterion. Structured assessment COVID-19 vaccine candidates in clinical trials in 2021 revealed numerous challenges to adequate access in LMICs. Key policy recommendations included increasing technology transfer to LMICs, developing international legal mechanisms to prevent export bans, and increasing investment in vaccine candidates with more favorable distribution profiles.

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