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1.
Singapore Med J ; 63(2): 61-67, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811330

ABSTRACT

The complete picture regarding transmission modes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is unknown. This review summarises the available evidence on its transmission modes, our preliminary research findings and implications for infection control policy, and outlines future research directions. Environmental contamination has been reported in hospital settings occupied by infected patients, and is higher in the first week of illness. Transmission via environmental surfaces or fomites is likely, but decontamination protocols are effective in minimising this risk. The extent of airborne transmission is also unclear. While several studies have detected SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid in air samples, none has isolated viable virus in culture. Transmission likely lies on a spectrum between droplet and airborne transmission, depending on the patient, disease and environmental factors. Singapore's current personal protective equipment and isolation protocols are sufficient to manage this risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitals , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Personal Protective Equipment
2.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; : 1-4, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758551
3.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-330621

ABSTRACT

Background: Waning antibody levels post-vaccination and the emergence of variants of concern (VOCs) capable of evading protective immunity has raised the need for booster vaccinations. However, which combination of COVID-19 vaccines offers the strongest immune response against Omicron variant is unknown. Methods: This randomized, subject-blinded, controlled trial assess the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of different COVID-19 vaccine booster combinations. 100 BNT162b2-vaccinated individuals were enrolled and randomized 1:1 to either homologous (BNT162b2+BNT162b2+BNT162b2;‘BBB’) or heterologous mRNA booster vaccine (BNT162b2+BNT162b2+mRNA-1273;‘BBM’). Primary endpoint was the level of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and VOCs at Day 28. Results: 51 participants were allocated to BBB and 49 to BBM;50 and 48 respectively were analyzed for safety and immunogenicity outcomes. At Day 28 post-boost, mean SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody titers were lower with BBB (22,382 IU/mL 95% CI, 18,210 to 27,517) vs BBM (29,751 IU/mL 95% CI, 25,281 to 35,011, p=0·034) as was the median level of neutralizing antibodies: BBB 99.0% (IQR 97·9 to 99·3%) vs BBM 99.3% (IQR 98·8 to 99·5%, p=0·021). On sub-group analysis, significant differences in mean spike antibody titer and live Omicron neutralization titer was only observed in older adults. Median surrogate neutralizing antibody level against all VOCs was also significantly higher with BBM in older adults, and against Omicron was BBB 72·8% (IQR 54·0 to 84·7%) vs BBM 84·3% (IQR 78·1 to 88·7%, p=0·0073). Both vaccines were well tolerated. Conclusions: Heterologous mRNA-1273 booster vaccination induced a stronger neutralizing response against the Omicron variant in older individuals compared with homologous BNT123b2.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730659

ABSTRACT

In this cross-sectional study, we studied performance of the ISARIC mortality and deterioration scores in a cohort of 410 hospitalized patients (51.2% fully vaccinated). AUCs were 0.778 and 0.764 respectively, comparable to originally published validation cohorts. Subgroup analysis showed equally good performance in vaccinated and partially or unvaccinated patients.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple SARS-CoV-2 superspreading events suggest that aerosols play an important role in driving the COVID-19 pandemic. To better understand how airborne SARS-CoV-2 transmission occurs, we sought to determine viral loads within coarse (>5µm) and fine (≤5µm) respiratory aerosols produced when breathing, talking, and singing. METHODS: Using a G-II exhaled breath collector, we measured viral RNA in coarse and fine respiratory aerosols emitted by COVID-19 patients during 30 minutes of breathing, 15 minutes of talking, and 15 minutes of singing. RESULTS: Thirteen participants (59%) emitted detectable levels of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in respiratory aerosols, including 3 asymptomatic and 1 presymptomatic patient. Viral loads ranged from 63-5,821 N gene copies per expiratory activity per participant, with high person-to-person variation. Patients earlier in illness were more likely to emit detectable RNA. Two participants, sampled on day 3 of illness, accounted for 52% of the total viral load. Overall, 94% of SARS-CoV-2 RNA copies were emitted by talking and singing. Interestingly, 7 participants emitted more virus from talking than singing. Overall, fine aerosols constituted 85% of the viral load detected in our study. Virus cultures were negative. CONCLUSIONS: Fine aerosols produced by talking and singing contain more SARS-CoV-2 copies than coarse aerosols and may play a significant role in SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Exposure to fine aerosols, especially indoors, should be mitigated. Isolating viable SARS-CoV-2 from respiratory aerosol samples remains challenging, and whether this can be more easily accomplished for emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants is an urgent enquiry necessitating larger-scale studies.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702780

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: he impact of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) on disease severity is unclear. In this retrospective study, we compared outcomes of patients infected with B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and B.1.617.2 with those with wild-type strains from early 2020. METHODS: National surveillance data from 1-January-2021 to 22-May-2021 were obtained from the Ministry of Health, and outcomes in relation to VOC were explored. Detailed patient level data from all patients with VOC infection admitted to our center between 20-December-2020 and 12-May-2021 were analyzed. Clinical outcomes were compared with a cohort of 846 patients admitted from January-April 2020. RESULTS: 829 patients in Singapore in the study period were infected with these 3 VOCs. After adjusting for age and sex, B.1.617.2 was associated with higher odds of oxygen requirement, ICU admission, or death (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4.90, [95% CI 1.43-30.78]). 157 of these patients were admitted to our center. After adjusting for age, sex, comorbidities, and vaccination, aOR for pneumonia with B.1.617.2 was 1.88 [95% CI 0.95-3.76]) compared with wild-type. These differences were not seen with B.1.1.7 and B.1.351. Vaccination status was associated with decreased severity. B.1.617.2 was associated with significantly lower PCR Ct values and longer duration of Ct value ≤30 (median duration 18 days for B.1.617.2, 13 days for wild-type). CONCLUSIONS: There was a signal toward increased severity associated with B.1.617.2. The association of B.1.617.2 with lower Ct value and longer viral shedding provides a potential mechanism for increased transmissibility. These findings provide an impetus for the rapid implementation of vaccination programs.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318385

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) on disease severity is unclear. In this retrospective cohort study, we compared outcomes of patients infected with B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and B.1.617.2 with those with wild-type strains from early 2020.Methods: National surveillance data from 1-January-2021 to 22-May-2021 were obtained from the Ministry of Health, and outcomes in relation to VOC were explored. Detailed patient level data from all SARS-CoV-2 patients with VOC infection admitted to our centre between 20-December-2020 and 12-May-2021 were analysed. Outcomes were compared with a cohort of 846 patients admitted January-April 2020.Findings: There were 838 VOC infections in Singapore in the study period. After adjusting for age and gender, B.1.617.2 infection was associated with higher odds of oxygen requirement, ICU admission, or death (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4·90, [95% CI 1·43-30·78]. 157 patients with VOCs were admitted to our centre. After adjusting for age, gender, comorbidities, and vaccination, aOR for pneumonia with B.1.617.2 was 1·88 [95% CI 0·95-3·76]) compared with wild-type. B.1.617.2 was associated with significantly lower PCR Ct values and significantly longer duration of Ct value ≤30 (estimated median duration 18 days for B.1.617.2, 13 days for wild-type). Vaccine breakthrough cases were less severe.Interpretation: There was a signal toward increased severity associated with B.1.617.2. The association of B.1.617.2 with lower Ct value and longer viral shedding provides a potential mechanism for increased transmissibility. These findings provide a strong impetus for the rapid implementation of vaccination programmes.Funding Information: National Medical Research Council grants COVID19RF-001 and COVID19RF-008.Declaration of Interests: BEY reports personal fees from Roche and Sanofi, outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: Informed consent for retrospective data collection was waived as approved by the institutional review board (NHG-DSRB reference number 2020/01122).

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312783

ABSTRACT

Background: To determine the utility of chest radiography (CXR) for assessing and prognosticating COVID-19 disease with an objective radiographic scoring system. Methods: A multicenter, prospective study was conducted, forty patients were included. Seventy-eight CXR’s were performed on the first derivation cohort of twenty patients with COVID-19 (median age 47.5 years, 10 females and four with comorbidities) admitted between 22 January 2020 and 1 February 2020. Each CXR was scored by three radiologists in consensus and graded on a 72-point COVID-19 Radiographic Score (CRS). This was correlated with supplemental oxygen requirement, C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and lymphocyte count. To validate our findings, the parameters of another validation cohort of twenty patients with 65 CXRs were analysed. Results: In the derivation cohort, seven patients needed supplemental oxygen and one was intubated for mechanical ventilation with no death. The maximum CRS was significantly different between patients on and not on supplemental oxygen (p=<.001). There was strong correlation between maximum CRS and lowest oxygen saturation (r= -.849), maximum CRP (r= .832) and maximum LDH (r= .873). These findings were consistent in the validation cohort. An increment of 2 points in CRS had an accuracy of 0.938 with 100.0% sensitivity (95% CI 100.0-100.0) and 83.3% (95% CI 65.1-100.0) specificity in predicting supplemental oxygen requirement. Conclusion: Using an objective scoring system (CRS), the degree of abnormalities on CXR correlates closely with known markers of disease severity. CRS may further be applied to predict patients who require oxygen supplementation during the course of their disease.

9.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(6): 884.e1-884.e3, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670361

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Predictive scores are important tools for the triage of patients with coronavirus disease 2019. The PRIORITY score is advantageous because it does not require laboratory and radiologic information. However, the original development and validation cohorts studied only unvaccinated patients in early 2020. We aimed to externally validate the PRIORITY score in a cohort of patients with the novel delta and omicron variants of coronavirus disease 2019 and mixed vaccination status. METHODS: A total of 410 patients were included in a cross-sectional sampling of all patients admitted to the National Centre of Infectious Diseases on October 27, 2021. A further 102 and 136 patients with vaccine-breakthrough Delta and Omicron variant infection from April to August and December 2021, respectively, were also included. Variables at the time of admission were collected retrospectively from medical records and used to calculate the probability of deterioration using the PRIORITY model. RESULTS: Of the total 648 included patients, 447 (69.0%) were vaccinated. The mean age was 61.6 years (standard deviation ± 19.0 years), and 268 patients (41.4%) were female. A total of 112 patients (17.3%) met the primary outcome of developing critical illness or mortality. The performance of the score in this cohort was comparable with the original cohorts, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for all patients of 0.794 (95% CI, 0.752-0.835; p < 0.001), regression coefficient of 1.069, and intercept of 0.04. Subgroup analysis of unvaccinated and vaccinated patients showed that performance was superior in vaccinated individuals, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.684 (95% CI, 0.608-0.760; p < 0.0001) and 0.831 (95% CI, 0.772-0.891; p < 0.0001), respectively. DISCUSSION: Our data support the continued use of the PRIORITY score in this era of novel variants and increased vaccination uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Critical Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(4): 612.e1-612.e7, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604269

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Highly effective vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been developed but variants of concerns are worrisome, especially B.1.617.2 (Delta) which has rapidly spread across the world. We aim to study if vaccination alters virological and serological kinetics in breakthrough infections. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre retrospective cohort study of patients in Singapore who had received a licensed mRNA vaccine and been admitted to hospital with B.1.617.2 SARS-CoV-2 infection. We compared clinical features, virological and serological kinetics (anti-nucleocapsid, anti-spike and surrogate virus neutralization titres) between fully vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. RESULTS: Out of 218 individuals with B.1.617.2 infection, 84 received an mRNA vaccine of which 71 were fully vaccinated, 130 were unvaccinated and four received a non-mRNA vaccine. Despite significantly older age in the vaccine breakthrough group, only 2.8% (2/71) developed severe COVID-19 requiring oxygen supplementation compared with 53.1% (69/130) in the unvaccinated group (p < 0.001). Odds of severe COVID-19 following vaccination were significantly lower (adjusted odds ratio 0.07 95% CI 0.015-0.335, p 0.001). PCR cycle threshold values were similar between vaccinated and unvaccinated groups at diagnosis, but viral loads decreased faster in vaccinated individuals. Early, robust boosting of anti-spike protein antibodies was observed in vaccinated patients; however, these titres were significantly lower against B.1.617.2 than the wildtype vaccine strain. DISCUSSION: The mRNA vaccines are highly effective at preventing symptomatic and severe COVID-19 associated with B.1.617.2 infection. Vaccination is associated with faster decline in viral RNA load and a robust serological response. Vaccination remains a key strategy for control of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Humans , Kinetics , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
12.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(11): 1327-1332, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575207

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the extent of aerosol-based transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is important for tailoring interventions for control of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Multiple studies have reported the detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in air samples, but only one study has successfully recovered viable virus, although it is limited by its small sample size. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the extent of shedding of viable SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory aerosols from COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In this observational air sampling study, air samples from airborne-infection isolation rooms (AIIRs) and a community isolation facility (CIF) housing COVID-19 patients were collected using a water vapor condensation method into liquid collection media. Samples were tested for presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and qRT-PCR-positive samples were tested for viability using viral culture. RESULTS: Samples from 6 (50%) of the 12 sampling cycles in hospital rooms were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, including aerosols ranging from <1 µm to >4 µm in diameter. Of 9 samples from the CIF, 1 was positive via qRT-PCR. Viral RNA concentrations ranged from 179 to 2,738 ORF1ab gene copies per cubic meter of air. Virus cultures were negative after 4 blind passages. CONCLUSION: Although SARS-CoV-2 is readily captured in aerosols, virus culture remains challenging despite optimized sampling methodologies to preserve virus viability. Further studies on aerosol-based transmission and control of SARS-CoV-2 are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , Hospitals , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369072

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: he impact of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) on disease severity is unclear. In this retrospective study, we compared outcomes of patients infected with B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and B.1.617.2 with those with wild-type strains from early 2020. METHODS: National surveillance data from 1-January-2021 to 22-May-2021 were obtained from the Ministry of Health, and outcomes in relation to VOC were explored. Detailed patient level data from all patients with VOC infection admitted to our center between 20-December-2020 and 12-May-2021 were analyzed. Clinical outcomes were compared with a cohort of 846 patients admitted from January-April 2020. RESULTS: 829 patients in Singapore in the study period were infected with these 3 VOCs. After adjusting for age and sex, B.1.617.2 was associated with higher odds of oxygen requirement, ICU admission, or death (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4.90, [95% CI 1.43-30.78]). 157 of these patients were admitted to our center. After adjusting for age, sex, comorbidities, and vaccination, aOR for pneumonia with B.1.617.2 was 1.88 [95% CI 0.95-3.76]) compared with wild-type. These differences were not seen with B.1.1.7 and B.1.351. Vaccination status was associated with decreased severity. B.1.617.2 was associated with significantly lower PCR Ct values and longer duration of Ct value ≤30 (median duration 18 days for B.1.617.2, 13 days for wild-type). CONCLUSIONS: There was a signal toward increased severity associated with B.1.617.2. The association of B.1.617.2 with lower Ct value and longer viral shedding provides a potential mechanism for increased transmissibility. These findings provide an impetus for the rapid implementation of vaccination programs.

16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345720

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple SARS-CoV-2 superspreading events suggest that aerosols play an important role in driving the COVID-19 pandemic. To better understand how airborne SARS-CoV-2 transmission occurs, we sought to determine viral loads within coarse (>5µm) and fine (≤5µm) respiratory aerosols produced when breathing, talking, and singing. METHODS: Using a G-II exhaled breath collector, we measured viral RNA in coarse and fine respiratory aerosols emitted by COVID-19 patients during 30 minutes of breathing, 15 minutes of talking, and 15 minutes of singing. RESULTS: Thirteen participants (59%) emitted detectable levels of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in respiratory aerosols, including 3 asymptomatic and 1 presymptomatic patient. Viral loads ranged from 63-5,821 N gene copies per expiratory activity per participant, with high person-to-person variation. Patients earlier in illness were more likely to emit detectable RNA. Two participants, sampled on day 3 of illness, accounted for 52% of the total viral load. Overall, 94% of SARS-CoV-2 RNA copies were emitted by talking and singing. Interestingly, 7 participants emitted more virus from talking than singing. Overall, fine aerosols constituted 85% of the viral load detected in our study. Virus cultures were negative. CONCLUSIONS: Fine aerosols produced by talking and singing contain more SARS-CoV-2 copies than coarse aerosols and may play a significant role in SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Exposure to fine aerosols, especially indoors, should be mitigated. Isolating viable SARS-CoV-2 from respiratory aerosol samples remains challenging, and whether this can be more easily accomplished for emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants is an urgent enquiry necessitating larger-scale studies.

17.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(6): ofab156, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The complications and sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and their effect on long-term health are unclear, and the trajectory of associated immune dysregulation is poorly understood. METHODS: We conducted a prospective longitudinal multicenter cohort study at 4 public hospitals in Singapore. Patients with COVID-19 were monitored for a median of 6 months after recovery from acute infection. Clinical symptoms and radiologic data were collected, along with plasma samples for quantification of immune mediators. The relationship between clinical symptoms and immune cytokine profiles was investigated. RESULTS: Two hundred eighty-eight participants were recruited, and follow-up data were available for 183, 175, and 120 participants at days 30, 90, and 180 postsymptom onset, respectively. Symptoms related to COVID-19 were present in 31 (16.9%), 13 (7.4%), and 14 (11.7%) at days 30, 90, and 180. In a multivariable model, age >65 years, non-Chinese ethnicity, and the severity of acute infection were associated with increased likelihood of persistent symptoms. Recovered COVID-19 patients had elevated levels of proinflammatory interleukin (IL)-17A, stem cell factor, IL-12p70, and IL-1ß and pro-angiogenic macrophage inflammatory protein 1ß, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor at day 180 compared with healthy controls. Higher levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and platelet-derived growth factor-BB were detected in patients with persistent symptoms, versus symptom-free patients. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 10% of recovered patients had persistent symptoms 6 months after initial infection. Immune cytokine signatures of the recovered patients reflected ongoing chronic inflammation and angiogenesis. Patients with COVID-19 should be monitored closely for emerging long-term health consequences.

19.
Lancet Microbe ; 2(6): e240-e249, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155679

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies have found different waning rates of neutralising antibodies compared with binding antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. The impact of neutralising antibody waning rate at the individual patient level on the longevity of immunity remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the peak levels and dynamics of neutralising antibody waning and IgG avidity maturation over time, and correlate this with clinical parameters, cytokines, and T-cell responses. METHODS: We did a longitudinal study of patients who had recovered from COVID-19 up to day 180 post-symptom onset by monitoring changes in neutralising antibody levels using a previously validated surrogate virus neutralisation test. Changes in antibody avidities and other immune markers at different convalescent stages were determined and correlated with clinical features. Using a machine learning algorithm, temporal change in neutralising antibody levels was classified into five groups and used to predict the longevity of neutralising antibody-mediated immunity. FINDINGS: We approached 517 patients for participation in the study, of whom 288 consented for outpatient follow-up and collection of serial blood samples. 164 patients were followed up and had adequate blood samples collected for analysis, with a total of 546 serum samples collected, including 128 blood samples taken up to 180 days post-symptom onset. We identified five distinctive patterns of neutralising antibody dynamics as follows: negative, individuals who did not, at our intervals of sampling, develop neutralising antibodies at the 30% inhibition level (19 [12%] of 164 patients); rapid waning, individuals who had varying levels of neutralising antibodies from around 20 days after symptom onset, but seroreverted in less than 180 days (44 [27%] of 164 patients); slow waning, individuals who remained neutralising antibody-positive at 180 days post-symptom onset (46 [28%] of 164 patients); persistent, although with varying peak neutralising antibody levels, these individuals had minimal neutralising antibody decay (52 [32%] of 164 patients); and delayed response, a small group that showed an unexpected increase of neutralising antibodies during late convalescence (at 90 or 180 days after symptom onset; three [2%] of 164 patients). Persistence of neutralising antibodies was associated with disease severity and sustained level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. By contrast, T-cell responses were similar among the different neutralising antibody dynamics groups. On the basis of the different decay dynamics, we established a prediction algorithm that revealed a wide range of neutralising antibody longevity, varying from around 40 days to many decades. INTERPRETATION: Neutralising antibody response dynamics in patients who have recovered from COVID-19 vary greatly, and prediction of immune longevity can only be accurately determined at the individual level. Our findings emphasise the importance of public health and social measures in the ongoing pandemic outbreak response, and might have implications for longevity of immunity after vaccination. FUNDING: National Medical Research Council, Biomedical Research Council, and A*STAR, Singapore.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Cytokines , Humans , Longitudinal Studies
20.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245518, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067418

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: High-risk CXR features in COVID-19 are not clearly defined. We aimed to identify CXR features that correlate with severe COVID-19. METHODS: All confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted within the study period were screened. Those with suboptimal baseline CXR were excluded. CXRs were reviewed by three independent radiologists and opacities recorded according to zones and laterality. The primary endpoint was defined as hypoxia requiring supplemental oxygen, and CXR features were assessed for association with this endpoint to identify high-risk features. These features were then used to define criteria for a high-risk CXR, and clinical features and outcomes of patients with and without baseline high-risk CXR were compared using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: 109 patients were included. In the initial analysis of 40 patients (36.7%) with abnormal baseline CXR, presence of bilateral opacities, multifocal opacities, or any upper or middle zone opacity were associated with supplemental oxygen requirement. Of the entire cohort, 29 patients (26.6%) had a baseline CXR with at least one of these features. Having a high-risk baseline CXR was significantly associated with requiring supplemental oxygen in univariate (odds ratio 14.0, 95% confidence interval 3.90-55.60) and multivariate (adjusted odds ratio 8.38, 95% CI 2.43-28.97, P = 0.001) analyses. CONCLUSION: We identified several high-risk CXR features that are significantly associated with severe illness. The association of upper or middle zone opacities with severe illness has not been previously emphasized. Recognition of these specific high-risk CXR features is important to prioritize limited healthcare resources for sicker patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Adult , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
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