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Ann Intern Med ; 175(11): 1560-1571, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203117


BACKGROUND: To what extent the COVID-19 pandemic and its containment measures influenced mental health in the general population is still unclear. PURPOSE: To assess the trajectory of mental health symptoms during the first year of the pandemic and examine dose-response relations with characteristics of the pandemic and its containment. DATA SOURCES: Relevant articles were identified from the living evidence database of the COVID-19 Open Access Project, which indexes COVID-19-related publications from MEDLINE via PubMed, Embase via Ovid, and PsycInfo. Preprint publications were not considered. STUDY SELECTION: Longitudinal studies that reported data on the general population's mental health using validated scales and that were published before 31 March 2021 were eligible. DATA EXTRACTION: An international crowd of 109 trained reviewers screened references and extracted study characteristics, participant characteristics, and symptom scores at each timepoint. Data were also included for the following country-specific variables: days since the first case of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the stringency of governmental containment measures, and the cumulative numbers of cases and deaths. DATA SYNTHESIS: In a total of 43 studies (331 628 participants), changes in symptoms of psychological distress, sleep disturbances, and mental well-being varied substantially across studies. On average, depression and anxiety symptoms worsened in the first 2 months of the pandemic (standardized mean difference at 60 days, -0.39 [95% credible interval, -0.76 to -0.03]); thereafter, the trajectories were heterogeneous. There was a linear association of worsening depression and anxiety with increasing numbers of reported cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and increasing stringency in governmental measures. Gender, age, country, deprivation, inequalities, risk of bias, and study design did not modify these associations. LIMITATIONS: The certainty of the evidence was low because of the high risk of bias in included studies and the large amount of heterogeneity. Stringency measures and surges in cases were strongly correlated and changed over time. The observed associations should not be interpreted as causal relationships. CONCLUSION: Although an initial increase in average symptoms of depression and anxiety and an association between higher numbers of reported cases and more stringent measures were found, changes in mental health symptoms varied substantially across studies after the first 2 months of the pandemic. This suggests that different populations responded differently to the psychological stress generated by the pandemic and its containment measures. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Swiss National Science Foundation. (PROSPERO: CRD42020180049).

COVID-19 , Humans , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Lupus Sci Med ; 9(1)2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993063


OBJECTIVES: Numerous case reports have referred to new onset or flare of SLE after SARS-CoV-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines. Several observational studies showed that the short-term flare rate of SLE after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is low. However, well-controlled clinical surveys are unavailable and the medium-term impact of the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines against the flare of SLE is uncertain. Therefore, we aimed to analyse the association between vaccination and medium-term subjective and objective disease activities of SLE and flares using matched pair methods. METHODS: Altogether, 150 patients with SLE from the Kyoto Lupus Cohort were included. Patients who received two doses of the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines were 1:1 matched with unvaccinated patients based on the first vaccination date. The outcome measures were the SLE Disease Activity Index-2000 (SLEDAI-2K), the Japanese version of the SLE Symptom Checklist Questionnaire (SSC-J) and the Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment-SLEDAI flare index at 30, 60 and 90 days after vaccination. RESULTS: SLEDAI-2K levels were not significantly different in vaccinated and unvaccinated patients with SLE at 30, 60 and 90 days after the second vaccination (adjusted estimate (95% CI): 30 days: -0.46 (-1.48 to 0.56), p=0.39; 60 days: 0.38 (-0.64 to 1.40), p=0.47; 90 days: 0.40 (-0.54 to 1.34), p=0.41). Similar results were observed in the SSC-J score (adjusted estimate (95% CI), 30 days: 0.05 (-1.46 to 1.56), p=0.95; 60 days: -0.63 (-2.08 to 0.82), p=0.40; 90 days: 0.27 (-1.04 to 1.58), p=0.69) and flare index (adjusted OR (95% CI), 30 days: 0.81 (0.36 to 1.85), p=0.62; 60 days: 1.13 (0.50 to 2.54), p=0.77; 90 days: 0.85 (0.32 to 2.26), p=0.74). CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 vaccination did not significantly influence the medium-term subjective and objective disease activities or flares of SLE until 90 days after the second vaccination.

COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines