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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911722

ABSTRACT

Few data are available regarding the effectiveness of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in immunocompromised patients. Vaccination may have a suboptimal efficacy in this population, in particular if patients are exposed to anti-B-cell therapy. We report the virological and clinical characteristics of a patient with follicle center lymphoma under bimonthly maintenance therapy with obinutuzumab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. Despite three doses of BNT162b2 vaccine, the patient was infected by the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. After an initial period of clinical and molecular remission due to early therapy with sotrovimab, the patient experienced a fatal relapse sustained by the same viral strain.

2.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(6)2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911148

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-pandemic-related overload of health systems has compromised the application of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) models and infection prevention and control (IPC) programs. We aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on antimicrobial consumption (AC) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the University Hospital of Modena. A time series analysis with an autoregressive integrated moving average model was conducted from January 2015 to October 2021 to evaluate the AC in the whole hospital and the intensive care unit (ICU), the incidence density (ID) of bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to the main multidrug-resistant organisms, and of C. difficile infections (CDIs). After an initial peak during the COVID-19 period, a decrease in the trend of AC was observed, both at the hospital (CT: -1.104, p = 0.025) and ICU levels (CT: -4.47, p = 0.047), with no significant difference in the single classes. Among the Gram-negative isolates, we observed a significant increase only in the level of BSIs due to carbapenem-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CL: 1.477, 95% CI 0.130 to 2.824, p = 0.032). Considering Gram-positive bacteria, an increase in the level of BSIs due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and in the trend of CDIs were observed, though they did not reach statistical significance (CL: 0.72, 95% CI -0.039 to 1.48, p = 0.062; CT: 1.43, 95% CI -0.002 to 2.863, p = 0.051; respectively). Our findings demonstrated that the increases in AMR and AC that appeared in the first COVID-19 wave may be later controlled by restoring IPC and AS programs to pre-epidemic levels. A coordinated healthcare effort is necessary to address the longer-term impact of COVID-19 on AC to avoid irreversible consequences on AMR.

3.
Antibiotics ; 11(6):826, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1894123

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-pandemic-related overload of health systems has compromised the application of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) models and infection prevention and control (IPC) programs. We aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on antimicrobial consumption (AC) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the University Hospital of Modena. A time series analysis with an autoregressive integrated moving average model was conducted from January 2015 to October 2021 to evaluate the AC in the whole hospital and the intensive care unit (ICU), the incidence density (ID) of bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to the main multidrug-resistant organisms, and of C. difficile infections (CDIs). After an initial peak during the COVID-19 period, a decrease in the trend of AC was observed, both at the hospital (CT: −1.104, p = 0.025) and ICU levels (CT: −4.47, p = 0.047), with no significant difference in the single classes. Among the Gram-negative isolates, we observed a significant increase only in the level of BSIs due to carbapenem-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CL: 1.477, 95% CI 0.130 to 2.824, p = 0.032). Considering Gram-positive bacteria, an increase in the level of BSIs due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and in the trend of CDIs were observed, though they did not reach statistical significance (CL: 0.72, 95% CI −0.039 to 1.48, p = 0.062;CT: 1.43, 95% CI −0.002 to 2.863, p = 0.051;respectively). Our findings demonstrated that the increases in AMR and AC that appeared in the first COVID-19 wave may be later controlled by restoring IPC and AS programs to pre-epidemic levels. A coordinated healthcare effort is necessary to address the longer-term impact of COVID-19 on AC to avoid irreversible consequences on AMR.

4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687077

ABSTRACT

Safe and effective vaccines are available to face the global threat of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this article, we report on the clinical cases of two healthcare workers vaccinated with two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine who were infected by the same viral clade but had different clinical outcomes.

5.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523844

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effect of the pandemic on the disruption of a persuasive educational antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) conducted in a university hospital in southern Italy. METHODS: In March 2020, the ASP, which began in January 2017 and was carried out at different times in 10 wards, was stopped due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted an observational study with interrupted time series analysis to compare the antibiotic consumption and costs, average length of hospital stay and in-hospital mortality between 12 months before and 9 months after the interruption. RESULTS: Four medical, four surgical wards and two ICUs were included in the study, for a total of 35,921 patient days. Among the medical wards we observed after the interruption a significant increase in fluoroquinolone use, with a change in trend (CT) of 0.996, p = 0.027. In the surgical wards, we observed a significant increase in the overall consumption, with a change in level (CL) of 24.4, p = 0.005, and in the use of third and fourth generation cephalosporins (CL 4.7, p = 0.003). In two ICUs, we observed a significant increase in piperacillin/tazobactam and fluoroquinolone consumption (CT 9.28, p = 0.019, and 2.4, p = 0.047). In the wards with a duration of ASP less than 30 months, we observed a significant increase in antibiotic consumption in the use of piperacillin/tazobactam and fluoroquinolones (CT 12.9, p = 0.022: 4.12, p = 0.029; 1.004, p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: The interruption of ASP during COVID-19 led to an increase in the consumption of broad-spectrum antibiotics, particularly in surgical wards and in those with a duration of ASP less than 30 months.

6.
J Clin Med ; 10(21)2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512402

ABSTRACT

Reactivation of overt or occult HBV infection (HBVr) is a well-known, potentially life-threatening event which can occur during the course of immunosuppressive treatments. Although it has been described mainly in subjects receiving therapy for oncological or hematological diseases, the increasing use of immunosuppressant agents in non-oncological patients observed in recent years has raised concerns about the risk of reactivation in several other settings. However, few data can be found in the literature on the occurrence of HBVr in these populations, and few clear recommendations on its management have been defined. The present paper was written to provide an overview of the risk of HBV reactivation in non-neoplastic patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs, particularly for rheumatological, gastrointestinal, dermatological and neurological diseases, and for COVID-19 patients receiving immunomodulating agents; and to discuss the potential strategies for prevention and treatment of HBVr in these settings.

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