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JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2236053, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059206


Importance: The global impact of COVID-19 has led to an increased need to continuously assess disease surveillance tools. The utility of SARS-CoV-2 serologic tools in determining immunity levels across different age groups and locations in helping to quickly assess the burden of COVID-19 with significant health policy implications is unknown. Objective: To determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with respect to the age group and sex of participants. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional survey of 4904 individuals across 12 states with high and low COVID-19 disease burden in Nigeria was carried out between June 29 and August 21, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for the detection of specific SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibodies, such as the nucleocapsid protein-NCP and spike protein S1. Interviewer-administered questionnaires provided information on participants' history of disease and associated risk factors. Results: A total of 4904 individuals participated in the study (3033 were female [61.8%]; mean [SD] age, 26.7 [6.51] years). A high seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 (78.9%) was obtained. Seropositivity was consistent across the states surveyed, ranging from 69.8% in Lagos to 87.7% in Borno. There was no association between sex and seropositivity (female, 2414 [79.6%]; male, 1456 [77.8%]; P = .61); however, an association was noted between age and seropositivity, with the peak prevalence observed in participants aged 15 to 19 years (616 [83.6%]; P = .001). Similarly, loss of appetite (751 [82.3%]; P = .04) and smell (309 [84.4%]; P = .01) were associated with seropositivity. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, a high SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was obtained among the study population during the low level of vaccination at the time of the survey. Thus, there is a need for both an efficacy and antibody neutralization test study to ascertain the efficacy of the antibody detected and the potential for herd immunity in Nigeria.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
Front Public Health ; 10: 915330, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924186


The Private Sector Coalition against COVID-19 (CACOVID) was established on the 27th of March 2020 to mobilize private sector resources toward supporting the government's response to the COVID-19 pandemic. More specifically, CACOVID set out to provide leadership functions, raise public awareness, provide buy-in for COVID-19 prevention, and provide direct support to strengthen the health system's capacity to respond to the crisis. In this paper, we examine the contextual factors that shaped the private sector's engagement in the fight against the pandemic with a view to identifying progress and learning opportunities. A desk review of the existing literature and documents from relevant stakeholders (government, organized private sector, and civil society organizations) was carried out. Using both the Grindle and Thomas (1) and Husted and Salazar (2) frameworks, we identified individual characteristics (industry expertise and position, philanthropy, and personal/economic interest); the economic crises created by the pandemic; a weak health system; and the multi-sectoral nature of the response to the contextual factors that influenced public-private collaboration in tackling the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria. That is, the private sector collaborated with the government based on several interrelated contexts that confront them with issues they need to address; determine what options are feasible politically, economically, and administratively; set limits on what solutions are eventually considered; and respond to efforts to alter existing policies and institutional practices. The identified contextual factors provide learning opportunities for enhancing public-private partnership in advancing healthcare not just in Nigeria, but also in related countries in Africa and other developing countries.

COVID-19 , Private Sector , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Government , Humans , Nigeria , Pandemics
Front Public Health ; 10: 878225, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903224


As societies urbanize, their populations have become increasingly dependent on the private sector for essential services. The way the private sector responds to health emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic can determine the health and economic wellbeing of urban populations, an effect amplified for poorer communities. Here we present a qualitative document analysis of media reports and policy documents in four low resource settings-Bangladesh, Ghana, Nepal, Nigeria-between January and September 2020. The review focuses on two questions: (i) Who are the private sector actors who have engaged in the COVID-19 first wave response and what was their role?; and (ii) How have national and sub-national governments engaged in, and with, the private sector response and what have been the effects of these engagements? Three main roles of the private sector were identified in the review. (1) Providing resources to support the public health response. (2) Mitigating the financial impact of the pandemic on individuals and businesses. (3) Adjustment of services delivered by the private sector, within and beyond the health sector, to respond to pandemic-related business challenges and opportunities. The findings suggest that a combination of public-private partnerships, contracting, and regulation have been used by governments to influence private sector involvement. Government strategies to engage the private sector developed quickly, reflecting the importance of private services to populations. However, implementation of regulatory responses, especially in the health sector, has often been weak reflecting the difficulty governments have in ensuring affordable, quality private services. Lessons for future pandemics and other health emergencies include the need to ensure that essential non-pandemic health services in the government and non-government sector can continue despite elevated risks, surge capacity to minimize shortages of vital public health supplies is available, and plans are in place to ensure private workplaces remain safe and livelihoods protected.

COVID-19 , Private Sector , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergencies , Humans , Pandemics , Public-Private Sector Partnerships