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1.
eClinicalMedicine ; : 101393, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1796919

ABSTRACT

Summary Background Vaccination of lactating women against COVID-19 may protect not only themselves but also their breastfed infant through human milk. Therefore, it is important to gain insight into the human milk antibody response after immunization with the various vaccines that are currently widely used. The aim of this study is to determine and compare the antibody response in human milk following vaccination with mRNA- and vector-based vaccines up to over two months post-vaccination. Methods This prospective cohort study was conducted in the Netherlands between January 06, 2021 and July 31, 2021. Participants were recruited through social media. Human milk samples were collected longitudinally during a period of 70 days from women receiving one of the four different severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines: Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2), Moderna (mRNA-1273), Oxford/AstraZeneca (AZD1222) and Johnson&Johnson (Ad26.COV2.S). SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The area under the curve (AUC) of the Immunoglobulins A (IgA) and G (IgG) antibody response was determined over 15 and 70 days following the first vaccination and compared between the different vaccines. Findings This study enrolled 134 vaccinated lactating women of whom 97 participated the entire study period. In total, 1887 human milk samples were provided. The human milk antibody response differed between SARS-CoV-2 vaccines over the study period. The mean AUC of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA, but not IgG, in human milk over 15 days was higher after vaccination with an mRNA-based vaccine than a vector-based vaccine (AUC with respect to ground [AUCg] ± the standard error of the mean [SEM] for IgA was 6·09 ± 0·89 in the BNT162b2 group, 7·48 ± 1·03 in the mRNA-1273 group, 4·17 ± 0·73 in the AZD1222 group, and 5·71 ± 0·70 in the Ad26.COV2.S group). Over a period of 70 days, the mean AUCg of both IgA and IgG was higher after vaccination with an mRNA-based vaccine than a vector-based vaccine (AUCg ± SEM for IgA was 38·77 ± 6·51 in the BNT162b2 group, 50·13 ± 7·41 in the mRNA-1273 group, 24·12 ± 5·47 in the AZD1222 group, and 28·15 ± 6·69 in the Ad26.COV2.S group;AUCg ± SEM for IgG was 40·43 ± 2·67 in the BNT162b2 group, 37·01 ± 2·38 in the mRNA-1273 group, 16·04 ± 5·09 in the AZD1222 group, and 10·44 ± 2·50 in the Ad26.COV2.S group). Interpretation Overall, maternal vaccination during lactation with an mRNA-based vaccine resulted in higher SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses in human milk compared to vector-based vaccines. Therefore, vaccination with mRNA-based vaccines, preferably with the mRNA-1273 vaccine, might not only provide better immunological protection for the mother but also for her breastfed infant. Funding Stichting Steun Emma Kinderziekenhuis and the Amsterdam Infection and Immunity Institute (grant 24175).

2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3884, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740465

ABSTRACT

Current SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are effective, but long-term protection is threatened by the emergence of virus variants. We generated a virosome vaccine containing the Beta spike protein and compared its immunogenicity in mice to a virosome vaccine containing the original Wuhan spike. Two administrations of the virosomes induced potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies in both vaccine groups. The level of autologous neutralization in Beta-vaccinated mice was similar to the level of autologous neutralization in Wuhan-vaccinated mice. However, heterologous neutralization to the Wuhan strain in Beta-vaccinated mice was 4.7-fold lower than autologous neutralization, whereas heterologous neutralization to the Beta strain in Wuhan-vaccinated mice was reduced by only 1.9-fold compared to autologous neutralization levels. In addition, neutralizing activity against the D614G, Alpha and Delta variants was also significantly lower after Beta spike vaccination than after Wuhan spike vaccination. Our results show that Beta spike vaccination induces inferior neutralization breadth. These results are informative for programs aimed to develop broadly active SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Breath Tests , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neutralization Tests , Vaccines, Virosome/immunology , Vaccines, Virosome/therapeutic use
3.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(1): 100486, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569129

ABSTRACT

The urgent need for, but limited availability of, SARS-CoV-2 vaccines worldwide has led to widespread consideration of dose-sparing strategies. Here, we evaluate the SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses following BNT162b2 vaccination in 150 previously SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals from a population-based cohort. One week after first vaccine dose, spike protein antibody levels are 27-fold higher and neutralizing antibody titers 12-fold higher, exceeding titers of fully vaccinated SARS-CoV-2-naive controls, with minimal additional boosting after the second dose. Neutralizing antibody titers against four variants of concern increase after vaccination; however, overall neutralization breadth does not improve. Pre-vaccination neutralizing antibody titers and time since infection have the largest positive effect on titers following vaccination. COVID-19 severity and the presence of comorbidities have no discernible impact on vaccine response. In conclusion, a single dose of BNT162b2 vaccine up to 15 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection offers higher neutralizing antibody titers than 2 vaccine doses in SARS-CoV-2-naive individuals.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , /immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Treatment Outcome
4.
NPJ Vaccines ; 6(1): 146, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550286

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants that are more resistant to antibody-mediated neutralization pose a new hurdle in combating the COVID-19 pandemic. Although vaccines based on the original Wuhan sequence have been shown to be effective at preventing COVID-19, their efficacy is likely to be decreased against more neutralization-resistant variants-of-concern (VOC), in particular, the Beta variant originating in South Africa. We assessed, in mice, rabbits, and non-human primates, whether a third vaccination with experimental Wuhan-based Spike vaccines could alleviate this problem. Our data show that a third immunization improves neutralizing antibody titers against the variants-of-concern, Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), and Delta (B.1.617.2). After three vaccinations, the level of neutralization against Beta was similar to the level of neutralization against the original strain after two vaccinations, suggesting that simply providing a third immunization could nullify the reduced activity of current vaccines against VOC.

5.
Elife ; 102021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1529013

ABSTRACT

Current SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are losing efficacy against emerging variants and may not protect against future novel coronavirus outbreaks, emphasizing the need for more broadly protective vaccines. To inform the development of a pan-coronavirus vaccine, we investigated the presence and specificity of cross-reactive antibodies against the spike (S) proteins of human coronaviruses (hCoV) after SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. We found an 11- to 123-fold increase in antibodies binding to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV as well as a 2- to 4-fold difference in antibodies binding to seasonal hCoVs in COVID-19 convalescent sera compared to pre-pandemic healthy donors, with the S2 subdomain of the S protein being the main target for cross-reactivity. In addition, we detected cross-reactive antibodies to all hCoV S proteins after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in macaques and humans, with higher responses for hCoV more closely related to SARS-CoV-2. These findings support the feasibility of and provide guidance for development of a pan-coronavirus vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Macaca , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Principal Component Analysis , Protein Domains/immunology , Serum/immunology , Serum/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Tetanus Toxoid/immunology , /immunology
6.
EBioMedicine ; 72: 103589, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To optimise the use of available SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, some advocate delaying second vaccination for individuals infected within six months. We studied whether post-vaccination immune response is equally potent in individuals infected over six months prior to vaccination. METHODS: We tested serum IgG binding to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and neutralising capacity in 110 healthcare workers, before and after both BNT162b2 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccinations. We compared outcomes between participants with more recent infection (n = 18, median two months, IQR 2-3), with infection-vaccination interval over six months (n = 19, median nine months, IQR 9-10), and to those not previously infected (n = 73). FINDINGS: Both recently and earlier infected participants showed comparable humoral immune responses after a single mRNA vaccination, while exceeding those of previously uninfected persons after two vaccinations with 2.5 fold (p = 0.003) and 3.4 fold (p < 0.001) for binding antibody levels, and 6.4 and 7.2 fold for neutralisation titres, respectively (both p < 0.001). The second vaccine dose yielded no further substantial improvement of the humoral response in the previously infected participants (0.97 fold, p = 0.92), while it was associated with a 4 fold increase in antibody binding levels and 18 fold increase in neutralisation titres in previously uninfected participants (both p < 0.001). Adjustment for potential confounding of sex and age did not affect these findings. INTERPRETATION: Delaying the second vaccination in individuals infected up to ten months prior may constitute a more efficient use of limited vaccine supplies. FUNDING: Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development ZonMw; Corona Research Fund Amsterdam UMC; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands , Prospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
7.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0073121, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410324

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients produce circulating and mucosal antibodies. In adults, specific saliva antibodies have been detected. Nonetheless, seroprevalence is routinely investigated, while little attention has been paid to mucosal antibodies. We therefore assessed SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody prevalence in serum and saliva in children in the Netherlands. We assessed SARS-CoV-2 antibody prevalence in serum and saliva of 517 children attending medical services in the Netherlands (irrespective of COVID-19 exposure) from April to October 2020. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S), receptor binding domain (RBD), and nucleocapsid (N)-specific IgG and IgA were evaluated with an exploratory Luminex assay in serum and saliva and with the Wantai SARS-CoV-2 RBD total antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in serum. Using the Wantai assay, the RBD-specific antibody prevalence in serum was 3.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]. 1.9 to 5.3%). With the Luminex assay, we detected heterogeneity between antibodies for S, RBD, and N antigens, as IgG and IgA prevalence ranged between 3.6 and 4.6% in serum and between 0 and 4.4% in saliva. The Luminex assay also revealed differences between serum and saliva, with SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG present in saliva but not in serum for 1.5 to 2.7% of all children. Using multiple antigen assays, the IgG prevalence for at least two out of three antigens (S, RBD, or N) in serum or saliva can be calculated as 3.8% (95% CI, 2.3 to 5.6%). Our study displays the heterogeneity of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response in children and emphasizes the additional value of saliva antibody detection and the combined use of different antigens. IMPORTANCE Comprehending humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2, including in children, is crucial for future public health and vaccine strategies. Others have suggested that mucosal antibody measurement could be an important and more convenient tool to evaluate humoral immunity compared to circulating antibodies. Nonetheless, seroprevalence is routinely investigated, while little attention has been paid to mucosal antibodies. We show the heterogeneity of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, in terms of both antigen specificity and differences between circulating and mucosal antibodies, emphasizing the additional value of saliva antibody detection next to detection of antibodies in serum.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Saliva/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Prevalence , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies
8.
Sci Adv ; 7(36): eabj5365, 2021 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403006

ABSTRACT

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) pose a threat to human immunity induced by natural infection and vaccination. We assessed the recognition of three VOCs (B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1) in cohorts of COVID-19 convalescent patients (n = 69) and Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine recipients (n = 50). Spike binding and neutralization against all three VOCs were substantially reduced in most individuals, with the largest four- to sevenfold reduction in neutralization being observed against B.1.351. While hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and vaccinees maintained sufficient neutralizing titers against all three VOCs, 39% of nonhospitalized patients exhibited no detectable neutralization against B.1.351. Moreover, monoclonal neutralizing antibodies show sharp reductions in their binding kinetics and neutralizing potential to B.1.351 and P.1 but not to B.1.1.7. These data have implications for the degree to which pre-existing immunity can protect against subsequent infection with VOCs and informs policy makers of susceptibility to globally circulating SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.

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