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Infection ; 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787897


PURPOSE: To investigate antimicrobial use and primary and nosocomial infections in hospitalized COVID-19 patients to provide data for guidance of antimicrobial therapy. METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study conducted at Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, including patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2-infection between March and November 2020. RESULTS: 309 patients were included, 231 directly admitted and 78 transferred from other centres. Antimicrobial therapy was initiated in 62/231 (26.8%) of directly admitted and in 44/78 (56.4%) of transferred patients. The rate of microbiologically confirmed primary co-infections was 4.8% (11/231). Although elevated in most COVID-19 patients, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin levels were higher in patients with primary co-infections than in those without (median CRP 110 mg/l, IQR 51-222 vs. 36, IQR 11-101, respectively; p < 0.0001). Nosocomial bloodstream and respiratory infections occurred in 47/309 (15.2%) and 91/309 (29.4%) of patients, respectively, and were associated with need for invasive mechanical ventilation (OR 45.6 95%CI 13.7-151.8 and 104.6 95%CI 41.5-263.5, respectively), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (OR 14.3 95%CI 6.5-31.5 and 16.5 95%CI 6.5-41.6, respectively), and haemodialysis (OR 31.4 95%CI 13.9-71.2 and OR 22.3 95%CI 11.2-44.2, respectively). The event of any nosocomial infection was significantly associated with in-hospital death (33/99 (33.3%) with nosocomial infection vs. 23/210 (10.9%) without, OR 4.1 95%CI 2.2-7.3). CONCLUSIONS: Primary co-infections are rare, yet antimicrobial use was frequent, mostly based on clinical worsening and elevated inflammation markers without clear evidence for co-infection. More reliable diagnostic prospects may help to reduce overtreatment. Rates of nosocomial infections are substantial in severely ill patients on organ support and associated with worse patient outcome.

Infection ; 48(4): 619-626, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597401


PURPOSE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide causing a global health emergency. Pa-COVID-19 aims to provide comprehensive data on clinical course, pathophysiology, immunology and outcome of COVID-19, to identify prognostic biomarkers, clinical scores, and therapeutic targets for improved clinical management and preventive interventions. METHODS: Pa-COVID-19 is a prospective observational cohort study of patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection treated at Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. We collect data on epidemiology, demography, medical history, symptoms, clinical course, and pathogen testing and treatment. Systematic, serial blood sampling will allow deep molecular and immunological phenotyping, transcriptomic profiling, and comprehensive biobanking. Longitudinal data and sample collection during hospitalization will be supplemented by long-term follow-up. RESULTS: Outcome measures include the WHO clinical ordinal scale on day 15 and clinical, functional, and health-related quality-of-life assessments at discharge and during follow-up. We developed a scalable dataset to (i) suit national standards of care, (ii) facilitate comprehensive data collection in medical care facilities with varying resources, and (iii) allow for rapid implementation of interventional trials based on the standardized study design and data collection. We propose this scalable protocol as blueprint for harmonized data collection and deep phenotyping in COVID-19 in Germany. CONCLUSION: We established a basic platform for harmonized, scalable data collection, pathophysiological analysis, and deep phenotyping of COVID-19, which enables rapid generation of evidence for improved medical care and identification of candidate therapeutic and preventive strategies. The electronic database accredited for interventional trials allows fast trial implementation for candidate therapeutic agents. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered at the German registry for clinical studies (DRKS00021688).

Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Registries , Berlin/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Biological Specimen Banks , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Management , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Phenotype , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , World Health Organization