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1.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524170

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE), but also for bleeding. We previously derived a prognostic score including four variables (elevated D-dimer, elevated ferritin, critical illness, and therapeutic-dose anticoagulation) that identified those at increased risk for major bleeding. METHODS: We aimed to validate the score in a subsequent cohort of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 receiving standard-, intermediate- or therapeutic doses of VTE prophylaxis. We evaluated its capacity to predict major bleeding, non-major bleeding, and bleeding-related death. RESULTS: The cohort included 972 patients from 29 hospitals, of whom 280 (29%) received standard-; 412 (42%) intermediate-, 157 (16%) therapeutic doses of VTE prophylaxis and 123 (13%) other drugs. Median duration of prophylaxis was 14.7 ± 10.3 days. Major bleeding occurred in 65 patients (6.7%) and non-major bleeding in 67 (6.9%). Thirty patients with major bleeding (46%) died within the first 30 days after bleeding. The prognostic score identified 203 patients (21%) at very low risk, 285 (29%) at low risk, 263 (27%) intermediate-risk and 221 (23%) at high risk for bleeding. Major bleeding occurred in 1.0%, 2.1%, 8.7% and 15.4% of the patients, respectively. Non-major bleeding occurred in 0.5%, 3.5%, 9.5% and 14.2%, respectively. The c-statistics was: 0.74 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.68-0.79) for major bleeding, 0.73 (95% CI: 0.67-0.78) for non-major bleeding and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.76-0.87) for bleeding-related death. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized patients with COVID-19, we validated that a prognostic score including 4 easily available items may identify those at increased risk for bleeding.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hemorrhage/etiology , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Female , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
2.
Eur J Haematol ; 106(5): 716-723, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091053

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 predisposes patients to a higher risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), although the extent of these implications is unclear and the risk of bleeding has been poorly evaluated. To date, no studies have reported long-term outcomes of patients with COVID-19 and VTE. METHOD: Prospective observational study to evaluate long-term (90 days or more) outcomes of patients diagnosed with VTE (PE, DVT of the extremities, or both) in the setting of COVID-19. The main outcome of the study was a compound of major bleeding and death. RESULTS: The study comprised 100 patients (mean age 65 ± 13.9 years). At the time of VTE diagnosis, 66% patients were hospitalized, 34.8% of them in the ICU. Mean follow-up was 97.9 ± 23.3 days. During the study period, 24% patients died and median time to death was 12 (IQR: 2.25-20.75) days, 11% patients had major bleeding and median time to event was 12 (IQR: 5-16) days. The cause of death was PE in 5% and bleeding in 2% of patients. There were no VTE recurrences. The main study outcome occurred in 29% patients. Risk of death or major bleeding was independently associated with ICU admission (HR 12.2; 95% CI 3.0-48.3), thrombocytopenia (HR 4.5; 95% CI 1.2-16.5), and cancer (HR 21.6; 95% CI 1.8-259). CONCLUSION: In patients with COVID-19 and VTE, mortality and major bleeding were high and almost a third of deaths were VTE-related. The majority of complications occurred in the first 30 days. ICU admission, thrombocytopenia, and cancer are risk factors for poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hemorrhage/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Hemorrhage/mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology , Time Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
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