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2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 63, 2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632640

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To compare differences in the probability of COVID-19-related death between native Italians and immigrants hospitalised with COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective study of prospectively collected data was conducted at the ASST Fatebenefratelli-Sacco Hospital in Milan, Italy, between 21 February and 31 November 2020. Uni- and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the impact of the patients' origin on the probability of COVID-19-related death. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 1,179 COVID-19 patients: 921 Italians (78.1%) and 258 immigrants (21.9%) who came from Latin America (99, 38%), Asia (72, 28%), Africa (50, 19%) and central/eastern Europe (37, 14%). The Italians were significantly older than the immigrants (median age 70 years, interquartile range (IQR) 58-79 vs 51 years, IQR 41-60; p < 0.001), and more frequently had one or more co-morbidities (79.1% vs 53.9%; p < 0.001). Mortality was significantly greater among the Italians than the immigrants as a whole (26.6% vs 12.8%; p < 0.001), and significantly greater among the immigrants from Latin America than among those from Asia, Africa or central/eastern Europe (21% vs 8%, 6% and 8%; p = 0.016). Univariable analysis showed that the risk of COVID-19-related death was lower among the immigrants (hazard ratio [HR] 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.30-0.63; p < 0.0001], but the risk of Latin American immigrants did not significantly differ from that of the Italians (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.47-1.15; p = 0.183). However, after adjusting for potential confounders, multivariable analysis showed that there was no difference in the risk of death between the immigrants and the Italians (adjusted HR [aHR] 1.04, 95% CI 0.70-1.55; p = 0.831), but being of Latin American origin was independently associated with an increased risk of death (aHR 1.95, 95% CI 1.17-3.23; p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: Mortality was lower among the immigrants hospitalised with COVID-19 than among their Italian counterparts, but this difference disappeared after adjusting for confounders. However, the increased risk of death among immigrants of Latin American origin suggests that COVID-19 information and prevention initiatives need to be strengthened in this sub-population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Aged , Hospitals , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 88(3): 299-304, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574388

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on HIV suppression rates in people living with HIV (PLWH) attending a large Italian HIV clinic. SETTING: The HIV outpatient clinic of the Infectious Diseases Department of Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan, Italy, which serves more than 5000 PLWH per year. METHODS: A before and after quasi-experimental study design was used to make a retrospective assessment of the monthly trend of HIV-RNA determinations of ≥50 among the PLWH attending our clinic, with "before" being the period from January 1, 2016 to February 20, 2020, and "after" being the period from February 21, 2020 to December 31, 2020 (the COVID-19 period). Interrupted time series analysis was used to evaluate any changes in the trend. RESULTS: During the study period, 70,349 HIV-RNA viral load determinations were made, and the percentage of HIV-RNA viral load determinations of <50 copies/mL increased from 88.4% in 2016 to 93.2% in 2020 (P < 0.0001). There was a significant monthly trend toward a decrease in the number of HIV-RNA determinations of ≥50 copies/mL before the pandemic (ß -0.084; standard error 0.015; P < 0.001), and this did not significantly change after it started (ß -0.039, standard error 0.161; P = 0.811). CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of viral suppression was maintained among the PLWH referring to our clinic, despite the structural barriers raised by the COVID-19 pandemic. The use of simplified methods of delivering care (such as teleconsultations and multiple antiretroviral treatment prescriptions) may have contributed to preserving this continuum.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Delivery of Health Care/methods , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1 , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load/drug effects
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27418, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501202

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The occurrence of COVID-19 pandemic had a significant negative effect on health care systems over the last year. Health care providers were forced to focus mainly on COVID-19 patients, neglecting in many cases equally important diseases, both acute and chronic. Therefore, also screening and diagnostic strategies for HIV could have been significantly impaired.This retrospective, multicenter, observational study aimed at assessing the number and characteristics of new HIV/AIDS diagnoses during COVID-19 pandemic in Italy and compared characteristics of people living with HIV at diagnosis between pre- and post-COVID-19 era (2019 vs 2020).Our results showed a significant reduction of HIV diagnoses during pandemic. By contrast, people living with HIV during pandemic were older and were diagnosed in earlier stage of disease (considering CD4+ T cell count) compared to those who were diagnosed the year before. Moreover, there was a significant decrease of new HIV diagnoses among men who have sex with men, probably for the impact of social distancing and restriction applied by the Italian Government. Late presentation incidence, if numbers in 2020 were lower than those in 2019, is still an issue.Routinely performing HIV testing in patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection is identifying and linking to care underdiagnosed people living with HIV earlier. Thus, combined tests (HIV and SARS-CoV-2) should be implemented in patients with SARS-CoV-2 symptoms overlapping HIV's ones. Lastly, our results lastly showed how urgent implementation of a national policy for HIV screening is necessary.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Adult , CD4 Lymphocyte Count/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mass Screening/organization & administration , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463680

ABSTRACT

The northern Italian region of Lombardy has been severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic since its arrival in Europe. However, there are only a few published studies of the possible influence of social and cultural factors on its prevalence in the general population. This cross-sectional study of the San Siro social-housing neighbourhood of Milan, which was carried about between 23 December 2020 and 19 February 2021, found that the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibodies in the population as a whole was 12.4% (253/2044 inhabitants), but there was a more than two-fold difference between non-Italians and Italians (23.3% vs. 9.1%). Multivariable analyses showed that being more than 50 years old, living in crowded accommodation, being a non-Italian, and having a low educational level were associated with higher odds of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test, whereas a higher level of education, retirement, and being a former or current cigarette smoker were inversely associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our findings are in line with previous observations indicating that a lower socio-economic status may be a risk factor for COVID-19 and show that non-Italians are disproportionately affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection. This suggests that public health policies should focus more on disadvantaged populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Services Accessibility , Housing , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence
7.
Pharmacol Res ; 158: 104931, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318940

ABSTRACT

Italy was the first European country hit by the COVID-19 pandemic and has the highest number of recorded COVID-19 deaths in Europe. This prospective cohort study of the correlates of the risk of death in COVID-19 patients was conducted at the Infectious Diseases and Intensive Care units of Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan, Italy. The clinical characteristics of all the COVID-19 patients hospitalised in the early days of the epidemic (21 February -19 March 2020) were recorded upon admission, and the time-dependent probability of death was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method (censored as of 20 April 2020). Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the factors independently associated with the risk of death. Forty-eight (20.6 %) of the 233 patients followed up for a median of 40 days (interquartile range 33-47) died during the follow-up. Most were males (69.1 %) and their median age was 61 years (IQR 50-72). The time-dependent probability of death was 19.7 % (95 % CI 14.6-24.9 %) 30 days after hospital admission. Age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.08, 95 % CI 1.48-2.92 per ten years more) and obesity (aHR 3.04, 95 % CI 1.42-6.49) were independently associated with an increased risk of death, which was also associated with critical disease (aHR 8.26, 95 % CI 1.41-48.29), C-reactive protein levels (aHR 1.17, 95 % CI 1.02-1.35 per 50 mg/L more) and creatinine kinase levels above 185 U/L (aHR 2.58, 95 % CI 1.37-4.87) upon admission. Case-fatality rate of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the early days of the Italian epidemic was about 20 %. Our study adds evidence to the notion that older age, obesity and more advanced illness are factors associated to an increased risk of death among patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Pharmacol Res ; 158: 104899, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318934

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is causing an increasing number of deaths worldwide because no effective treatment is currently available. Remdesivir has shown in vitro activity against coronaviruses and is a possible antiviral treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection. This prospective (compassionate), open-label study of remdesivir, which was conducted at Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan, Italy, between February 23 and March 20, 2020, involved patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia aged ≥18 years undergoing mechanical ventilation or with an oxygen saturation level of ≤94 % in air or a National Early Warning Score 2 of ≥4. The primary outcome was the change in clinical status based on a 7-category ordinal scale (1 = not hospitalised, resuming normal daily activities; 7 = deceased). The 35 patients enrolled from February 23 to March 20, 2020, included 18 in intensive care unit (ICU), and 17 in our infectious diseases ward (IDW). The 10-day course of remdesivir was completed by 22 patients (63 %) and discontinued by 13, of whom eight (22.8 %) discontinued because of adverse events. The median follow-up was 39 days (IQR 25-44). At day 28, 14 (82.3 %) patients from IDW were discharged, two were still hospitalized and one died (5.9 %), whereas in ICU 6 (33.3 %) were discharged, 8 (44.4 %) patients died, three (16.7 %) were still mechanically ventilated and one (5.6 %) was improved but still hospitalized. Hypertransaminasemia and acute kidney injury were the most frequent severe adverse events observed (42.8 % and 22.8 % of the cases, respectively). Our data suggest that remdesivir can benefit patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia hospitalised outside ICU where clinical outcome was better and adverse events are less frequently observed. Ongoing randomised controlled trials will clarify its real efficacy and safety, who to treat, and when.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Betacoronavirus , Compassionate Use Trials/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Transaminases/blood , Treatment Outcome
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4597-4602, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263097

ABSTRACT

Biological sex could affect the natural history of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. We enrolled all COVID-19 patients admitted to two COVID-19 hospitals in Milan in a prospective observational study. The primary outcome was death during the study period and the secondary outcome was critical disease at hospital admission. The association(s) between clinically relevant, noncollinear variables, and the primary outcome was assessed with uni- and multivariable Logistic regression models. A total of 520 patients were hospitalized of whom 349 (67%) were males with a median age 61 (interquartile range: 50-72). A higher proportion of males presented critically ill when compared to females (30.1% vs. 18.7%, p < .046). Death occurred in 86 (24.6%) males and 27 (15.8%) females (p = .024). In multivariable analysis age (per 10 years more) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.83 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.42-2.35], p < .0001), obesity (AOR: 2.17 [95% CI: 1.10-4.31], p = .026), critical disease at hospital admission (AOR 6.34 [95% CI: 3.50-11.48], p < .0001) were independently associated to higher odds of death whereas gender was not. In conclusion, a higher proportion of males presented critically ill at hospital admission. Age, critical disease at hospital admission, obesity, anemia, D-dimer, estimated glomerular filtration rate, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase predicted death in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Sex Ratio , Age Factors , Aged , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1421-1427, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196443

ABSTRACT

As it has been shown that lopinavir (LPV) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have in vitro activity against coronaviruses, they were used to treat COVID-19 during the first wave of the epidemic in Lombardy, Italy. To compare the rate of clinical improvement between those who started LPV/ritonavir (LPV/r)+HCQ within 5 days of symptom onset (early treatment, ET) and those who started later (delayed treatment, DT). This was a retrospective intent-to-treat analysis of the hospitalized patients who started LPV/r + HCQ between 21 February and 20 March 2020. The association between the timing of treatment and the probability of 30-day mortality was assessed using univariable and multivariable logistic models. The study involved 172 patients: 43 (25%) in the ET and 129 (75%) in the DT group. The rate of clinical improvement increased over time to 73.3% on day 30, without any significant difference between the two groups (Gray's test P = .213). After adjusting for potentially relevant clinical variables, there was no significant association between the timing of the start of treatment and the probability of 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] ET vs DT = 1.45, 95% confidence interval 0.50-4.19). Eight percent of the patients discontinued the treatment becausebecause of severe gastrointestinal disorders attributable to LPV/r. The timing of the start of LPV/r + HCQ treatment does not seem to affect the clinical course of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Together with the severe adverse events attributable to LPV/r, this raises concerns about the benefit of using this combination to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Aged , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2276-2278, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153165

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the clinical outcomes of patients with human immunodeficiency virus infected with SARS-CoV-2. We describe 47 patients referred to our hospital between 21 February and 16 April 2020 with proven/probable COVID-19, 45 (96%) of whom fully recovered and 2 who died.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , HIV Infections/complications , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4597-4602, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130627

ABSTRACT

Biological sex could affect the natural history of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. We enrolled all COVID-19 patients admitted to two COVID-19 hospitals in Milan in a prospective observational study. The primary outcome was death during the study period and the secondary outcome was critical disease at hospital admission. The association(s) between clinically relevant, noncollinear variables, and the primary outcome was assessed with uni- and multivariable Logistic regression models. A total of 520 patients were hospitalized of whom 349 (67%) were males with a median age 61 (interquartile range: 50-72). A higher proportion of males presented critically ill when compared to females (30.1% vs. 18.7%, p < .046). Death occurred in 86 (24.6%) males and 27 (15.8%) females (p = .024). In multivariable analysis age (per 10 years more) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.83 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.42-2.35], p < .0001), obesity (AOR: 2.17 [95% CI: 1.10-4.31], p = .026), critical disease at hospital admission (AOR 6.34 [95% CI: 3.50-11.48], p < .0001) were independently associated to higher odds of death whereas gender was not. In conclusion, a higher proportion of males presented critically ill at hospital admission. Age, critical disease at hospital admission, obesity, anemia, D-dimer, estimated glomerular filtration rate, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase predicted death in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Sex Ratio , Age Factors , Aged , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
15.
Drugs Aging ; 38(4): 341-346, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1107914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are often elderly, with comorbidities, and receiving polypharmacy, all of which are known factors for potentially severe drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and the prescription of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the risk of DDIs and PIMs in COVID-19 patients at hospital discharge. METHOD: Patients with a proven diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection who were hospitalized between 21 February and 30 April 2020, treated with at least two drugs, and with available information regarding pharmacological treatments upon admission and at discharge were considered. The appropriateness of drug prescriptions was assessed using INTERcheck®. RESULTS: A significant increase in the prescription of proton pump inhibitors and heparins was found when comparing admission with hospital discharge (from 24 to 33% [p < 0.05] and from 1 to 17% [p < 0.01], respectively). The increased prescription of heparins at discharge resulted in a highly significant increase in the potentially severe DDIs mediated by this class of drugs. 51% of COVID-19 patients aged > 65 years had at least one PIM upon admission, with an insignificant increment at discharge (58%). CONCLUSION: An increased number of prescribed drugs was observed in COVID-19 patients discharged from our hospital. The addition of heparins is appropriate according to the current literature, while the use of proton pump inhibitors is more controversial. Particular attention should be paid to the risk of bleeding complications linked to heparin-based DDIs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Drug Interactions , Drug Prescriptions , Female , Humans , Male , Patient Discharge , Potentially Inappropriate Medication List
17.
Occup Environ Med ; 2021 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066929

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk of developing SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this single-centre prospective study was to evaluate the trend of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in HCWs working at the primary referral centre for infectious diseases and bioemergencies (eg, COVID-19) in Northern Italy and investigate the factors associated with seroconversion. METHODS: Six hundred and seventy-nine HCW volunteers were tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies three times between 4 March and 27 May 2020 and completed a questionnaire covering COVID-19 exposure, symptoms and personal protective equipment (PPE) training and confidence at each time. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence rose from 3/679 to 26/608 (adjusted prevalence: 0.5%, 95% CI 0.1 to 1.7% and 5.4%, 95% CI 3.6 to 7.9, respectively) between the first two time points and then stabilised, in line with the curve of the COVID-19 epidemic in Milan. From the first time point, 61.6% of the HCWs had received training in the use of PPE and 17 (61.5%) of those who proved to be seropositive reported symptoms compatible with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Contacts with ill relatives or friends and self-reported symptoms were independently associated with an increased likelihood of seroconversion (p<0.0001 for both), whereas there was no significant association with professional exposure. CONCLUSION: The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among the HCWs at our COVID-19 referral hospital was low at the time of the peak of the epidemic. The seroconversions were mainly attributable to extrahospital contacts, probably because the hospital readily adopted effective infection control measures. The relatively high number of asymptomatic seropositive HCWs highlights the need to promptly identify and isolate potentially infectious HCWs.

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