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1.
Transplant Direct ; 8(2): e1286, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627265

ABSTRACT

Background: The risk of donor-derived severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in solid organ (heart, lung, liver, kidney, pancreas, and intestine) transplant recipients is poorly understood. Since hematogenous transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has not been documented to date, nonlung solid organs might be suitable for transplantation since they likely portend a low risk of viral transmission. Methods: Abdominal solid organs from SARS-CoV-2-infected donors were transplanted into uninfected recipients. Results: Between April 18, 2021, and October 30, 2021, we performed transplants of 2 livers, 1 simultaneous liver and kidney, 1 kidney, and 1 simultaneous kidney and pancreas from SARS-CoV-2-infected donors into 5 uninfected recipients. None of the recipients developed SARS-CoV-2 infection or coronavirus disease 2019, and when tested, allograft biopsies showed no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Conclusions: Transplanting nonlung organs from SARS-CoV-2-infected donors into uninfected recipients demonstrated no evidence of virus transmission.

2.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(Supplement_1):S29-S29, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1569742

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe COVID19 pneumonia results from a hyperinflammatory immune response (cytokine storm, CS), characterized by GM CSF mediated activation and trafficking of myeloid cells, leading to elevation of downstream inflammatory chemokines (MCP1, IL8, IP10), cytokines (IL6, IL1), and other markers of systemic inflammation (CRP, D dimer, ferritin). CS leads to fever, hypotension, coagulopathy, respiratory failure, ARDS, and death. Lenzilumab is a novel Humaneered anti-human GM CSF monoclonal antibody that directly binds GM CSF and prevents signaling through its receptor. The LIVE AIR Phase 3 randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial investigated the efficacy and safety of lenzilumab to assess the potential for lenzilumab to improve the likelihood of ventilator free survival (referred to herein as survival without ventilation, SWOV), beyond standard supportive care, in hospitalized subjects with severe COVID-19. METHODS: Subjects with COVID-19 (n=520), >18 years <94% oxygen saturation on room air and/or requiring supplemental oxygen, but not invasive mechanical ventilation, were randomized to receive lenzilumab (600 mg, n=261) or placebo (n=259) via three intravenous infusions administered 8 hours apart. Subjects were followed through Day 28 following treatment. RESULTS: Baseline demographics were comparable between the two treatment groups: male, 64.7%;mean age, 60.5 years;mean BMI, 32.5 kg/m2;mean CRP, 98.36 mg/L;CRP was <150 mg/L in 77.9% of subjects. The most common comorbidities were obesity (55.1%), diabetes (53.4%), chronic kidney disease (14.0%), and coronary artery disease (13.6%). Subjects received steroids (93.7%), remdesivir (72.4%), or both (69.1%). Lenzilumab improved the likelihood of SWOV by 54% in the mITT population (HR: 1.54;95% CI: 1.02 to 2.31, p=0.041) and by 90% in the ITT population (HR: 1.90;1.02 to 3.52, nominal p=0.043) compared to placebo. SWOV also relatively improved by 92% in subjects who received both corticosteroids and remdesivir (1.92;1.20 to 3.07, nominal p=0.0067);by 2.96-fold in subjects with CRP<150 mg/L and age <85 years (2.96;1.63 to 5.37, nominal p=0.0003);and by 88% in subjects hospitalized <2 days prior to randomization (1.88;1.13 to 3.12, nominal p=0.015). Survival was improved by 2.17-fold in subjects with CRP<150 mg/L and age <85 years (2.17;1.04 to 4.54, nominal p=0.040). CONCLUSION: Lenzilumab significantly improved SWOV in hospitalized, hypoxic subjects with COVID-19 pneumonia over and above treatment with remdesivir and/or corticosteroids. Subjects with CRP<150 mg/L and age <85 years demonstrated an improvement in survival and had the greatest benefit from lenzilumab. NCT04351152

3.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):29-29, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564907

ABSTRACT

Background Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) often results from the immune-mediated cytokine storm, triggered by granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), potentially leading to respiratory failure and death. Lenzilumab, a novel anti-human GM-CSF monoclonal antibody, neutralizes GM-CSF and demonstrated potential to improve clinical outcomes in a matched case-cohort study of patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. This Phase 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigated the efficacy and safety of lenzilumab to improve the likelihood of survival without invasive mechanical ventilation (SWOV), beyond available treatments. Methods Hypoxic patients, hospitalized with COVID-19 (n=520), requiring supplemental oxygen, but not invasive mechanical ventilation, were randomized on Day 0 to receive lenzilumab (1800mg, n=261) or placebo (n=259), and available treatments, including remdesivir and/or corticosteroids;and were followed through Day 28. Results Baseline demographics were comparable between groups: male, 64.7%;mean age, 60.5 years;median CRP, 79.0 mg/L. Patients across both groups received steroids (93.7%), remdesivir (72.4%), or both (69.1%). Lenzilumab improved the primary endpoint, likelihood of SWOV in the mITT population, by 1.54-fold (HR: 1.54;95%CI: 1.02-2.32, p=0.0403). Lenzilumab improved SWOV by 1.91-fold (nominal p=0.0073) and 1.92-fold (nominal p=0.0067) in patients receiving remdesivir or remdesivir and corticosteroids, respectively. A key secondary endpoint of incidence of IMV, ECMO or death was also improved in patients receiving remdesivir (p=0.020) or remdesivir and corticosteroids (p=0.0180). Treatment-emergent serious adverse events were similar across both groups. Conclusion Lenzilumab significantly improved SWOV in hypoxic COVID-19 patients upon hospitalization, with the greatest benefit observed in patients receiving treatment with remdesivir and corticosteroids. NCT04351152 Disclosures Zelalem Temesgem, MD, Humanigen, Inc (Grant/Research Support) Jason Baker, MD, Humanigen, Inc (Grant/Research Support) Christopher Polk, MD, Atea (Research Grant or Support)Gilead (Advisor or Review Panel member, Research Grant or Support)Humanigen (Research Grant or Support)Regeneron (Research Grant or Support) Claudia R. Libertin, MD, Gilead (Grant/Research Support) Colleen F. Kelley, MD, MPH, Gilead Sciences (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support;Moderna (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support;Novavax (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support;Viiv (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support Vincent Marconi, MD, Bayer (Consultant, Scientific Research Study Investigator)Eli Lilly (Consultant, Scientific Research Study Investigator)Gilead Sciences (Consultant, Scientific Research Study Investigator)ViiV (Consultant, Scientific Research Study Investigator) Victoria Catterson, PhD, Humanigen, Inc (Consultant) William Aronstein, MD, PhD, Humanigen, Inc (Consultant) Cameron Durrant, MD, Humanigen, Inc (Employee) Dale Chappell, MD, Humanigen, Inc (Employee) Omar Ahmed, PharmD, Humanigen, Inc (Employee) Gabrielle Chappell, MSc, Humanigen, Inc (Consultant) Andrew Badley, M.D., AbbVie (Consultant) for the LIVE-AIR Study Group, n/a, Humanigen, Inc (Grant/Research Support)

4.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(3): 237-246, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550165

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of COVID-19 includes immune-mediated hyperinflammation, which could potentially lead to respiratory failure and death. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is among cytokines that contribute to the inflammatory processes. Lenzilumab, a GM-CSF neutralising monoclonal antibody, was investigated in the LIVE-AIR trial to assess its efficacy and safety in treating COVID-19 beyond available treatments. METHODS: In LIVE-AIR, a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, hospitalised adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia not requiring invasive mechanical ventilation were recruited from 29 sites in the USA and Brazil and were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive three intravenous doses of lenzilumab (600 mg per dose) or placebo delivered 8 h apart. All patients received standard supportive care, including the use of remdesivir and corticosteroids. Patients were stratified at randomisation by age and disease severity. The primary endpoint was survival without invasive mechanical ventilation to day 28 in the modified intention-to-treat population (mITT), comprising all randomised participants who received at least one dose of study drug under the documented supervision of the principal investigator or sub-investigator. Adverse events were assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04351152, and is completed. FINDINGS: Patients were enrolled from May 5, 2020, until Jan 27, 2021. 528 patients were screened, of whom 520 were randomly assigned and included in the intention-to-treat population. 479 of these patients (n=236, lenzilumab; n=243, placebo) were included in the mITT analysis for the primary outcome. Baseline demographics were similar between groups. 311 (65%) participants were males, mean age was 61 (SD 14) years at baseline, and median C-reactive protein concentration was 79 (IQR 41-137) mg/L. Steroids were administered to 449 (94%) patients and remdesivir to 347 (72%) patients; 331 (69%) patients received both treatments. Survival without invasive mechanical ventilation to day 28 was achieved in 198 (84%; 95% CI 79-89) participants in the lenzilumab group and in 190 (78%; 72-83) patients in the placebo group, and the likelihood of survival was greater with lenzilumab than placebo (hazard ratio 1·54; 95% CI 1·02-2·32; p=0·040). 68 (27%) of 255 patients in the lenzilumab group and 84 (33%) of 257 patients in the placebo group experienced at least one adverse event that was at least grade 3 in severity based on CTCAE criteria. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events of grade 3 or higher were related to respiratory disorders (26%) and cardiac disorders (6%) and none led to death. INTERPRETATION: Lenzilumab significantly improved survival without invasive mechanical ventilation in hospitalised patients with COVID-19, with a safety profile similar to that of placebo. The added value of lenzilumab beyond other immunomodulators used to treat COVID-19 alongside steroids remains unknown. FUNDING: Humanigen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
6.
J Clin Invest ; 131(19)2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDClinical data to support the use of bamlanivimab for the treatment of outpatients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) are needed.METHODS2335 Patients who received single-dose bamlanivimab infusion between November 12, 2020, and February 17, 2021, were compared with a propensity-matched control of 2335 untreated patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 at Mayo Clinic facilities across 4 states. The primary outcome was the rate of hospitalization at days 14, 21, and 28.RESULTSThe median age of the population was 63 years; 47.3% of the bamlanivimab-treated cohort were 65 years or more; 49.3% were female and 50.7% were male. High-risk characteristics included hypertension (54.2%), BMI greater than or equal to 35 (32.4%), diabetes mellitus (26.5%), chronic lung disease (25.1%), malignancy (16.6%), and renal disease (14.5%). Patients who received bamlanivimab had lower all-cause hospitalization rates at days 14 (1.5% vs. 3.5%; risk ratio [RR], 0.41), 21 (1.9% vs. 3.9%; RR, 0.49), and 28 (2.5% vs. 3.9%; RR, 0.63). Secondary exploratory outcomes included lower intensive care unit (ICU) admission rates at days 14 (0.14% vs. 1%; RR, 0.14), 21 (0.25% vs.1%; RR, 0.25), and 28 (0.56% vs.1.1%; RR. 0.51) and lower all-cause mortality at days 14 (0% vs. 0.33%), 21 (0.05% vs. 0.4%; RR,0.13), and 28 (0.11% vs. 0.44%; RR, 0.26). Adverse events were uncommon with bamlanivimab, occurring in 19 of 2355 patients, and were most commonly fever (n = 6), nausea (n = 5), and lightheadedness (n = 3).CONCLUSIONSAmong high-risk patients with mild to moderate COVID-19, treatment with bamlanivimab was associated with a statistically significant lower rate of hospitalization, ICU admission, and mortality compared with usual care.FUNDINGMayo Clinic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Survival Rate
7.
NPJ Digit Med ; 4(1): 123, 2021 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356587

ABSTRACT

Established technology, operational infrastructure, and nursing resources were leveraged to develop a remote patient monitoring (RPM) program for ambulatory management of patients with COVID-19. The program included two care-delivery models with different monitoring capabilities supporting variable levels of patient risk for severe illness. The primary objective of this study was to determine the feasibility and safety of a multisite RPM program for management of acute COVID-19 illness. We report an evaluation of 7074 patients served by the program across 41 US states. Among all patients, the RPM technology engagement rate was 78.9%. Rates of emergency department visit and hospitalization within 30 days of enrollment were 11.4% and 9.4%, respectively, and the 30-day mortality rate was 0.4%. A multisite RPM program for management of acute COVID-19 illness is feasible, safe, and associated with a low mortality rate. Further research and expansion of RPM programs for ambulatory management of other acute illnesses are warranted.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(24): e26371, 2021 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269625

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Most patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have mild to moderate illness not requiring hospitalization. However, no study has detailed the evolution of symptoms in the first month of illness.At our institution, we conducted remote (telephone and video) visits for all adult outpatients diagnosed with COVID-19 within 24 h of a positive nasopharyngeal polymerase chain test for SARS-CoV-2. We repeated regular video visits at 7, 14, and 28 days after the positive test, retrospectively reviewed the prospective data collected in the remote visits, and constructed a week by week profile of clinical illness, through week 4 of illness.We reviewed the courses of 458 symptomatic patients diagnosed between March 12, 2020, and June 22, 2020, and characterized their weekly courses. Common initial symptoms included fever, headache, cough, and chest pain, which frequently persisted through week 3 or longer. Upper respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms were much shorter lived, present primarily in week 1. Anosmia/ageusia peaked in weeks 2 to 3. Emergency department visits were frequent, with 128 visits in the 423 patients who were not hospitalized and 48 visits among the 35 outpatients (7.6%) who were eventually hospitalized (2 subsequently died). By the fourth week, 28.9% said their illness had completely resolved. After the 4-week follow up, 20 (4.7%) of the 423 nonhospitalized patients had further medical evaluation and management for subacute or chronic COVID-19 symptoms.Mild to moderate outpatient COVID-19 is a prolonged illness, with evolving symptoms commonly lasting into the fourth week of illness.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Chest Pain/etiology , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
9.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 17(9): e1293-e1302, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262530

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to assess the impact of an interdisciplinary remote patient monitoring (RPM) program on clinical outcomes and acute care utilization in cancer patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis following a prospective observational study performed at Mayo Clinic Cancer Center. Adult patients receiving cancer-directed therapy or in recent remission on active surveillance with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between March 18 and July 31, 2020, were included. RPM was composed of in-home technology to assess symptoms and physiologic data with centralized nursing and physician oversight. RESULTS: During the study timeframe, 224 patients with cancer were diagnosed with COVID-19. Of the 187 patients (83%) initially managed in the outpatient setting, those who did not receive RPM were significantly more likely to experience hospitalization than those receiving RPM. Following balancing of patient characteristics by inverse propensity score weighting, rates of hospitalization for RPM and non-RPM patients were 2.8% and 13%, respectively, implying that the use of RPM was associated with a 78% relative risk reduction in hospital admission rate (95% CI, 54 to 102; P = .002). Furthermore, when hospitalized, these patients experienced a shorter length of stay and fewer prolonged hospitalizations, intensive care unit admissions, and deaths, although these trends did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: The use of RPM and a centralized virtual care team was associated with a reduction in hospital admission rate and lower overall acute care resource utilization among cancer patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic , Neoplasms/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(5): 1250-1261, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219872

ABSTRACT

The administration of spike monoclonal antibody treatment to patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 is very challenging. This article summarizes essential components and processes in establishing an effective spike monoclonal antibody infusion program. Rapid identification of a dedicated physical infrastructure was essential to circumvent the logistical challenges of caring for infectious patients while maintaining compliance with regulations and ensuring the safety of our personnel and other patients. Our partnerships and collaborations among multiple different specialties and disciplines enabled contributions from personnel with specific expertise in medicine, nursing, pharmacy, infection prevention and control, electronic health record (EHR) informatics, compliance, legal, medical ethics, engineering, administration, and other critical areas. Clear communication and a culture in which all roles are welcomed at the planning and operational tables are critical to the rapid development and refinement needed to adapt and thrive in providing this time-sensitive beneficial therapy. Our partnerships with leaders and providers outside our institutions, including those who care for underserved populations, have promoted equity in the access of monoclonal antibodies in our regions. Strong support from institutional leadership facilitated expedited action when needed, from a physical, personnel, and system infrastructure standpoint. Our ongoing real-time assessment and monitoring of our clinical program allowed us to improve and optimize our processes to ensure that the needs of our patients with COVID-19 in the outpatient setting are met.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Critical Pathways , Home Infusion Therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Protocols , Critical Pathways/organization & administration , Critical Pathways/trends , Efficiency, Organizational , Home Infusion Therapy/methods , Home Infusion Therapy/standards , Humans , Intersectoral Collaboration , Organizational Culture , Program Development/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , United States/epidemiology
12.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(3): 601-618, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988744

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To report the Mayo Clinic experience with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related to patient outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with COVID-19 diagnosed between March 1, 2020, and July 31, 2020, at any of the Mayo Clinic sites. We abstracted pertinent comorbid conditions such as age, sex, body mass index, Charlson Comorbidity Index variables, and treatments received. Factors associated with hospitalization and mortality were assessed in univariate and multivariate models. RESULTS: A total of 7891 patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection with research authorization on file received care across the Mayo Clinic sites during the study period. Of these, 7217 patients were adults 18 years or older who were analyzed further. A total of 897 (11.4%) patients required hospitalization, and 354 (4.9%) received care in the intensive care unit (ICU). All hospitalized patients were reviewed by a COVID-19 Treatment Review Panel, and 77.5% (695 of 897) of inpatients received a COVID-19-directed therapy. Overall mortality was 1.2% (94 of 7891), with 7.1% (64 of 897) mortality in hospitalized patients and 11.3% (40 of 354) in patients requiring ICU care. CONCLUSION: Mayo Clinic outcomes of patients with COVID-19 infection in the ICU, hospital, and community compare favorably with those reported nationally. This likely reflects the impact of interprofessional multidisciplinary team evaluation, effective leveraging of clinical trials and available treatments, deployment of remote monitoring tools, and maintenance of adequate operating capacity to not require surge adjustments. These best practices can help guide other health care systems with the continuing response to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , COVID-19/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Retrospective Studies
13.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(11): 2382-2394, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912419

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of lenzilumab in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. METHODS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and risk factors for poor outcomes were treated with lenzilumab 600 mg intravenously for three doses through an emergency single-use investigational new drug application. Patient characteristics, clinical and laboratory outcomes, and adverse events were recorded. We also identified a cohort of patients matched to the lenzilumab patients for age, sex, and disease severity. Study dates were March 13, 2020, to June 18, 2020. All patients were followed through hospital discharge or death. RESULTS: Twelve patients were treated with lenzilumab; 27 patients comprised the matched control cohort (untreated). Clinical improvement, defined as improvement of at least 2 points on the 8-point ordinal clinical endpoints scale, was observed in 11 of 12 (91.7%) patients treated with lenzilumab and 22 of 27 (81.5%) untreated patients. The time to clinical improvement was significantly shorter for the lenzilumab-treated group compared with the untreated cohort with a median of 5 days versus 11 days (P=.006). Similarly, the proportion of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen<315 mm Hg) was significantly reduced over time when treated with lenzilumab compared with untreated (P<.001). Significant improvement in inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and interleukin 6) and markers of disease severity (absolute lymphocyte count) were observed in patients who received lenzilumab, but not in untreated patients. Cytokine analysis showed a reduction in inflammatory myeloid cells 2 days after lenzilumab treatment. There were no treatment-emergent adverse events attributable to lenzilumab. CONCLUSION: In high-risk COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor neutralization with lenzilumab was safe and associated with faster improvement in clinical outcomes, including oxygenation, and greater reductions in inflammatory markers compared with a matched control cohort of patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial to validate these findings is ongoing (NCT04351152).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Treatment Outcome
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