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1.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911282

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection after vaccination can occur because COVID-19 vaccines do not offer 100% protection. The study aim was to assess duration of vaccination coverage, disease symptoms and type of hospitalization among non-vaccinated and vaccinated subjects to evaluate the vaccination trend over time. A retrospective cohort study was carried out among people testing COVID-19 positive in Campania Region using information from the Health Information System of Campania Region (Sinfonia). Vaccination status was assessed considering: no vaccination, partial vaccination and effective vaccination. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate the association between ICU admissions caused by COVID-19 and gender, age groups and vaccine type. Vaccine coverage duration trends were investigated using segmented linear regression and breakpoint estimations. Vaccination coverage was assessed by analyzing COVID-19 positive subjects in the 9 months after an effective dose vaccination. A significant risk of hospitalization in the ICU was caused by vaccination status: subjects non-vaccinated (OR: 7.14) and partially vaccinated (OR: 3.68) were 3 and 7 times more at risk of hospitalization, respectively, than subjects effectively vaccinated. Regarding subjects with an effective vaccination, the vaccine's ability to protect against infection in the months following vaccination decreased. The risk of contracting COVID-19 after vaccination was higher 5 months (ß = 1441, p < 0.001) and 7 months (ß = 3110, p < 0.001) after administration of an effective dose. COVID-19 vaccines were demonstrated to protect from symptomatic infection by significantly reducing hospitalization risk, and their full protection against SARS-CoV-2 was demonstrated to decrease after 5 months regardless of age, gender or vaccine type.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820428

ABSTRACT

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, all countries with a global mobilization started to produce and authorize vaccines, prioritizing healthcare professionals (HCPs) to reduce transmission. The aim of this study was to assess post-vaccination infections' occurrence among HCPs and their correlation with symptom onset. A retrospective cohort study was carried out in the Campania Region from December 2020 to April 2021. Data were retrieved from the Regional Health Information System of the Campania Region (Sinfonia). The study cohort included subjects that had all received at least one vaccine dose. Risk ratios (RRs) adjusted for age and sex (95% confidence intervals) were performed to assess differences in the prevalence between HCPs who tested positive or negative for COVID-19. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between symptoms and vaccination status. Findings revealed that HCPs had a lower risk of contracting COVID-19 after receiving at least one vaccine dose, and this risk decreased with age. Furthermore, not having full vaccination coverage may predict a severe/critical evolution of the disease. This study provides a snapshot of the initial state of the Italian vaccination campaign on HCPs. A surveillance approach using Big Data matched to clinical conditions could offer a real analysis in the categorization of subjects most at risk.

3.
Vaccines ; 10(4):511, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762560

ABSTRACT

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, all countries with a global mobilization started to produce and authorize vaccines, prioritizing healthcare professionals (HCPs) to reduce transmission. The aim of this study was to assess post-vaccination infections' occurrence among HCPs and their correlation with symptom onset. A retrospective cohort study was carried out in the Campania Region from December 2020 to April 2021. Data were retrieved from the Regional Health Information System of the Campania Region (Sinfonia). The study cohort included subjects that had all received at least one vaccine dose. Risk ratios (RRs) adjusted for age and sex (95% confidence intervals) were performed to assess differences in the prevalence between HCPs who tested positive or negative for COVID-19. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between symptoms and vaccination status. Findings revealed that HCPs had a lower risk of contracting COVID-19 after receiving at least one vaccine dose, and this risk decreased with age. Furthermore, not having full vaccination coverage may predict a severe/critical evolution of the disease. This study provides a snapshot of the initial state of the Italian vaccination campaign on HCPs. A surveillance approach using Big Data matched to clinical conditions could offer a real analysis in the categorization of subjects most at risk.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512336

ABSTRACT

This study aims to identify baseline medications that, as a proxy for the diseases they are dispensed for, are associated with increased risk of mortality in COVID-19 patients from two regions in Spain and Italy using real-world data. We conducted a cross-country, retrospective, observational study including 8570 individuals from both regions with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between 4 March and 17 April 2020, and followed them for a minimum of 30 days to allow sufficient time for the studied event, in this case death, to occur. Baseline demographic variables and all drugs dispensed in community pharmacies three months prior to infection were extracted from the PRECOVID Study cohort (Aragon, Spain) and the Campania Region Database (Campania, Italy) and analyzed using logistic regression models. Results show that the presence at baseline of potassium-sparing agents, antipsychotics, vasodilators, high-ceiling diuretics, antithrombotic agents, vitamin B12, folic acid, and antiepileptics were systematically associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients from both countries. Treatments for chronic cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, systemic inflammation, and processes with increased risk of thrombosis as proxies for the conditions they are intended for can serve as timely indicators of an increased likelihood of mortality after the infection, and the assessment of pharmacological profiles can be an additional approach to the identification of at-risk individuals in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
5.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470991

ABSTRACT

Different and several public health strategies have been planned to reduce transmission of pandemic due to SARS-CoV-2 since it started. None drugs have been confirmed as able to prevent viral transmission. Hydroxychloroquine with its immunomodulatory properties has been proposed as potential anti-viral drug in particular for prevention once viral exposure has been happen or in first phases of infection. Furthermore, in several immunological systemic disease hydroxychloroquine was able to reduce the number of thrombotic complications. So, because COVID-19 was associated to immunological imbalance and to thrombotic complications, we retrospectively analyzed the rate of infection in those patients being under treatment with this drug during COVID-19 epidemic outbreak from 8 March until 28 April in particular comparing those with pre-exposure to this treatment and those that were not taking this medication before SARS-CoV-2 viral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Treatment Failure , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
6.
J Clin Med ; 10(18)2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403845

ABSTRACT

We hypothesized that the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in urine during a severe COVID-19 infection may be the expression of the worsening disease evolution. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify if the COVID-19 disease severity is related to the viral presence in urine samples. We evaluated the clinical evolution in acute COVID-19 patients admitted in the sub-intensive care and intensive care units between 28 of December 2020 and 15th of February 2021 and being positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the respiratory tract, including repeated endotracheal aspirates (ETA), sputum, nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and urine. We found that those subjects with SARS-COV-2 in the urine at admittance (8 out of 60 eligible patients) had a more severe disease than those with negative SARS-CoV-2 in urine. Further, they showed an increase in fibrinogen and (C-reactive Protein) CRP serum levels, requiring mechanic ventilation. Of those with positive SARS-CoV-2 in the urine, 50% died. According to our preliminary results, it seems that the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the urine characterizes patients with a more severe disease and is also related to a higher death rate.

7.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 2021 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226554

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were: to investigate the capacity of the rare disease healthcare network in Campania to diagnose patients with rare diseases during the outbreak of Covid-19; and to shed light on problematic diagnoses during this period. METHODS: To describe the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the diagnosis of patients with rare diseases, a retrospective analysis of the Campania Region Rare Disease Registry was performed. A tailored questionnaire was sent to rare disease experts to investigate major issues during the emergency period. RESULTS: Prevalence of new diagnoses of rare disease in March and April 2020 was significantly lower than in 2019 (117 versus 317, P < 0.001 and 37 versus 349, P < 0.001, respectively) and 2018 (117 versus 389, P < 0.001 and 37 versus 282, P < 0.001, respectively). Eighty-two among 98 rare disease experts completed the questionnaire. Diagnostic success (95%), access to diagnosis (80%) and follow-up (72%), lack of Personal Protective Equipment (60%), lack of Covid-19 guidelines (50%) and the need for home therapy (78%) were the most important issues raised during Covid-19 outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the effects of the Covid-19 outbreak on the diagnosis of rare disease in a single Italian region and investigates potential issues of diagnosis and management during this period.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8913, 2021 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203448

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has substantially challenged healthcare systems worldwide. By investigating population characteristics and prescribing profiles, it is possible to generate hypotheses about the associations between specific drug-utilisation profiles and susceptibility to COVID-19 infection. A retrospective drug-utilisation study was carried out using routinely collected information from a healthcare database in Campania (Southern Italy). We aimed to discover the prevalence of drug utilisation (monotherapy and polytherapy) in COVID-19 versus non-COVID-19 patients in Campania (~ 6 million inhabitants). The study cohort comprised 1532 individuals who tested positive for COVID-19. Drugs were grouped according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system. We noted higher prevalence rates of the use of drugs in the ATC categories C01, B01 and M04, which was probably linked to related comorbidities (i.e., cardiovascular and metabolic). Nevertheless, the prevalence of the use of drugs acting on the renin-angiotensin system, such as antihypertensive drugs, was not higher in COVID-19 patients than in non-COVID-19 patients after adjustments for age and sex. These results highlight the need for further case-control studies to define the effects of medications and comorbidities on susceptibility to and associated mortality from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Utilization Review , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
9.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0237202, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067386

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic spread rapidly worldwide increasing exponentially in Italy. To date, there is lack of studies describing clinical characteristics of the people at high risk of infection. Hence, we aimed (i) to identify clinical predictors of SARS-CoV-2 infection risk, (ii) to develop and validate a score predicting SARS-CoV-2 infection risk, and (iii) to compare it with unspecific scores. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study using administrative health-related database was carried out in Southern Italy (Campania region) among beneficiaries of Regional Health Service aged over than 30 years. For each person with SARS-CoV-2 confirmed infection (case), up to five controls were randomly matched for gender, age and municipality of residence. Odds ratios and 90% confidence intervals for associations between candidate predictors and risk of infection were estimated by means of conditional logistic regression. SARS-CoV-2 Infection Score (SIS) was developed by generating a total aggregate score obtained from assignment of a weight at each selected covariate using coefficients estimated from the model. Finally, the score was categorized by assigning increasing values from 1 to 4. Discriminant power was used to compare SIS performance with that of other comorbidity scores. RESULTS: Subjects suffering from diabetes, anaemias, Parkinson's disease, mental disorders, cardiovascular and inflammatory bowel and kidney diseases showed increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Similar estimates were recorded for men and women and younger and older than 65 years. Fifteen conditions significantly contributed to the SIS. As SIS value increases, risk progressively increases, being odds of SARS-CoV-2 infection among people with the highest SIS value (SIS = 4) 1.74 times higher than those unaffected by any SIS contributing conditions (SIS = 1). CONCLUSION: Conditions and diseases making people more vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified by the current study. Our results support decision-makers in identifying high-risk people and adopting of preventive measures to minimize the spread of further epidemic waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Decision-Making , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Risk Factors
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