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1.
BMC Infectious Diseases ; 22(1):917, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162306

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the development and application of vaccines against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) around the world, the scientific community is still trying to find some therapies to avoid or ameliorate the fatal evolution of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since the publication of the potential use of ivermectin as a treatment against the disease, a pleiad of information about it has been published. However, the evidence is not strong or weak enough to conclude its usefulness in the clinical evolution of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. We evaluate the efficacy and safety of ivermectin in the treatment of Mexican patients with asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 in a three-day administration in comparison to placebo.

2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1):21288, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2160304

ABSTRACT

We analyze 6 months of Twitter conversations related to the Chilean Covid-19 vaccination process, in order to understand the online forces that argue for or against it and suggest effective digital communication strategies. Using AI, we classify accounts into four categories that emerge from the data as a result of the type of language used. This classification naturally distinguishes pro- and anti-vaccine activists from moderates that promote or inhibit vaccination in discussions, which also play a key role that should be addressed by public policies. We find that all categories display relatively constant opinions, but that the number of tweeting accounts grows in each category during controversial periods. We also find that accounts disfavoring vaccination tend to appear in the periphery of the interaction network, which is consistent with Chile's high immunization levels. However, these are more active in addressing those favoring vaccination than vice-versa, revealing a potential communication problem even in a society where the antivaccine movement has no central role. Our results highlight the importance of social network analysis to understand public discussions and suggest online interventions that can help achieve successful immunization campaigns.

3.
Clinical Nutrition ESPEN ; 52:436-444, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2158612

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: SARS-CoV-2, a newly identified coronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, has challenged health services and profoundly impacted people's lifestyles. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of confinement during the COVID-19 pandemic on food consumption patterns and body weight in adults from 12 Ibero-American countries.

4.
European Psychiatry ; 65(Supplement 1):S510-S511, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2154024

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Paediatric and adult psychiatric emergency department (ED) visits decreased during the initial COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. Long-term consequences of the pandemic will include increases in mental healthcare needs especially among especially vulnerable groups such as children and adolescents. Objective(s): This study examined changes in the number of overall and diagnosis-specific mental healthEDvisitsamongpatients aged<18 years following onset of the COVID-19 pandemic inMadrid, Spain. Method(s): We used electronic health records to extract the monthly numbers of total and diagnosis-specific mental health ED visits among patients aged <18 years, between October 2018 and April 2021, to La Paz University Hospital. We conducted interrupted time-series analyses and compared trends before and after the day of the first ED COVID-19 case (1st March 2020). Result(s): In March 2020, there was a marked initial decrease of -12.8 (95%CI -21.9, -7.9) less monthly mental health ED visits. After April 2020, there was a subsequent increasing trend of 3.4 (95%CI 2.6, 4.2) additional monthly mental health ED visits. Conclusion(s): After onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was an increase in paediatric psychiatric ED visits, especially due to suicide-related reasons. These data reinforce the crucial role of the ED in the management of acute mental health problems among youth and highlight the need for renovated efforts to enhance access to care outside of and during acute crises during the pandemic and its aftermath.

5.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology ; 33:329, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2124750

ABSTRACT

Background: Chronic Kidney disease (CKD) is the risk factor that most increases the risk of lethal COVID-19. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. CKD patients have an increased risk of multiple infections due to CKD-associated nonspecific immunodeficiency. Whether specific defects are related to the defense against SARS-CoV-2 is unknown. SARS-CoV-2 and coronavirus-associated receptors and factors (SCARFs) regulate coronavirus cell entry and/or replication. We hypothesized that CKD may alter the expression of SCARF genes. Method(s): A literature search identified 32 SARF genes of which 21 were directly related to SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV infection and assessed their expression in target tissues of COVID-19 (kidneys, lungs, aorta and heart) in experimental CKD in mice fed adenine and compared them with controls. Result(s): Out of 21 SCARF genes, 19 (90%) were differentially expressed in at least one organ in CKD. 15 genes had a differential expression that would be expected to favor SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or severity in at least one organ. Of these, 13 were differentially expressed in the kidney. Only 2 genes reported to protect from SARS-CoV-2, Ifitm3 encoding interferon induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) and Ly6e encoding lymphocyte antigen 6 family member 6 (LY6E), were downregulated in at least two non-kidney target organs (lung and heart), potentially predisposing to more severe lung/ cardiovascular involvement in COVID-19 (Fig). The largest change was observed for Ifitm3. Conclusion(s): CKD is associated with the differential expression of multiple SCARF genes in target organs of COVID-19. The decreased expression of Ifitm3 and Ly6e in heart and/or lung may contribute to increase the severity of COVID-19 in CKD. These data may allow the development of interventions that decrease the risk of severe COVID-19 in CKD patients.

6.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology ; 33:895-896, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2126115

ABSTRACT

Background: Few centers around the globe have a lung transplant (LT) program in Mexico there is only one. The possible complications are associated tpre transplant time, surgical and the post-surgical recovery, common one is AKI (20 to 90%), 15% need KRT. The AKI will complicate the in hospital evolution, time in ICU, risk of infections, also increase mortality and possibility of no renal recovery (RR). Method(s): Is a Retrospective and Descriptive study. patients 18y who performed LT in Christus Muguerza from January 2017 to May 2022. Data was collected in excel and the analysis was performed in SPSS V21. The confidentiality agreement is accordance with Helsinki declaration. Result(s): 24 patients had LT, 62.5% men, average age is 54 y, average BMI 23kg/m2. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis the most common diagnosis (58.3%) follow by COVID-19 (16.6%), 15 receive bi-pulmonary transplant. Survival rate is 66%. 37.5% developed AKI with the need of KRT all CKRT as initial therapy. 7 patientes where discharge with a complete renal recovery after KRT. 32% patients were in ECMO and 75% from these need CKRT. Conclusion(s): The involvement of kidney function is essential for the decision to go forward to LT, some patients develop AKI before surgical time, these should be evaluated from the crosstalk organ view, remembering that a high possibility of RR exist if the lung recovery is successful. Our work demonstrate that nephrology intervention in a team work help patient to RR. (Table Presented).

7.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology ; 33:311, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2126016

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients on hemodialysis are at high-risk for complications derived from coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). The present study aims to evaluate the impact of a booster vaccine dose and breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections on humoral immunity three months after the booster dose. Method(s): This is a multicentric and prospective study assessing anti-Spike antibodies 6 and 9 months after initial SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients on hemodialysis that had also received a booster dose before the 6-month assessment (early booster) or between the 6-and 9-month assessments (late booster). The impact of breakthrough infections, type of vaccine, time from the booster and clinical variables were assessed. Result(s): 711 patients (67% male, 67 [20-89] years) were included. Of them, 545 (77%) patients had received an early booster and 166 (23%) a late booster. At 6 months, 64 (9%) patients had negative humoral response (3% of early booster and 29% of late booster participants, p=0.001) and 58 (91%) of them had seroconverted at 9 months, when, 5/545 (0.9%) patients in the early booster cohort and 1/166 (0.6%) in the late booster cohort remained antibody negative (p=NS). During follow-up, 35 patients (5%) developed COVID-19. Antibody titers at 9 months were independently associated to lower time from booster (B -0.12, p=0.043), COVID-19 (B 2.29, p<0.001) and mRNA-1273 booster (B 1.17, p=0.001). Conclusion(s): In hemodialysis patients, higher rates of anti-Spike antibody development were associated to mRNA-1273 booster, lower time from booster and breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection.

8.
Eur Heart J ; 43(Suppl 2), 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2107453

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is an infectious illness, featured by an increased risk of thromboembolism. However, no standard antithrombotic therapy is currently recommended for COVID-19 hospitalized patients. Aim of this study was to evaluate safety and efficacy of additional therapy with aspirin over prophylactic anticoagulation (PAC) in COVID-19 hospitalized patients and its impact on survival. Methods: 8168 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were enrolled in a multicenter-international prospective registry (HOPE COVID-19). Clinical data and in-hospital complications, including mortality, were recorded. 344 patients with incomplete data were excluded. Study population included patients treated with PAC or with PAC and aspirin. A comparison of clinical outcomes between patients treated with PAC and PAC and aspirin was performed using an adjusted analysis with propensity score matching. Results: Of 7824 patients, 360 (4.6%) received PAC and aspirin and 2949 (37.6%) PAC. Propensity-score matching yielded 298 patients from each group. Mean age was 73±11 years, 67% were male, prevalence of hypertension and diabetes was 79 and 33% respectively and 7.5% underwent invasive ventilation.In the propensity score-matched population, cumulative incidence of in-hospital mortality was lower in patients treated with PAC and aspirin vs PAC (15% vs 21%, Log Rank p=0.01, Figure 1). At multivariable analysis in propensity matched population of COVID-19 patients, including age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, kidney failure and invasive ventilation, aspirin treatment was associated with lower risk of in-hospital mortality (HR 0.62, CI 95% 0.42–0.92, p=0.018). Conclusions: Additional therapy with aspirin over PAC in COVID-19 hospitalized patients was associated with lower mortality risk in a propensity score matched population. Funding Acknowledgement: Type of funding sources: None.Figure 1. Survival curves according to therapy

9.
Clin Kidney J ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2107393

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that was first identified in December 2019 and emerged into an ongoing global pandemic. Both the pandemic itself and the associated public restrictive measures of social mobility established with different intensity over different periods in various countries have significantly affected everyday activities and life-style of people all over the world. The impact of lockdown and quarantine measures on hypertension incidence and blood pressure (BP) control is an important topic that requires further investigation. The aim of this review is: a) to present the current evidence regarding the actual effects of public restrictive measures on BP levels and control, originating primarily from studies investigating the impact of public restrictive measures on BP control with the use of various BP phenotypes;b) to summarize the possible pandemic-related effects of factors known to affect BP levels, including both traditional (e.g. dietary habits including alcohol and sodium intake, body weight, smoking, and physical activity) and non-traditional (e.g. sleep patterns, air pollution, environmental noise, delayed diagnosis and medication adherence) ones.

10.
Information Fusion ; 89:53-65, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2084435

ABSTRACT

The use of automatic systems for medical image classification has revolutionized the diagnosis of a high number of diseases. These alternatives, which are usually based on artificial intelligence (AI), provide a helpful tool for clinicians, eliminating the inter and intra-observer variability that the diagnostic process entails. Convolutional Neural Network (CNNs) have proved to be an excellent option for this purpose, demonstrating a large performance in a wide range of contexts. However, it is also extremely important to quantify the reliability of the model's predictions in order to guarantee the confidence in the classification. In this work, we propose a multi-level ensemble classification system based on a Bayesian Deep Learning approach in order to maximize performance while providing the uncertainty of each classification decision. This tool combines the information extracted from different architectures by weighting their results according to the uncertainty of their predictions. Performance is evaluated in a wide range of real scenarios: in the first one, the aim is to differentiate between different pulmonary pathologies: controls vs bacterial pneumonia vs viral pneumonia. A two-level decision tree is employed to divide the 3-class classification into two binary classifications, yielding an accuracy of 98.19%. In the second context, performance is assessed for the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease, leading to an accuracy of 95.31%. The reduced preprocessing needed for obtaining this high performance, in addition to the information provided about the reliability of the predictions evidence the applicability of the system to be used as an aid for clinicians.

11.
International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy ; 22(3):331-344, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2084007

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, elderly adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have experienced difficulties to adhere to their therapy (TA), a situation which not only has had an impact on their glycemic control, but on their quality of life (QoL) as well. Telepsychology has proved to be an effective alternative to treat health-related complications in patients with this disease, however, results of same are unknown among the Latin American population. The aim of this study was determining the effect of Online Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on TA, overall QoL and specific QoL in two elderly adults with T2DM. The case of a 62-year-old woman and a 60-year-old man who was offered an intervention consisting of nine sessions offered through a video conference platform is presented. The procedure included: psychoeducation, self-control training techniques, behavior reinforcement, feedback and problem solving. The Objective Clinical Change (OCC) evidences an increase in TA behaviors, such as use of medications, following a healthy diet (OCC≥ 0.20) and monitoring capillary blood glucose in the medium term (four months). Likewise, improve specific QoL for T2DM patients (OCC≤ -0.20). It is concluded that telepsychology is a low-cost, safe, feasible and effective type of therapy to increase and maintain TA behaviors, as well as to improve the QoL of patients suffering T2DM. Even though, more research is needed to increase the effectiveness of this therapy modality © 2022 AAC

12.
European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists ; 65(Suppl 1):S510-S511, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2072732

ABSTRACT

Introduction Paediatric and adult psychiatric emergency department (ED) visits decreased during the initial COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. Long-term consequences of the pandemic will include increases in mental healthcare needs especially among especially vulnerable groups such as children and adolescents. Objectives This study examined changes in the number of overall and diagnosis-specific mental health ED visits among patients aged <18 years following onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in Madrid, Spain. Methods We used electronic health records to extract the monthly numbers of total and diagnosis-specific mental health ED visits among patients aged <18 years, between October 2018 and April 2021, to La Paz University Hospital. We conducted interrupted time-series analyses and compared trends before and after the day of the first ED COVID-19 case (1st March 2020). Results In March 2020, there was a marked initial decrease of -12.8 (95%CI -21.9, -7.9) less monthly mental health ED visits. After April 2020, there was a subsequent increasing trend of 3.4 (95%CI 2.6, 4.2) additional monthly mental health ED visits. Conclusions After onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was an increase in paediatric psychiatric ED visits, especially due to suicide-related reasons. These data reinforce the crucial role of the ED in the management of acute mental health problems among youth and highlight the need for renovated efforts to enhance access to care outside of and during acute crises during the pandemic and its aftermath. Disclosure No significant relationships.

13.
Nutricion Clinica Y Dietetica Hospitalaria ; 42(3):49-57, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2025588

ABSTRACT

Objective: To characterize the food profile of the Older People of Ibero-America in times of the COVID 19 pandemic. Material and methods: Multicenter study in 12 Ibero-American countries, an online survey was applied that included sociodemographic questions and a Food Intake questionnaire that included the frequency of consumption for vegetables, sugary drinks, legumes, dairy products and portion of food. Results: The sample was made up of 624 participants, 72.1% (n= 450) of women. 54.7% of women do not consume sugary drinks, while in men 54% consume at least one glass a day (p=0.012). 35.6% of men consumed >= 3 legumes per week versus 23% of women (p=0.020). 37.3% of women consume >= 2 daily servings of dairy products, in men only 28.1% (p= 0.030). Women have a higher consumption of vegetables (44.7%, n= 201) compared to men (28.7%), (p=0.001). 17.4% of the total sample increased the size of the food portion, being higher in women (p=0.005). Conclusion: Women have healthier eating habits than men based on fruits, vegetables, on the other hand, the variation in size increases, especially in women.

14.
Investigacion Clinica ; 62(Suplemento 3):25-36, 2021.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1929241

ABSTRACT

This research is an epidemiological analysis that seeks to apply the General Excess Mortality as indicator that complements the COVID-19 surveillance strategy during the first 15 months of the pandemic in Ecuador. The selection of data from the Ecuadorian Institute of Statistics and Censuses and Civil Registry allowed the identification of an excess of 163,595 absolute deaths, which represents 42.80% of the excess of national general mortality, with April being the most affected month with a 249%. of excess global mortality compared to the following months. Santa Elena and Guayas are the provinces with the highest excess mortality recorded historically with 935% followed by 674% respectively. There is a direct correlation between the estimate of excess mortality with the mortality rates by province. Administrative planning zone 9 was the one that registered the highest excess mortality with 100%. The pattern of influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the population was different between geographic regions, with the Ecuadorian coast being the first to present excess general mortality, followed by the mountains and eastern regions.

15.
Revista Medica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social ; 60(4):433-439, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1929218

ABSTRACT

Background: The main risk factors studied that have an influence on mortality from COVID-19 have so far been inconclusive in the world literature, mainly in relation to the male gender. Objective: To determine which are the main risk factors that influence a higher mortality from COVID-19. Material and methods: A case-control study was conducted, including 1190 patients with positive RT-PCR. The risk factors studied were: gender, age, systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), Diabetes mellitus (DM), obesity, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), asthma, smoking, immunosuppressants, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), influenza vaccine. In the Group of Cases: they died from COVID-19 (n = 576), while in the Controls group: they survived (n = 614). The statistical plan included cross-tables and multivariate logistic regression model to determine the influence of these risk factors on mortality from COVID-19. Results: We found no statistically significant differences between cases and controls in relation to gender. However, the cases were aged >60 years, SAH, DM, obesity compared to controls. Conclusions: Male gender was not a risk factor for mortality from COVID-19, however, other risk factors such as age over 60 years, being hypertensive, diabetic and obese, were corroborated as such for a higher mortality from COVID-19.

16.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation ; 37(SUPPL 3):i775-i776, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1915813

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is incomplete information on the impact of a third dose of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in advance chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate the kinetics of humoral response in the CKD spectrum (KT, HD, PD and ND-CKD) 6 months after completing the initial vaccine schedule. Some patients of each group received a third dose before 6 months, providing a pragmatic insight into real-world responses to different vaccine schedules in patients with advanced CKD not on dialysis, on dialysis or in KT recipients. METHOD: The SENCOVAC study describes the humoral response and safety of different SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in a real-world setting in 3687 CKD patients: 787 kidney transplant (KT), 319 peritoneal dialysis (PD), 2297 haemodialysis (HD) and 284 non-dialysis-CKD (ND-CKD) patients. Anti-Spike antibodies were assessed in an efficacy analysis at 28 days (n = 1755), 3 months (n = 1386), and 6 months (n = 1018, of whom 628 had received a third vaccine dose). Adverse events (AEs) were registered during follow-up, including SARS-CoV-2 infections in the safety analysis. RESULTS: Among the patients included in the efficacy analysis, KT recipients presented lower anti-Spike antibody titers than other CKD cohorts at 28 days and 3 months (P < .001 for all). A total of 943 patients [249 (26%) KT, 108 (11%) PD, 511 (54%) HD and 75 (8%) ND-CKD] had negative baseline anti-Spike antibodies. Again, at 28 days or 3 months, KT recipients developed lower anti-Spike antibody titers than PD (P < .001), HD (P < .001) and ND-CKD (P< .001) patients. At 6 months, patients that had received a third vaccine dose had higher anti-Spike antibody titers than those without the third dose [1837 (507-9726) UI/mL versus 80 (19-409) ml/UI;P < .001] and this was evident in all CKD cohorts. Anti-Spike titers after the third dose were higher in patients boosted with mRNA-1273 than with BNT162b2 [1710 (322-9615) versus 472 (34-2094);P < .001). At 6 months, in patients that had received a third dose, a positive humoral response (anti-Spike antibodies > 36 UI/mL) was achieved in 584 (93%): 94 (80%) of 118 KT recipients, 20 (100%) of 20 patients on PD, 436 (96%) of 455 patients on HD and 34 (97%) of 35 patients with ND-CKD (Fig. 1). Among patients without humoral response 3 months after completing the initial vaccination schedule, 72 (69%) seroconverted after the third dose (62% KT, 76% HD, 100% NDCKD, all PD patients had a positive humoral response at 3 months). Independent predictors of a positive humoral response at 6 months were not-KT (HR for KT 0.26, P = .011), third dose (HR 22.9, P < .001), initial mRNA-1273 (HT 1.78, P = .017) and humoral response at 3 months (HR 26.2, P < .001). Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections occurred in 1.1% of patients, and mortality was 14.6%, none after the third dose. CONCLUSION: In the CKD spectrum, anti-Spike antibody titers continued to decrease from 3 to 6 months after complete vaccination, and KT recipients presented higher rates of negative humoral response at 6 months. A third dose of mRNA vaccine increased anti-Spike antibody titers but was still insufficient to spur a humoral immune response in at least 38% of KT recipients and 24% of patients on HD that lacked anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies 3 months post-initial vaccination. New strategies are urgently needed to protect CKD patients that remain negative for anti-SARS-CoV- 2 antibodies, given the high mortality of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections. (Figure Presented).

17.
9th International Work-Conference on the Interplay Between Natural and Artificial Computation, IWINAC 2022 ; 13258 LNCS:114-124, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1899007

ABSTRACT

Estimating the capacity of a room or venue is essential to avoid overcrowding that could compromise people’s safety. Having enough free space to guarantee a minimal safety distance between people is also essential for health reasons, as in the current COVID-19 pandemic. Already existing systems for automatic crowd counting are mostly based on image or video data, and some of them, using deep learning architectures. In this paper, we study the viability of already existing Deep Learning Crowd Counting systems and propose new alternatives based on new network architectures containing convolutional layers, exclusively based on the use of environmental audio signals. The proposed architecture is able to infer the actual capacity with a higher accuracy in comparison to previous proposals. Consequently, conclusions from the accuracy obtained with out approach are drawn and the possible scope of deep learning based crowd counting systems is discussed. © 2022, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

18.
Ciencia Unemi ; 15(39):27-34, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1887424

ABSTRACT

Unemployment in Ecuador's Amazonian communities has increased significantly during the pandemic caused by the COVID-19 disease, primarily from March to August 2020;as a result, the population has shifted its focus to agriculture. This economic sector is specifically directed towards the overexploitation of timber resources and the hunting of animals. This study proposes an Environmental Management Plan for three agricultural farms located in the San Pablo de Ushpayaco parish, Napo, Ecuador, which sell primarily organic products in local markets. The fieldwork included a historical analysis of the sector, the diagnosis of survival strategies, relevant environmental aspects, identification of actors, and interests regarding access to resources. Different problems include the inefficient use of water resources, poor land use management due to its overexploitation through monoculture practices, absence of sustainable agriculture and livestock practices, poor crop rotation, low application of organic fertilizers, and lack of inputs and resources were identified. Poor agricultural practices have led to low production yields and limited economic profit for farmers. This Environmental Management Plan focuses on the prevention, mitigation, and compensation of the environmental impacts caused by agriculture and therefore improving the quality of life of the communities in the study case.

19.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):74-75, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880040

ABSTRACT

Background: Gastrointestinal symptoms and viral RNA (vRNA) in stool have been described in human SARS-CoV-2 infections. However, intestinal pathology and related inflammation have not been extensively described in humans or animal models. Here we investigate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the gut mucosa and inflammation in rhesus macaques (RM) and humans. Methods: Fourteen adult RM were infected with US/WA-1/2020 SARS-CoV-2 instilled intranasally and intratracheally. Animal clinical features (mass, temperature, etc.) and samples (nasal swabs, throat swabs, blood, stool, etc.) were collected at baseline and up to day 10 post-infection at necropsy. RNA was extracted from swab and stool samples and vRNA measured by qRT-PCR. Plasma samples were assessed for inflammatory biomarkers by ELISA. Tissues collected at necropsy were fixed and evaluated for microbial translocation through immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of bacterial products;H&E staining was also performed. Tissues were additionally collected from uninfected RM and processed in the same manner. Human plasma samples from individuals with moderate COVID-19 were collected at early infection and recovery time points and assessed for inflammatory biomarkers. Results: SARS-CoV-2 infection of RM did not induce fever nor weight loss over five percent. vRNA was detected in all animals in nasal and throat swabs. vRNA, including subgenomic RNA indicative of viral replication, was also detected in stool samples. Scores for translocating bacteria in colon sections stained by IHC for bacterial products were higher for SARS-CoV-2 infected RM than uninfected controls. Additionally, follicles made up a higher percentage of total mesenteric lymph node area in SARS-CoV-2 infected animals than control RM. Furthermore, soluble CD14 in plasma increased significantly from baseline to day 10 of SARS-CoV-2 infection (p=0.0006) and decreased significantly in humans from early infection to recovery time points (p=0.0295). Conclusion: Thus, adult RM experienced mild to moderate SARS-CoV-2 infections yet demonstrated evidence of microbial translocation. Humans similarly demonstrated evidence of microbial translocation that decreased upon recovery from COVID-19. These data suggest gut pathology in SARS-CoV-2 infection may be contributing to systemic inflammation in COVID-19.

20.
Revista Chilena de Nutricion ; 48(4):569-577, 2021.
Article in Spanish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1863048

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) during confinement due to the Covid-19 pandemic and its relationship with sociodemographic and dietary factors. Material and Methods: Multicenter study. Citizens residing in 12 countries were invited to participate (Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Spain, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Paraguay, Panama, and Uruguay) to whom an online survey on food consumption and sociodemographic indicators was applied. Results: 10,573 questionnaires were analyzed. Regarding the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, 78.0% of women had low consumption versus 69.2% of men. Frequency of SSB consumption was similar according to age group. For education, 13.4% of people with a university-level education reported excessive consumption versus 23.1% of people with a primary or basic education level (p<0.001). The frequency of SSB consumption was similar by urban versus rural residence. According to self-report, 19.0% of weight gain was due to excessive consumption of SSB compared to 10.4% of those who lost weight (p<0.001). Similar figures were found in self-reported portion size change, 19.3% who increased their portion consumed SSB in excess versus 10.0% who decreased portion size. Finally, in a re-gression model: being a man, being between 40 and 59 years old, primary academic level, weight gain, and presenting changes in diet, increased the probability of having a high level of SSB consumption. Conclusion: The consumption of SSB, in general, is low but excessively relevant in some groups of the study variables, in addition, there is a relationship between the consumption of SSB and the variables studied.

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