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Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973128


BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), linked to antecedent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, is associated with considerable morbidity. Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by vaccination might also decrease MIS-C likelihood. METHODS: In a multicenter case-control public health investigation of children ages 5-18 years hospitalized from July 1, 2021 to April 7, 2022, we compared the odds of being fully vaccinated (two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine ≥28 days before hospital admission) between MIS-C case-patients and hospital-based controls who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. These associations were examined by age group, timing of vaccination, and periods of Delta and Omicron variant predominance using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: We compared 304 MIS-C case-patients (280 [92%] unvaccinated) with 502 controls (346 [69%] unvaccinated). MIS-C was associated with decreased likelihood of vaccination (aOR, 0.16 95% CI, 0.10-0.26), including among children ages 5-11 years (aOR, 0.22 95% CI, 0.10-0.52), ages 12-18 years (aOR, 0.10 95% CI, 0.05-0.19), and during the Delta (aOR, 0.06 95% CI, 0.02-0.15) and Omicron (aOR, 0.22 95% CI, 0.11-0.42) variant-predominant periods. This association persisted beyond 120 days after the second dose (aOR, 0.08, 95% CI, 0.03-0.22) in 12-18 year-olds. Among all MIS-C case-patients, 187 (62%) required intensive care unit admission and 280 (92%) vaccine-eligible patients were unvaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with two doses of BNT162b2 is associated with reduced likelihood of MIS-C in children ages 5-18 years. Most vaccine eligible hospitalized patients with MIS-C were unvaccinated.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(2): 52-58, 2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622893


Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a severe postinfectious hyperinflammatory condition, which generally occurs 2-6 weeks after a typically mild or asymptomatic infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1-3). In the United States, the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) COVID-19 vaccine is currently authorized for use in children and adolescents aged 5-15 years under an Emergency Use Authorization and is fully licensed by the Food and Drug Administration for persons aged ≥16 years (4). Prelicensure randomized trials in persons aged ≥5 years documented high vaccine efficacy and immunogenicity (5),§ and real-world studies in persons aged 12-18 years demonstrated high vaccine effectiveness (VE) against severe COVID-19 (6). Recent evidence suggests that COVID-19 vaccination is associated with lower MIS-C incidence among adolescents (7); however, VE of the 2-dose Pfizer-BioNTech regimen against MIS-C has not been evaluated. The effectiveness of 2 doses of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine received ≥28 days before hospital admission in preventing MIS-C was assessed using a test-negative case-control design¶ among hospitalized patients aged 12-18 years at 24 pediatric hospitals in 20 states** during July 1-December 9, 2021, the period when most MIS-C patients could be temporally linked to SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant predominance. Patients with MIS-C (case-patients) and two groups of hospitalized controls matched to case-patients were evaluated: test-negative controls had at least one COVID-19-like symptom and negative SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or antigen-based assay results, and syndrome-negative controls were hospitalized patients without COVID-19-like illness. Among 102 MIS-C case-patients and 181 hospitalized controls, estimated effectiveness of 2 doses of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine against MIS-C was 91% (95% CI = 78%-97%). All 38 MIS-C patients requiring life support were unvaccinated. Receipt of 2 doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is associated with a high level of protection against MIS-C in persons aged 12-18 years, highlighting the importance of vaccination among all eligible children.

/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Adolescent , COVID-19/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Child , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , United States/epidemiology