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1.
Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi ; 109(11):2281-2283, 2020.
Article in Japanese | J-STAGE | ID: covidwho-1511917
2.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486805

ABSTRACT

Characteristics of COVID-19 clusters in medical and social welfare facilities, and factors associated with cluster size are still not fully understood. We reviewed COVID-19 cases identified from January 15 to April 30 of 2020 in Japan, and analyzed factors associated with cluster size in medical and social welfare facilities. In the study, COVID-19 clusters were identified in 56 medical and 34 social welfare facilities. Numbers of cases in those facilities reached their peaks after the peak of general population. Duration of occurrence of new cases in clusters showed a positive correlation with the number of cases in both types of facilities (rho = 0.44, p < 0.001; and rho = 0.69, p < 0.001, respectively). However, number of days between the first case in the prefecture and the onset of clusters showed a negative correlation with the number of cases only in clusters in social welfare facilities (rho = -0.4, p = 0.004). Our results suggested that COVID-19 cases in those facilities were prevalent in the latter phase of the community transmissions, although the underlying mechanisms for such trend could be different between medical and social welfare facilities.

3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(10): 1-9, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486730

ABSTRACT

To deal with the risk of emerging diseases with many unknowns, close and timely collaboration and communication between science experts and policymakers are crucial to developing and implementing an effective science-based intervention strategy. The Expert Meeting, an ad hoc medical advisory body, was established in February 2020 to advise Japan's COVID-19 Response Headquarters. The group played an important role in the policymaking process, promoting timely situation awareness and developing science-based proposals on interventions that were promptly reflected in government actions. However, this expert group may have been overly proactive in taking on the government's role in crisis management. For the next stage of managing the coronavirus disease pandemic and future pandemics, the respective roles of the government and its advisory bodies need to be clearly defined. Leadership and strategic risk communication by the government are key.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Government , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(1): 41-46, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1457195

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In response to global outbreaks of infectious diseases, the need for support from organizations such as the World Health Organization Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) is increasing. Identifying the obstacles and support needs for applicants could increase GOARN deployments from Japan. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved a web-based, self-administered questionnaire survey targeting Japanese participants in the GOARN Tier 1.5 training workshop, held in Tokyo in December 2019. RESULTS: All 47 Japanese participants in the workshop responded to the survey. Most responders were male and in their 30s and 40s. Participants specialized in case management (42.6%), infection prevention and control (25.6%), epidemiology and surveillance (19.1%). Only two participants (4.6%) had experienced a GOARN deployment. Their motivations for joining the GOARN training workshop were "Desire to be part of an international emerging infectious disease response team" (44.6%), "Interest in making an international contribution" (19.1%), and "Interest in working for the Japanese government in the field of international infectious diseases" (14.9%). Obstacles to GOARN deployments were "Making time for deployments" (45.7%) and "Lack of required professional skills and knowledge" (40.4%). The support needs for GOARN deployments constituted "Periodic simulation training" (51.1%), "Financial support during deployments" (44.7%), and "Technical support for deployments" (40.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed the obstacles and support needs of Japanese candidates for GOARN deployment. Making time and upskilling for GOARN deployment were the main obstacles. More practical training (like GOARN Tier 2.0) with other supports are needed. The national framework is desirable to realize these supports.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Global Health , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Workforce
5.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(5): 421-423, 2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436359

ABSTRACT

Green tea extracts effectively inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Ten-fold serially diluted solutions of catechin mixture reagent from green tea were mixed with the viral culture fluid at a volume ratio of 9:1, respectively, and incubated at room temperature for 5 min. The solution of 10 mg/mL catechin reagent reduced the viral titer by 4.2 log and 1.0 mg/mL solution by one log. Pre-infection treatment of cells with the reagent alone did not affect viral growth. In addition, cells treated with only the reagent were assayed for host cell viability using the WST-8 system, and almost no host cell damage by the treatment was observed. These findings suggested that the direct treatment of virus with the reagent before inoculation decreased the viral activity and that catechins might have the potential to suppress SARSCoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Catechin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Tea/chemistry , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Vero Cells , Viral Load/drug effects
7.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 705882, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376712

ABSTRACT

Background: Roles of children and adolescents in spreading coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the community is not fully understood. Methods: We analyzed the data of 7,758 children and adolescents with COVID-19 and characteristics of secondary transmission generated by these cases using case information published by local governments. Ratio of pediatric and adolescent cases generating secondary transmission was calculated for various social settings. Results: The incidence of COVID-19 was 24.8 cases per 105 population aged between 0 and 9 years, and 59.2 among those aged between 10 and 19 years, which was lower than that among individuals of all age groups (79.6 per 105 population) between January 15 and October 31, 2020. The proportion of cases generating secondary cases was 8.3% among infants and young children in nursery schools and kindergartens, 16% among children and adolescents attending primary schools, 34% among those attending junior high schools, 43% among those attending high schools, 31% among those attending professional training colleges, and 24% in those attending universities. Households were the most common setting for secondary transmission. Conclusion: The risk of generating secondary cases might be limited among pediatric and adolescent cases with COVID-19, especially in settings outside households. Effectiveness of traditional mitigation measures (e.g., school closures) to suppress COVID-19 transmissions should be carefully evaluated.

8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(9)2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209909

ABSTRACT

Detection and isolation of infected people are believed to play an important role in the control of the COVID-19 pandemic. Some countries conduct large-scale screenings for testing, whereas others test mainly people with high prior probability of infection such as showing severe symptoms and/or having an epidemiological link with a known or suspected case or cluster of cases. However, what a good testing strategy is and whether the difference in testing strategy shows a meaningful, measurable impact on the COVID-19 epidemic remain unknown. Here, we showed that patterns of association between effective reproduction number (Rt) and test positivity rate can illuminate differences in testing situation among different areas, using global and local data from Japan. This association can also evaluate the adequacy of current testing systems and what information is captured in COVID-19 surveillance. The differences in testing systems alone cannot predict the results of epidemic containment efforts. Furthermore, monitoring test positivity rates and severe case proportions among the nonelderly can predict imminent case count increases. Monitoring test positivity rates in conjunction with the concurrent Rt could be useful to assess and strengthen public health management and testing systems and deepen understanding of COVID-19 epidemic dynamics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Basic Reproduction Number , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(3): 915-918, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100023

ABSTRACT

The overall coronavirus disease secondary attack rate (SAR) in family members was 19.0% in 10 prefectures of Japan during February 22-May 31, 2020. The SAR was lower for primary cases diagnosed early, within 2 days after symptom onset. The SAR of asymptomatic primary cases was 11.8%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Family , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Incidence , Japan/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors
10.
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine ; 276(1):36-38, 2021.
Article in Japanese | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-1013731
13.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 583252, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-843958

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a worldwide pandemic. Many projections concerning the outbreak, such as the estimated number of cases and deaths in upcoming months, have been made available. However, what happens to the virus after the pandemic subsides has not been fully explored. In this article, we discuss the ways that past and present human viruses have emerged via zoonotic transmission, the mechanisms that they have acquired the ability for effective transmission among humans, the process to sustain a chain of transmission to coexist with humans, and the factors important for complete containment leading to eradication of viruses. These aspects of viral disease may provide clues for the future path that SARS-CoV-2 might take in relation to human infection.

15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(9)2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-594262

ABSTRACT

We analyzed 3,184 cases of coronavirus disease in Japan and identified 61 case-clusters in healthcare and other care facilities, restaurants and bars, workplaces, and music events. We also identified 22 probable primary case-patients for the clusters; most were 20-39 years of age and presymptomatic or asymptomatic at virus transmission.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19 , Cluster Analysis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
16.
Japan Policy Forum ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-591756

ABSTRACT

おしたに ひとし 1987 年東北大学医学部卒業、 97 年テキサス大学公衆衛生大学院公衆衛生修士 (テキサス大学) 。医学博士(東北大学) 。専門はウ イルス感染症の疫学研究、感染症対策。WHO 西 太平洋事務局感染症地域アドバイザーなどを経て、 2005 年より現職。著書に 『パンデミックとたたかう』 『新型インフルエンザはなぜ恐ろしいのか』 (ともに 共著)など。 聞 き 手 ・ 本 誌 編 集 長-新 型 コ ロ ナ ウ イ ル ス 感 染 症 ( C O V I D-19 、 ウ イ ル ス 名 は

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