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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 304, 2021 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153989

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease once thought to be a respiratory infection is now recognised as a multi-system disease affecting the respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, neurological, immune, and hematopoietic systems. An emerging body of evidence suggests the persistence of COVID-19 symptoms of varying patterns among some survivors. This study aimed to describe persistent symptoms in COVID-19 survivors and investigate possible risk factors for these persistent symptoms. METHODS: The study used a retrospective study design. The study population comprised of discharged COVID-19 patients. Demographic information, days since discharge, comorbidities, and persistent COVID-19 like symptoms were assessed in patients attending the COVID-19 outpatient clinic in Lagos State. Statistical analysis was done using STATA 15.0 software (StataCorp Texas) with significance placed at p-value < 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 274 patients were enrolled in the study. A majority were within the age group > 35 to ≤49 years (38.3%), and male (66.1%). More than one-third (40.9%) had persistent COVID-19 symptoms after discharge, and 19.7% had more than three persistent COVID-like symptoms. The most persistent COVID-like symptoms experienced were easy fatigability (12.8%), headaches (12.8%), and chest pain (9.8%). Symptomatic COVID-19 disease with moderate severity compared to mild severity was a predictor of persistent COVID-like symptoms after discharge (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Findings from this study suggests that patients who recovered from COVID-19 disease may still experience COVID-19 like symptoms, particularly fatigue and headaches. Therefore, careful monitoring should be in place after discharge to help mitigate the effects of these symptoms and improve the quality of life of COVID-19 survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Survivors , Adult , Chest Pain/virology , Comorbidity , Fatigue/virology , Female , Headache/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Patient Discharge , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies
2.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248281, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133691

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on the comorbidities that result in negative outcomes for people with COVID-19 are currently scarce for African populations. This study identifies comorbidities that predict death among a large sample of COVID-19 patients from Nigeria. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of medical records for 2184 laboratory confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Lagos, southwest Nigeria. Extracted data included age, sex, severity of condition at presentation and self-reported comorbidities. The outcomes of interest were death or discharge from facility. RESULTS: Most of the cases were male (65.8%) and the median age was 43 years (IQR: 33-55). Four hundred and ninety-two patients (22.5%) had at least one comorbidity and the most common amongst them were hypertension (74.2%) and diabetes (30.3%). The mortality rate was 3.3% and a significantly higher proportion of patients with comorbidities died compared to those with none. The comorbidities that predicted death were hypertension (OR: 2.21, 95%CI: 1.22-4.01), diabetes (OR: 3.69, 95% CI: 1.99-6.85), renal disease (OR: 12.53, 95%CI: 1.97-79.56), cancer (OR: 14.12, 95% CI: 2.03-98.19) and HIV (OR: 1.77-84.15]. CONCLUSION: Comorbidities are prevalent and the associated risk of death is high among COVID-19 patients in Lagos, Nigeria. Public enlightenment, early identification and targeted care for COVID-19 cases with comorbidities are recommended as the pandemic evolves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Comorbidity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
3.
J Natl Med Assoc ; 113(3): 301-306, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988462

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving global situation, infecting over 25 million people and causing more than 850,000 deaths. Several signs and symptoms have been described to be characteristic of the disease. However, there is a dearth of report on the description of the clinical characteristics of the disease in patients from Nigeria. This study was designed to provide a description of the clinical and demographic characteristics of COVID-19 patients in Nigeria. METHODS: This study is a case series that includes patients that are evaluated between May and August 2020, and diagnosed with COVID-19. Patient health records were reviewed and evaluated to describe the clinical characteristics on presentation. RESULTS: A total of 154 COVID-19 patients were included in this study, with a mean age (S.D.) of 46.16 (13.701). Most of the patients survived (mortality rate of 2.6%), and were symptomatic (89.6%). There were more males (74.7%) than females, and the most common symptoms were fever, breathing difficulty, dry cough and malaise. Co-morbidities were also present in almost half of the study participants (49.4%). CONCLUSION: This study presents the most extensive description, to date, on the clinical and demographic characteristics of COVID-19 patients in Nigeria. Males are more likely than females to be infected with COVID-19 and the most occurring symptoms are fever, breathing difficulty, malaise, dry cough and chest pain. Old age and the presence of co-morbidities may also be associated with developing the severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Demography , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
4.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 27(4): 285-292, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914656

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The clinical spectrum of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is still evolving. This study describes the clinical characteristics and investigates factors that predict symptomatic presentation and duration of hospitalisation in a cohort of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients managed in Lagos, Nigeria. METHODOLOGY: This was a retrospective assessment of patients hospitalised with COVID-19 disease in six dedicated facilities in Lagos, Nigeria, between April 1st and May 31st 2020. Participants were individuals with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The outcome measures were presence of symptoms and duration of hospitalisation. Demographic and comorbidity data were also obtained. Statistical analysis was done using STATA 15.0 software, with P < 0.05 being considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 632 cases were analysed. The median age was 40 years (IQR: 30.5-49); male patients accounted for 60.1%. About 63% of patients were asymptomatic at presentation. Among the symptomatic, the most common symptoms were cough (47.4%) and fever (39.7%). The most common comorbidities were hypertension (16.8%) and diabetes (5.2%). The median duration of hospitalisation was 10 days (IQR: 8-14). Comorbidities increased the odds of presenting with symptoms 1.6-fold (P = 0.025) for one comorbidity and 3.2-fold (P = 0.005) for ≥2 comorbidities. Individuals aged ≥50 years were twice as likely to be hospitalised for more than 14 days compared to individuals aged <50 years (P = 0.016). CONCLUSION: Most individuals had no symptoms with comorbidities increasing the likelihood of symptoms. Older age was associated with longer duration of hospitalisation. Age and comorbidities should be used for COVID-19 triaging for efficient resource allocation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Hospitalization , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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