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1.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 152(19-20)2022 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876017

ABSTRACT

AIMS OF THE STUDY: In the global COVID-19 pandemic, female sex is associated with comparable infection rates but better outcome. However, most studies lacked appropriate controls. We investigated whether these sex disparity findings are specific to patients with COVID-19 or generalizable to patients presenting to the emergency room (ER) with similar symptoms but no COVID-19. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, consecutive patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 were recruited at the ER of the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland from March to June 2020. Patients were categorized as SARS-CoV-2 positive (cases) or negative (controls) based on nasopharyngeal PCR swab tests. The final clinical diagnosis was determined for all patients. The primary outcome was a composite of intensive care admission, rehospitalization for respiratory distress and all-cause death within 30 days. We used Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models to explore associations between sex and outcomes. RESULTS: Among 1,081 consecutive ER patients, 191 (18%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, with an even sex distribution (17.9% female vs. 17.5% male, p = 0.855). In COVID-19 patients, female sex was associated with lower risk of hospitalization (51% vs. 66%, p = 0.034), lower necessity of haemodynamic support (8% vs. 20%, p = 0.029), lower rates of intubation (10% vs. 21%, p = 0.037) and the primary outcome (18% vs. 31%, p = 0.045; age-adjusted HR 0.536, 95%CI 0.290-0.989, p = 0.046) compared with male sex. Sex disparities were most prominent in patients ≥55 years (HR for composite primary outcome in women 0.415, 95%CI 0.201-0.855, p = 0.017). In contrast to the COVID-19 patients, no sex-specific differences in outcomes were observed in the unselected overall control group (age-adjusted HR 0.844, 95%CI 0.560-1.273, p = 0.419) or in a subgroup of controls with upper respiratory tract infections or pneumonia (age-adjusted HR 0.840, 95%CI 0.418-1.688, p = 0.624). CONCLUSION: In this unselected, consecutive cohort study at a tertiary hospital in Switzerland, female sex is associated with better outcome in patients presenting to the ER with COVID-19. These sex disparities seem to be at least partly specific to COVID-19, as they were not observed in comparable controls.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology
2.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0269005, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory biomarkers are associated with severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, direct comparisons of their utility in COVID-19 versus other respiratory infections are largely missing. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the prognostic utility of various inflammatory biomarkers in COVID-19 compared to patients with other respiratory infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 were prospectively enrolled. Levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), c-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin, ferritin, and leukocytes were compared between COVID-19, other viral respiratory infections, and bacterial pneumonia. Primary outcome was the need for hospitalisation, secondary outcome was the composite of intensive care unit (ICU) admission or death at 30 days. RESULTS: Among 514 patients with confirmed respiratory infections, 191 (37%) were diagnosed with COVID-19, 227 (44%) with another viral respiratory infection (viral controls), and 96 (19%) with bacterial pneumonia (bacterial controls). All inflammatory biomarkers differed significantly between diagnoses and were numerically higher in hospitalized patients, regardless of diagnoses. Discriminative accuracy for hospitalisation was highest for IL-6 and CRP in all three diagnoses (in COVID-19, area under the curve (AUC) for IL-6 0.899 [95%CI 0.850-0.948]; AUC for CRP 0.922 [95%CI 0.879-0.964]). Similarly, IL-6 and CRP ranged among the strongest predictors for ICU admission or death at 30 days in COVID-19 (AUC for IL-6 0.794 [95%CI 0.694-0.894]; AUC for CRP 0.807 [95%CI 0.721-0.893]) and both controls. Predictive values of inflammatory biomarkers were generally higher in COVID-19 than in controls. CONCLUSION: In patients with COVID-19 and other respiratory infections, inflammatory biomarkers harbour strong prognostic information, particularly IL-6 and CRP. Their routine use may support early management decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Bacterial , Respiratory Tract Infections , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnosis , Prospective Studies
3.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30087, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687290

ABSTRACT

The benefits of vaccination - regarding COVID-19 infection and transmission, as well as COVID-associated complications - clearly outweigh the potential risk of vaccine-associated inflammation of the heart and other adverse events. Given the current state of knowledge, the outcome of myocarditis and pericarditis following vaccination is generally good. This review aims to guide physicians in the early diagnosis and management of suspected myocarditis following mRNA COVID vaccination. The initial work-up should include detailed history, a 12-lead electrocardiogram and serological biomarkers (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T/I, natriuretic peptides and markers of inflammation) in accordance with the assessments recommended in current clinical practice guidelines for patients presenting with acute chest pain. In patients with suspected myocarditis, further assessment with transthoracic echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging should be undertaken to confirm peri-/myocarditis and to distinguish the findings from other diseases with similar presentation. Patients with mRNA vaccine-associated myocarditis should be followed-up at least once to exclude chronic myocardial inflammation and deterioration of left ventricular ejection fraction. Consultation with an expert such as an immunologist with experience in vaccination regarding further mRNA vaccinations is advised in all patients with mRNA vaccine-associated perimyocarditis. Reporting of mRNA vaccine-associated myocarditis to Swissmedic is mandatory. Cohort studies prospectively follow-up on young adult and paediatric populations following immunisation with an mRNA COVID vaccine to monitor cardiac and immune parameters would generate valuable knowledge to better understand pathogenesis and risk factors for vaccine-associated perimyocarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Pericarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Vaccination/adverse effects , Ventricular Function, Left , Young Adult
4.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30087, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478316

ABSTRACT

The benefits of vaccination - regarding COVID-19 infection and transmission, as well as COVID-associated complications - clearly outweigh the potential risk of vaccine-associated inflammation of the heart and other adverse events. Given the current state of knowledge, the outcome of myocarditis and pericarditis following vaccination is generally good. This review aims to guide physicians in the early diagnosis and management of suspected myocarditis following mRNA COVID vaccination. The initial work-up should include detailed history, a 12-lead electrocardiogram and serological biomarkers (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T/I, natriuretic peptides and markers of inflammation) in accordance with the assessments recommended in current clinical practice guidelines for patients presenting with acute chest pain. In patients with suspected myocarditis, further assessment with transthoracic echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging should be undertaken to confirm peri-/myocarditis and to distinguish the findings from other diseases with similar presentation. Patients with mRNA vaccine-associated myocarditis should be followed-up at least once to exclude chronic myocardial inflammation and deterioration of left ventricular ejection fraction. Consultation with an expert such as an immunologist with experience in vaccination regarding further mRNA vaccinations is advised in all patients with mRNA vaccine-associated perimyocarditis. Reporting of mRNA vaccine-associated myocarditis to Swissmedic is mandatory. Cohort studies prospectively follow-up on young adult and paediatric populations following immunisation with an mRNA COVID vaccine to monitor cardiac and immune parameters would generate valuable knowledge to better understand pathogenesis and risk factors for vaccine-associated perimyocarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Pericarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Vaccination/adverse effects , Ventricular Function, Left , Young Adult
5.
J Clin Med ; 10(19)2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463721

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We aimed to prospectively investigate the effectiveness of a standardized follow-up for AF-detection after common atrial flutter (cAFL) ablation. METHODS: A total of 309 patients after cAFL ablation without known AF, from 5 centers, and at least one completed, standardized follow-up at 3, 6 and 12 months, including a 24 h Holter-electrocardiogram (ECG), were included. The primary outcome was incident atrial fibrillation (AF), or atrial tachycardia (AT). Predictors were investigated by Cox proportional-hazards models. RESULTS: The mean age was 67.9 years; 15.2% were female and the mean CHA2DS2-VASc (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age, Diabetes, Stroke, Vascular disease, Sex category) score was 2.4 points. The great majority of patients (90.3%) were anticoagulated. Over a mean follow-up of 12.2 months with a standardized approach, AF/AT was detected in 73 patients, corresponding to 11.7% at 3 months, 18.4% at 6 months and 28.2% at 12 months of follow-up. AF was found in 64 patients, AT in 9 and both in 2 patients. Occurrence of AF was recorded in 40 (60.6%) patients by Holter-ECG and in the remaining 26 (39.4%) by clinical follow-up only. There was no difference in male versus female (p = 0.08), or in younger versus older patients (p = 0.96) for AF/AT detection. Only coronary artery disease (hazard ratio [95% confidence intervals] 1.03 [1.01-1.05], p = 0.01) was associated with the primary outcome. CONCLUSIONS: AF or AT was detected in a large proportion of cAFL patients after cavotricuspid-isthmus (CTI) ablation, using a standardized follow-up over 1 year. This standardized screening can be easily implemented with high patient acceptance. The high proportion of post-ablation AF needs to be taken into consideration when deciding on long-term oral anticoagulation.

6.
J Clin Med ; 10(12)2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273474

ABSTRACT

Most studies investigating early risk predictors in coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) lacked comparison with controls. We aimed to assess and directly compare outcomes and risk predictors at time of emergency department (ED) presentation in COVID-19 and controls. Consecutive patients presenting to the ED with suspected COVID-19 were prospectively enrolled. COVID-19-patients were compared with (i) patients tested negative (overall controls) and (ii) patients tested negative, who had a respiratory infection (respiratory controls). Primary outcome was the composite of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death at 30 days. Among 1081 consecutive cases, 191 (18%) were tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and 890 (82%) were tested negative (overall controls), of which 323 (30%) had a respiratory infection (respiratory controls). Incidence of the composite outcome was significantly higher in COVID-19 (23%) as compared with the overall control group (10%, adjusted-HR 2.45 (95%CI, 1.61-3.74), p < 0.001) or the respiratory control group (10%, adjusted-HR 2.93 (95%CI, 1.66-5.17), p < 0.001). Blood oxygen saturation, age, high-sensitivity troponin, c-reactive protein, and lactate dehydrogenase were identified as the strongest predictors of poor outcome available at time of ED presentation in COVID-19 with highly comparable prognostic utility in overall and respiratory controls. In conclusion, patients presenting to the ED with COVID-19 have a worse outcome than controls, even after adjustment for differences in baseline characteristics. Most predictors of poor outcome in COVID-19 were not restricted to COVID-19, but of comparable prognostic utility in controls and therefore generalizable to unselected patients with suspected COVID-19.

7.
J Clin Med ; 10(11)2021 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259515

ABSTRACT

Older age and frailty are predictors of adverse outcomes in patients with COVID-19. In emergency medicine, patients do not present with the diagnosis, but with suspicion of COVID-19. The aim of this study was to assess the association of frailty and age with death or admission to intensive care in patients with suspected COVID-19. This single-centre prospective cohort study was performed in the Emergency Department of a tertiary care hospital. Patients, 65 years and older, with suspected COVID-19 presenting to the Emergency Department during the first wave of the pandemic were consecutively enrolled. All patients underwent nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 PCR swab tests. Patients with a Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) > 4, were considered to be frail. Associations between age, gender, frailty, and COVID-19 status with the composite adverse outcome of 30-day-intensive-care-admission and/or 30-day-mortality were tested. In the 372 patients analysed, the median age was 77 years, 154 (41.4%) were women, 44 (11.8%) were COVID-19-positive, and 125 (33.6%) were frail. The worst outcome was seen in frail COVID-19-patients with six (66.7%) adverse outcomes. Frailty (CFS > 4) and COVID-19-positivity were associated with an adverse outcome after adjustment for age and gender (frailty: OR 5.01, CI 2.56-10.17, p < 0.001; COVID-19: OR 3.47, CI 1.48-7.89, p = 0.003). Frailty was strongly associated with adverse outcomes and outperformed age as a predictor in emergency patients with suspected COVID-19.

8.
J Clin Med ; 10(11)2021 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244049

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have indicated an association between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and acute kidney injury (AKI) but lacked a control group. The prospective observational COronaVIrus-surviVAl (COVIVA) study performed at the University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland consecutively enrolled patients with symptoms suggestive of COVID-19. We compared patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 with patients who tested negative but with an adjudicated diagnosis of a respiratory tract infection, including pneumonia. The primary outcome measure was death at 30 days, and the secondary outcomes were AKI incidence and a composite endpoint of death, intensive care treatment or rehospitalization at 30 days. Five hundred and seven patients were diagnosed with respiratory tract infections, and of those, 183 (36%) had a positive PCR swab test for SARS-CoV-2. The incidence of AKI was higher in patients with COVID-19 (30% versus 12%, p < 0.001), more severe (KDIGO stage 3, 22% versus 13%, p = 0.009) and more often required renal replacement therapy (4.4% versus 0.93%; p = 0.03). The risk of 30-day mortality and a composite endpoint was higher in patients with COVID-19-associated AKI (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) mortality 3.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-14.46, p = 0.036; composite endpoint aHR 1.84, 95% CI 1.02-3.31, p = 0.042). The mortality risk was attenuated when adjusting for disease severity (aHR 3.60, 95% CI 0.93-13.96, p = 0.062). AKI occurs more frequently and with a higher severity in patients with COVID-19 and is associated with worse outcomes.

9.
Cells ; 10(3)2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129685

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Recently, influences of antihypertensive treatment on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has gained attention, regarding a possible influence on inflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways. We aimed to study the effects of newly initiated antihypertensive drugs on angiotensin (Ang) II and Ang (1-7) as representers of two counter-regulatory axes. (2) Methods: In this randomized, open-label trial investigating RAAS peptides after the initiation of perindopril, olmesartan, amlodipine, or hydrochlorothiazide, Ang II and Ang (1-7) equilibrium concentrations were measured at 8 a.m. and 12 a.m. at baseline and after four weeks of treatment. Eighty patients were randomized (1:1:1:1 fashion). (3) Results: Between the four substances, we found significant differences regarding the concentrations of Ang II (p < 0.0005 for 8 a.m., 12 a.m.) and Ang (1-7) (p = 0.019 for 8 a.m., <0.0005 for 12 a.m.) four weeks after treatment start. Ang II was decreased by perindopril (p = 0.002), and increased by olmesartan (p < 0.0005), amlodipine (p = 0.012), and hydrochlorothiazide (p = 0.001). Ang (1-7) was increased by perindopril and olmesartan (p = 0.008/0.002), but not measurably altered by amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide (p = 0.317/ 0.109). (4) Conclusion: The initiation of all first line antihypertensive treatments causes early and distinct alterations of equilibrium angiotensin levels. Given the additional AT1R blocking action of olmesartan, RAAS peptides shift upon initiation of perindopril and olmesartan appear to work in favor of the anti-inflammatory axis compared to amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Hypertension/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/pathology , Male , Middle Aged
10.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 14(3): e009458, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072830
11.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 184(3): 409-418, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1034947

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has rapidly spread globally and infected millions of people. The prevalence and prognostic impact of dysnatremia in COVID-19 is inconclusive. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence and outcome of dysnatremia in COVID-19. DESIGN: The prospective, observational, cohort study included consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of COVID-19 triaged to a Swiss Emergency Department between March and July 2020. METHODS: Collected data included clinical, laboratory and disease severity scoring parameters on admission. COVID-19 cases were identified based on a positive nasopharyngeal swab test for SARS-CoV-2, patients with a negative swab test served as controls. The primary analysis was to assess the prognostic impact of dysnatremia on 30-day mortality using a cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: 172 (17%) cases with COVID-19 and 849 (83%) controls were included. Patients with COVID-19 showed a higher prevalence of hyponatremia compared to controls (28.1% vs 17.5%, P < 0.001); while comparable for hypernatremia (2.9% vs 2.1%, P = 0.34). In COVID-19 but not in controls, hyponatremia was associated with a higher 30-day mortality (HR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.10-16.62, P = 0.05). In both groups, hypernatremia on admission was associated with higher 30-day mortality (COVID-19 - HR: 11.5, 95% CI: 5.00-26.43, P < 0.001; controls - HR: 5.3, 95% CI: 1.60-17.64, P = 0.006). In both groups, hyponatremia and hypernatremia were significantly associated with adverse outcome, for example, intensive care unit admission, longer hospitalization and mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: Our results underline the importance of dysnatremia as predictive marker in COVID-19. Treating physicians should be aware of appropriate treatment measures to be taken for patients with COVID-19 and dysnatremia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hypernatremia/diagnosis , Hypernatremia/epidemiology , Hyponatremia/diagnosis , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypernatremia/complications , Hypernatremia/therapy , Hyponatremia/complications , Hyponatremia/therapy , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pandemics , Prevalence , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology , Triage
12.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 32: 100686, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the acute treatment of patients with ST-segment elevation (STEMI) and Non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with suspected ACS. We evaluated the number of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) for STEMI, NSTE-ACS, and elective PCI cases. In STEMI patients, we assessed the time from chest pain onset (cpo) to ED presentation, post-infarction left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and time from ED presentation to PCI. We directly compared cases from two time intervals: January/February 2020 versus March/April 2020 (defined as 2 months before and after the COVID-19 outbreak). In a secondary analysis, we directly compared cases from March/April 2020 with patients from the same time interval in 2019. RESULTS: From January to April 2020, 765 patients presented with acute chest pain to the ED. A dramatic reduction of ED presentations after compared to before the COVID-19 outbreak (31% relative reduction) was observed. Overall, 398 PCIs were performed, 220/398 PCIs (55.3%) before versus 178/398 PCIs (44.7%) after the outbreak. While numbers for NSTE-ACS and elective interventions declined by 21% and 31%, respectively, the number of STEMI cases remained stable. Time from cpo to ED presentation, post-infarction LVEF, and median door-to-balloon time remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to previous reports, our findings do not confirm the dramatic drop in STEMI cases and interventions in northwestern Switzerland as observed in other regions and hospitals around the world.

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