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1.
Am Heart J ; 2023 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323568

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac involvement can lead to significant morbidity in children with acute COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). However, the presentation and outcomes of cardiac involvement may differ among these 2 conditions. We aimed to compare the frequency and extent of cardiac involvement among children admitted with acute COVID-19 vs those with MIS-C. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study of patients admitted to our hospital from March 2020 to August 2021 with symptomatic acute COVID-19 or MIS-C. Cardiac involvement was defined by presence of 1 or more of the following: elevated troponin, elevated brain natriuretic peptide, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction on echocardiogram, coronary dilation on echocardiogram, or abnormal electrocardiogram reading. RESULTS: Among 346 acute COVID-19 patients with median age of 8.9 years and 304 MIS-C patients with median age of 9.1 years, cardiac involvement was present in 33 acute COVID-19 patients (9.5%) and 253 MIS-C patients (83.2%). The most common cardiac abnormality was abnormal electrocardiogram in acute COVID-19 patients (7.5%) and elevated troponin in MIS-C patients (67.8%). Among acute COVID-19 patients, obesity was significantly associated with cardiac involvement. Among MIS-C patients, non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity was significantly associated with cardiac involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac involvement is much more common in children with MIS-C than in those with acute COVID-19. These results reinforce our standardized practice of performing full cardiac evaluations and follow-up in all patients with MIS-C but only in acute COVID-19 patients with signs or symptoms of cardiac involvement.

2.
J Pediatr ; : 113462, 2023 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314202

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To report intermediate cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) findings of COVID-19 vaccine associated myopericarditis (C-VAM) and compare with classic myocarditis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study including children diagnosed with C-VAM from 5/2021 through 12/2021 with early and intermediate CMR. Patients with classic myocarditis from 1/2015 through 12/2021 and intermediate CMR were included for comparison. RESULTS: There were 8 patients with C-VAM and 20 with classic myocarditis. Among those with C-VAM, CMR performed at median 3 days (IQR 3, 7) revealed 2/8 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)<55%, 7/7 patients receiving contrast with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), and 5/8 patients with elevated native T1 values. Borderline T2 values suggestive of myocardial edema were present in 6/8. Follow-up CMRs performed at median 107 days (IQR 97, 177) showed normal ventricular systolic function, T1, and T2 values; 3/7 patients had LGE. At intermediate follow-up, C-VAM patients had fewer myocardial segments with LGE than classic myocarditis patients (4/119 vs 42/340, p=0.004). C-VAM patients also had a lower frequency of LGE (42.9 vs 75.0%) and lower percentage of LVEF<55% compared with classic myocarditis (0.0 vs 30.0%), although these differences were not statistically significant. Five classic myocarditis patients did not receive an early CMR, leading to some selection bias in study design. CONCLUSION: Patients with C-VAM had no evidence of active inflammation or ventricular dysfunction on intermediate CMR, although a minority had persistent LGE. Intermediate findings in C-VAM revealed less LGE burden compared with classic myocarditis.

3.
Cardiol Young ; : 1-7, 2023 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children is a rare, post-infectious complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children. We aimed to assess the long-term sequelae, particularly cardiac, in a large, diverse population. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of all children (aged 0-20 years, n = 304) admitted to a tertiary care centre with a diagnosis of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children from March 1, 2020 to August 31, 2021 and had at least one follow-up visit through December 31, 2021. Data were collected at hospitalisation, 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 1 year after diagnosis, where applicable. Cardiovascular outcomes included left ventricular ejection fraction, presence or absence of pericardial effusion, coronary artery abnormalities, and abnormal electrocardiogram findings. RESULTS: Population was median age 9 years (IQR 5-12), 62.2% male, 61.8% African American (AA), and 15.8% Hispanic. Hospitalisation findings included abnormal echocardiogram 57.2%, mean worst recorded left ventricular ejection fraction 52.4% ± 12.4%, non-trivial pericardial effusion 13.4%, coronary artery abnormalities 10.6%, and abnormal ECG 19.6%. During follow-up, abnormal echocardiogram significantly decreased to 6.0% at 2 weeks and 4.7% at 6 weeks. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction significantly increased to 65.4% ± 5.6% at 2 weeks and stabilised. Pericardial effusion significantly decreased to 3.2% at 2 weeks and stabilised. Coronary artery abnormalities significantly decreased to 2.0% and abnormal electrocardiograms significantly decreased to 6.4% at 2 weeks and stabilised. CONCLUSION: Children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children have significant echocardiographic abnormalities during the acute presentation, but these findings typically improve within weeks. However, a small subset of patients may have persistent coronary abnormalities.

4.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 42(3): e64-e69, 2023 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262171

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) rarely involves delayed giant coronary aneurysms, multiple readmissions or occurrence after COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: We describe a child with all 3 of these unusual features. We discuss his clinical presentation, medical management, review of the current literature and CDC guidance recommendations regarding further vaccinations. RESULTS: A 5-year-old boy had onset of MIS-C symptoms 55 days after COVID-19 illness and 15 days after receiving his first BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccination. He was admitted 3 times for MIS-C, and twice after his steroid dose was tapered. On his initial admission, he was given intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids. During his second admission, new, moderate coronary dilation was noted, and he was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids. At his last admission, worsening coronary dilation was noted, and he was treated with infliximab and steroids. During follow-up, he had improvement in his coronary artery dilatation. However, his inflammatory markers increased after steroid wean, and his steroid taper was further extended, after which time his inflammatory markers improved. This is the only such reported case of a patient who was admitted 3 times for MIS-C complications after COVID-19 vaccination. CONCLUSION: MIS-C rarely involves delayed giant coronary aneurysms, multiple readmissions, or occurrence after COVID-19 vaccination. Whether our patient's COVID-19 vaccine 6 weeks after COVID-19 illness contributed to his MIS-C is unknown. After consultation with the CDC-funded Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Project, the patient's care team decided against further COVID-19 vaccination until at least 3 months post normalization of inflammatory markers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Aneurysm , Male , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , COVID-19 Vaccines , BNT162 Vaccine , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Patient Readmission , Vaccination , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
5.
Cureus ; 14(12): e32139, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203376

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) following SARS-CoV-2 infection has been shown to lead to depressed cardiac function. Standard treatment includes high-dose glucocorticoids (GC). We present the unusual case of a teenager who developed transient echocardiographic global ventricular hypertrophy following GC administration during his treatment for MIS-C, with the resolution of the hypertrophy after cessation of GC.

6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(1): e2248987, 2023 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2172237

ABSTRACT

Importance: Data are limited regarding adverse reactions after COVID-19 vaccination in patients with a history of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). The lack of vaccine safety data in this unique population may cause hesitancy and concern for many families and health care professionals. Objective: To describe adverse reactions following COVID-19 vaccination in patients with a history of MIS-C. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this multicenter cross-sectional study including 22 North American centers participating in a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health-sponsored study, Long-Term Outcomes After the Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MUSIC), patients with a prior diagnosis of MIS-C who were eligible for COVID-19 vaccination (age ≥5 years; ≥90 days after MIS-C diagnosis) were surveyed between December 13, 2021, and February 18, 2022, regarding COVID-19 vaccination status and adverse reactions. Exposures: COVID-19 vaccination after MIS-C diagnosis. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was adverse reactions following COVID-19 vaccination. Comparisons were made using the Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous variables and the χ2 or Fisher exact test for categorical variables. Results: Of 385 vaccine-eligible patients who were surveyed, 185 (48.1%) received at least 1 vaccine dose; 136 of the vaccinated patients (73.5%) were male, and the median age was 12.2 years (IQR, 9.5-14.7 years). Among vaccinated patients, 1 (0.5%) identified as American Indian/Alaska Native, non-Hispanic; 9 (4.9%) as Asian, non-Hispanic; 45 (24.3%) as Black, non-Hispanic; 59 (31.9%) as Hispanic or Latino; 53 (28.6%) as White, non-Hispanic; 2 (1.1%) as multiracial, non-Hispanic; and 2 (1.1%) as other, non-Hispanic; 14 (7.6%) had unknown or undeclared race and ethnicity. The median time from MIS-C diagnosis to first vaccine dose was 9.0 months (IQR, 5.1-11.9 months); 31 patients (16.8%) received 1 dose, 142 (76.8%) received 2 doses, and 12 (6.5%) received 3 doses. Almost all patients received the BNT162b2 vaccine (347 of 351 vaccine doses [98.9%]). Minor adverse reactions were observed in 90 patients (48.6%) and were most often arm soreness (62 patients [33.5%]) and/or fatigue (32 [17.3%]). In 32 patients (17.3%), adverse reactions were treated with medications, most commonly acetaminophen (21 patients [11.4%]) or ibuprofen (11 [5.9%]). Four patients (2.2%) sought medical evaluation, but none required testing or hospitalization. There were no patients with any serious adverse events, including myocarditis or recurrence of MIS-C. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of patients with a history of MIS-C, no serious adverse events were reported after COVID-19 vaccination. These findings suggest that the safety profile of COVID-19 vaccination administered at least 90 days following MIS-C diagnosis appears to be similar to that in the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Connective Tissue Diseases , United States/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Female , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination/adverse effects
7.
Cardiol Young ; : 1-6, 2023 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2170724

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While most children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children have rapid recovery of cardiac dysfunction, little is known about the long-term outcomes regarding exercise capacity. We aimed to compare the exercise capacity among patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children versus viral/idiopathic myocarditis at 3-6 months after initial diagnosis. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study among patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children in June 2020 to May 2021 and patients with viral/idiopathic myocarditis in August 2014 to January 2020. Data from cardiopulmonary exercise test as well as echocardiographic and laboratory data were obtained. Inclusion criteria included diagnosis of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children or viral/idiopathic myocarditis, exercise test performed within 3-6 months of hospital discharge, and maximal effort on cardiopulmonary exercise test as determined by respiratory exchange ratio >1.10. RESULTS: Thirty-one patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and 25 with viral/idiopathic myocarditis were included. The mean percent predicted peak VO2 was 90.84% for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children patients and 91.08% for those with viral/idiopathic myocarditis (p-value 0.955). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with regard to percent predicted maximal heart rate, metabolic equivalents, percent predicted peak VO2, percent predicted anerobic threshold, or percent predicted O2 pulse. There was a statistically significant correlation between lowest ejection fraction during hospitalisation and peak VO2 among viral/idiopathic myocarditis patients (r: 0.62, p-value 0.01) but not multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children patients (r: 0.1, p-value 0.6). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and viral myocarditis appear to, on average, have normal exercise capacity around 3-6 months following hospital discharge. For patients with viral/idiopathic myocarditis, those with worse ejection fraction during hospitalisation had lower peak VO2 on cardiopulmonary exercise test.

8.
MMWR Recomm Rep ; 71(4): 1-14, 2022 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2164343

ABSTRACT

This report summarizes the evidence and rationale supporting the components of the CSTE/CDC MIS-C surveillance case definition and describes the methods used to develop the definition. These methods included convening MIS-C clinical experts (i.e., consultants): regarding identification of MIS-C and its distinction from other pediatric conditions, a review of available literature comparing MIS-C phenotype with that of pediatric COVID-19 and other hyperinflammatory syndromes, and retrospective application of different criteria to data from MIS-C cases previously reported to CDC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , United States/epidemiology , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Epidemiologists , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Population Surveillance
9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(9): e024393, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108433

ABSTRACT

Background Although rare, classic viral myocarditis in the pediatric population is a disease that carries significant morbidity and mortality. Since 2020, myocarditis has been a common component of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) following SARS-CoV-2 infection. In 2021, myocarditis related to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines was recognized as a rare adverse event. This study aims to compare classic, MIS-C, and COVID-19 vaccine-related myocarditis with regard to clinical presentation, course, and outcomes. Methods and Results In this retrospective cohort study, we compared patients aged <21 years hospitalized at our institution with classic viral myocarditis from 2015 to 2019, MIS-C myocarditis from March 2020 to February 2021, and vaccine-related myocarditis from May 2021 to June 2021. Of 201 total participants, 43 patients had classic myocarditis, 149 had MIS-C myocarditis, and 9 had vaccine-related myocarditis. At presentation, ejection fraction was lowest for those with classic myocarditis, with ejection fraction <55% present in 58% of patients. Nearly all patients with MIS-C myocarditis (n=139, 93%) and all patients with vaccine-related myocarditis (n=9, 100%) had normal left ventricular ejection fraction at the time of discharge compared with 70% (n=30) of the classic myocarditis group (P<0.001). At 3 months after discharge, of the 21 children discharged with depressed ejection fraction, none of the 10 children with MIS-C myocarditis had residual dysfunction compared with 3 of the 11 (27%) patients in the classic myocarditis group. Conclusions Compared with classic myocarditis, those with MIS-C myocarditis had better clinical outcomes, including rapid recovery of cardiac function. Patients with vaccine-related myocarditis had prompt resolution of symptoms and improvement of cardiac function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Humans , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Ventricular Function, Left
10.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 6(11): 788-798, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096191

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on medium-term outcomes in indivduals with myocarditis after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination are scarce. We aimed to assess clinical outcomes and quality of life at least 90 days since onset of myocarditis after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination in adolescents and young adults. METHODS: In this follow-up surveillance study, we conducted surveys in US individuals aged 12-29 years with myocarditis after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination, for whom a report had been filed to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System between Jan 12 and Nov 5, 2021. A two-component survey was administered, one component to patients (or parents or guardians) and one component to health-care providers, to assess patient outcomes at least 90 days since myocarditis onset. Data collected were recovery status, cardiac testing, and functional status, and EuroQol health-related quality-of-life measures (dichotomised as no problems or any problems), and a weighted quality-of-life measure, ranging from 0 to 1 (full health). The EuroQol results were compared with published results in US populations (aged 18-24 years) from before and early on in the COVID-19 pandemic. FINDINGS: Between Aug 24, 2021, and Jan 12, 2022, we collected data for 519 (62%) of 836 eligible patients who were at least 90 days post-myocarditis onset: 126 patients via patient survey only, 162 patients via health-care provider survey only, and 231 patients via both surveys. Median patient age was 17 years (IQR 15-22); 457 (88%) patients were male and 61 (12%) were female. 320 (81%) of 393 patients with a health-care provider assessment were considered recovered from myocarditis by their health-care provider, although at the last health-care provider follow-up, 104 (26%) of 393 patients were prescribed daily medication related to myocarditis. Of 249 individuals who completed the quality-of-life portion of the patient survey, four (2%) reported problems with self-care, 13 (5%) with mobility, 49 (20%) with performing usual activities, 74 (30%) with pain, and 114 (46%) with depression. Mean weighted quality-of-life measure (0·91 [SD 0·13]) was similar to a pre-pandemic US population value (0·92 [0·13]) and significantly higher than an early pandemic US population value (0·75 [0·28]; p<0·0001). Most patients had improvements in cardiac diagnostic marker and testing data at follow-up, including normal or back-to-baseline troponin concentrations (181 [91%] of 200 patients with available data), echocardiograms (262 [94%] of 279 patients), electrocardiograms (240 [77%] of 311 patients), exercise stress testing (94 [90%] of 104 patients), and ambulatory rhythm monitoring (86 [90%] of 96 patients). An abnormality was noted among 81 (54%) of 151 patients with follow-up cardiac MRI; however, evidence of myocarditis suggested by the presence of both late gadolinium enhancement and oedema on cardiac MRI was uncommon (20 [13%] of 151 patients). At follow-up, most patients were cleared for all physical activity (268 [68%] of 393 patients). INTERPRETATION: After at least 90 days since onset of myocarditis after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination, most individuals in our cohort were considered recovered by health-care providers, and quality of life measures were comparable to those in pre-pandemic and early pandemic populations of a similar age. These findings might not be generalisable given the small sample size and further follow-up is needed for the subset of patients with atypical test results or not considered recovered. FUNDING: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Contrast Media , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gadolinium , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Pandemics , Quality of Life , RNA, Messenger , Troponin , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination , Young Adult
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_2): S303-S307, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051342

ABSTRACT

We describe 2116 multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during Delta and Omicron circulation from July 2021 through January 2022. Half of MIS-C patients were aged 5-11 years, 52% received intensive care unit-level care, and 1.1% died. Only 3.0% of eligible patients were fully vaccinated prior to MIS-C onset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Connective Tissue Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19/complications , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
12.
Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine ; 146(8):921-923, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1989893

ABSTRACT

The authors correctly stated that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) performed testing for SARS-CoV-2 and found no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in autopsy tissues from the decedents. Molecular analysis included polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays on nucleic acid extracted from FFPE heart tissue, including SARS-CoV-2 and enterovirus reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assays2,3 and conventional PCR for parvovirus B19. Clostridium septicum produces multiple toxins that cause necrosis of striated muscle cells9,11 and inhibit influx of neutrophils to infected tissues;indeed, paucity of neutrophilic infiltrates in tissues infected with C septicum is considered a hallmark of this disease.9,12 Clostridium septicum is not considered normal flora of the human intestinal tract,13,14 but rather an opportunistic invader of immunologically compromised hosts, particularly persons with colonic adenocarcinoma, leukemia, diabetes, bowel ischemia, or cyclic, congenital, or acquired neutropenia.7,8 Spontaneous infections have been described for a few pediatric patients with no recognized risk factor and for whom microscopic breaches in the mucosa of the large intestine were considered the likely portal of entry.8,15 No representative samples of the small or large intestine were provided to the IDPB for evaluation;however, histologic evidence of bacterial invasion of the external surfaces of the adrenals, kidneys, liver, and spleen support an intraabdominal source of infection. The findings and conclusions in this letter are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. doi: 10.5858/arpa.2022-0084-LE In Reply.-We thank the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Infectious Diseases Pathology Branch laboratory for performing these tests and for sharing the full extent of its workup.

13.
Pediatrics ; 150(2)2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Limited postauthorization safety data for the Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination among children ages 5 to 11 years are available, particularly for the adverse event myocarditis, which has been detected in adolescents and young adults. We describe adverse events observed during the first 4 months of the United States coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination program in this age group. METHODS: We analyzed data from 3 United States safety monitoring systems: v-safe, a voluntary smartphone-based system that monitors reactions and health effects; the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS), the national spontaneous reporting system comanaged by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Food and Drug Administration; and the Vaccine Safety Datalink, an active surveillance system that monitors electronic health records for prespecified events, including myocarditis. RESULTS: Among 48 795 children ages 5 to 11 years enrolled in v-safe, most reported reactions were mild-to-moderate, most frequently reported the day after vaccination, and were more common after dose 2. VAERS received 7578 adverse event reports; 97% were nonserious. On review of 194 serious VAERS reports, 15 myocarditis cases were verified; 8 occurred in boys after dose 2 (reporting rate 2.2 per million doses). In the Vaccine Safety Datalink, no safety signals were detected in weekly sequential monitoring after administration of 726 820 doses. CONCLUSIONS: Safety findings for Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine from 3 United States monitoring systems in children ages 5 to 11 years show that most reported adverse events were mild and no safety signals were observed in active surveillance. VAERS reporting rates of myocarditis after dose 2 in this age group were substantially lower than those observed among adolescents ages 12 to 15 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/etiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
15.
Vaccine ; 40(35): 5153-5159, 2022 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926970

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that mRNA COVID-19 vaccination is associated with risk of myocarditis and possibly pericarditis, especially in young males. It is not clear if risk differs between mRNA-1273 versus BNT162b2. We assessed if risk differs using comprehensive health records on a diverse population. METHODS: Members 18-39 years of age at eight integrated healthcare-delivery systems were monitored using data updated weekly and supplemented with medical record review of myocarditis and pericarditis cases. Incidence of myocarditis and pericarditis events that occurred among vaccine recipients 0 to 7 days after either dose 1 or 2 of a messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine was compared with that of vaccinated concurrent comparators who, on the same calendar day, had received their most recent dose 22 to 42 days earlier. Rate ratios (RRs) were estimated by conditional Poisson regression, adjusted for age, sex, race and ethnicity, health plan, and calendar day. Head-to-head comparison directly assessed risk following mRNA-1273 versus BNT162b2 during 0-7 days post-vaccination. RESULTS: From December 14, 2020 - January 15, 2022 there were 41 cases after 2,891,498 doses of BNT162b2 and 38 cases after 1,803,267 doses of mRNA-1273. Cases had similar demographic and clinical characteristics. Most were hospitalized for ≤1 day; none required intensive care. During days 0-7 after dose 2 of BNT162b2, the incidence was 14.3 (CI: 6.5-34.9) times higher than the comparison interval, amounting to 22.4 excess cases per million doses; after mRNA-1273 the incidence was 18.8 (CI: 6.7-64.9) times higher than the comparison interval, amounting to 31.2 excess cases per million doses. In head-to-head comparisons 0-7 days after either dose, risk was moderately higher after mRNA-1273 than after BNT162b2 (RR: 1.61, CI 1.02-2.54). CONCLUSIONS: Both vaccines were associated with increased risk of myocarditis and pericarditis in 18-39-year-olds. Risk estimates were modestly higher after mRNA-1273 than after BNT162b2.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination/adverse effects
17.
Circulation ; 145(19): e1037-e1052, 2022 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902156

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) resulted in a global pandemic and has overwhelmed health care systems worldwide. In this scientific statement, we describe the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentations, treatment, and outcomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and young adults with a focus on cardiovascular manifestations and complications. We review current knowledge about the health consequences of this illness in children and young adults with congenital and acquired heart disease, the public health burden and health disparities of this infection in these populations, and vaccine-associated myocarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , American Heart Association , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(14): 517-523, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780340

ABSTRACT

Cardiac complications, particularly myocarditis and pericarditis, have been associated with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) infection (1-3) and mRNA COVID-19 vaccination (2-5). Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) is a rare but serious complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection with frequent cardiac involvement (6). Using electronic health record (EHR) data from 40 U.S. health care systems during January 1, 2021-January 31, 2022, investigators calculated incidences of cardiac outcomes (myocarditis; myocarditis or pericarditis; and myocarditis, pericarditis, or MIS) among persons aged ≥5 years who had SARS-CoV-2 infection, stratified by sex (male or female) and age group (5-11, 12-17, 18-29, and ≥30 years). Incidences of myocarditis and myocarditis or pericarditis were calculated after first, second, unspecified, or any (first, second, or unspecified) dose of mRNA COVID-19 (BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech] or mRNA-1273 [Moderna]) vaccines, stratified by sex and age group. Risk ratios (RR) were calculated to compare risk for cardiac outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infection to that after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. The incidence of cardiac outcomes after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination was highest for males aged 12-17 years after the second vaccine dose; however, within this demographic group, the risk for cardiac outcomes was 1.8-5.6 times as high after SARS-CoV-2 infection than after the second vaccine dose. The risk for cardiac outcomes was likewise significantly higher after SARS-CoV-2 infection than after first, second, or unspecified dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccination for all other groups by sex and age (RR 2.2-115.2). These findings support continued use of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines among all eligible persons aged ≥5 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
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