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1.
Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine ; 146(8):921-923, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1989893

ABSTRACT

The authors correctly stated that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) performed testing for SARS-CoV-2 and found no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in autopsy tissues from the decedents. Molecular analysis included polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays on nucleic acid extracted from FFPE heart tissue, including SARS-CoV-2 and enterovirus reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assays2,3 and conventional PCR for parvovirus B19. Clostridium septicum produces multiple toxins that cause necrosis of striated muscle cells9,11 and inhibit influx of neutrophils to infected tissues;indeed, paucity of neutrophilic infiltrates in tissues infected with C septicum is considered a hallmark of this disease.9,12 Clostridium septicum is not considered normal flora of the human intestinal tract,13,14 but rather an opportunistic invader of immunologically compromised hosts, particularly persons with colonic adenocarcinoma, leukemia, diabetes, bowel ischemia, or cyclic, congenital, or acquired neutropenia.7,8 Spontaneous infections have been described for a few pediatric patients with no recognized risk factor and for whom microscopic breaches in the mucosa of the large intestine were considered the likely portal of entry.8,15 No representative samples of the small or large intestine were provided to the IDPB for evaluation;however, histologic evidence of bacterial invasion of the external surfaces of the adrenals, kidneys, liver, and spleen support an intraabdominal source of infection. The findings and conclusions in this letter are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. doi: 10.5858/arpa.2022-0084-LE In Reply.-We thank the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Infectious Diseases Pathology Branch laboratory for performing these tests and for sharing the full extent of its workup.

2.
Pediatrics ; 150(2)2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Limited postauthorization safety data for the Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination among children ages 5 to 11 years are available, particularly for the adverse event myocarditis, which has been detected in adolescents and young adults. We describe adverse events observed during the first 4 months of the United States coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination program in this age group. METHODS: We analyzed data from 3 United States safety monitoring systems: v-safe, a voluntary smartphone-based system that monitors reactions and health effects; the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS), the national spontaneous reporting system comanaged by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Food and Drug Administration; and the Vaccine Safety Datalink, an active surveillance system that monitors electronic health records for prespecified events, including myocarditis. RESULTS: Among 48 795 children ages 5 to 11 years enrolled in v-safe, most reported reactions were mild-to-moderate, most frequently reported the day after vaccination, and were more common after dose 2. VAERS received 7578 adverse event reports; 97% were nonserious. On review of 194 serious VAERS reports, 15 myocarditis cases were verified; 8 occurred in boys after dose 2 (reporting rate 2.2 per million doses). In the Vaccine Safety Datalink, no safety signals were detected in weekly sequential monitoring after administration of 726 820 doses. CONCLUSIONS: Safety findings for Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine from 3 United States monitoring systems in children ages 5 to 11 years show that most reported adverse events were mild and no safety signals were observed in active surveillance. VAERS reporting rates of myocarditis after dose 2 in this age group were substantially lower than those observed among adolescents ages 12 to 15 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/etiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Vaccine ; 2022 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926970

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that mRNA COVID-19 vaccination is associated with risk of myocarditis and possibly pericarditis, especially in young males. It is not clear if risk differs between mRNA-1273 versus BNT162b2. We assessed if risk differs using comprehensive health records on a diverse population. METHODS: Members 18-39 years of age at eight integrated healthcare-delivery systems were monitored using data updated weekly and supplemented with medical record review of myocarditis and pericarditis cases. Incidence of myocarditis and pericarditis events that occurred among vaccine recipients 0 to 7 days after either dose 1 or 2 of a messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine was compared with that of vaccinated concurrent comparators who, on the same calendar day, had received their most recent dose 22 to 42 days earlier. Rate ratios (RRs) were estimated by conditional Poisson regression, adjusted for age, sex, race and ethnicity, health plan, and calendar day. Head-to-head comparison directly assessed risk following mRNA-1273 versus BNT162b2 during 0-7 days post-vaccination. RESULTS: From December 14, 2020 - January 15, 2022 there were 41 cases after 2,891,498 doses of BNT162b2 and 38 cases after 1,803,267 doses of mRNA-1273. Cases had similar demographic and clinical characteristics. Most were hospitalized for ≤1 day; none required intensive care. During days 0-7 after dose 2 of BNT162b2, the incidence was 14.3 (CI: 6.5-34.9) times higher than the comparison interval, amounting to 22.4 excess cases per million doses; after mRNA-1273 the incidence was 18.8 (CI: 6.7-64.9) times higher than the comparison interval, amounting to 31.2 excess cases per million doses. In head-to-head comparisons 0-7 days after either dose, risk was moderately higher after mRNA-1273 than after BNT162b2 (RR: 1.61, CI 1.02-2.54). CONCLUSIONS: Both vaccines were associated with increased risk of myocarditis and pericarditis in 18-39-year-olds. Risk estimates were modestly higher after mRNA-1273 than after BNT162b2.

6.
Circulation ; 145(19): e1037-e1052, 2022 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902156

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) resulted in a global pandemic and has overwhelmed health care systems worldwide. In this scientific statement, we describe the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentations, treatment, and outcomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and young adults with a focus on cardiovascular manifestations and complications. We review current knowledge about the health consequences of this illness in children and young adults with congenital and acquired heart disease, the public health burden and health disparities of this infection in these populations, and vaccine-associated myocarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , American Heart Association , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890909

ABSTRACT

We describe 2,116 multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) cases reported to CDC during Delta and Omicron circulation from July 2021-January 2022. Half of MIS-C patients were aged 5-11 years, 52% received ICU-level care, and 1.1% died. Only 3.0% of eligible patients were fully vaccinated prior to MIS-C onset.

9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(9): e024393, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816968

ABSTRACT

Background Although rare, classic viral myocarditis in the pediatric population is a disease that carries significant morbidity and mortality. Since 2020, myocarditis has been a common component of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) following SARS-CoV-2 infection. In 2021, myocarditis related to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines was recognized as a rare adverse event. This study aims to compare classic, MIS-C, and COVID-19 vaccine-related myocarditis with regard to clinical presentation, course, and outcomes. Methods and Results In this retrospective cohort study, we compared patients aged <21 years hospitalized at our institution with classic viral myocarditis from 2015 to 2019, MIS-C myocarditis from March 2020 to February 2021, and vaccine-related myocarditis from May 2021 to June 2021. Of 201 total participants, 43 patients had classic myocarditis, 149 had MIS-C myocarditis, and 9 had vaccine-related myocarditis. At presentation, ejection fraction was lowest for those with classic myocarditis, with ejection fraction <55% present in 58% of patients. Nearly all patients with MIS-C myocarditis (n=139, 93%) and all patients with vaccine-related myocarditis (n=9, 100%) had normal left ventricular ejection fraction at the time of discharge compared with 70% (n=30) of the classic myocarditis group (P<0.001). At 3 months after discharge, of the 21 children discharged with depressed ejection fraction, none of the 10 children with MIS-C myocarditis had residual dysfunction compared with 3 of the 11 (27%) patients in the classic myocarditis group. Conclusions Compared with classic myocarditis, those with MIS-C myocarditis had better clinical outcomes, including rapid recovery of cardiac function. Patients with vaccine-related myocarditis had prompt resolution of symptoms and improvement of cardiac function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Humans , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Ventricular Function, Left
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(14): 517-523, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780340

ABSTRACT

Cardiac complications, particularly myocarditis and pericarditis, have been associated with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) infection (1-3) and mRNA COVID-19 vaccination (2-5). Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) is a rare but serious complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection with frequent cardiac involvement (6). Using electronic health record (EHR) data from 40 U.S. health care systems during January 1, 2021-January 31, 2022, investigators calculated incidences of cardiac outcomes (myocarditis; myocarditis or pericarditis; and myocarditis, pericarditis, or MIS) among persons aged ≥5 years who had SARS-CoV-2 infection, stratified by sex (male or female) and age group (5-11, 12-17, 18-29, and ≥30 years). Incidences of myocarditis and myocarditis or pericarditis were calculated after first, second, unspecified, or any (first, second, or unspecified) dose of mRNA COVID-19 (BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech] or mRNA-1273 [Moderna]) vaccines, stratified by sex and age group. Risk ratios (RR) were calculated to compare risk for cardiac outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infection to that after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. The incidence of cardiac outcomes after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination was highest for males aged 12-17 years after the second vaccine dose; however, within this demographic group, the risk for cardiac outcomes was 1.8-5.6 times as high after SARS-CoV-2 infection than after the second vaccine dose. The risk for cardiac outcomes was likewise significantly higher after SARS-CoV-2 infection than after first, second, or unspecified dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccination for all other groups by sex and age (RR 2.2-115.2). These findings support continued use of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines among all eligible persons aged ≥5 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769229

ABSTRACT

Background: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a novel severe postinfectious condition associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The purpose of this report is to describe nationwide trends in the evolving clinical management of MIS-C. Methods: Patients with MIS-C were reported from state and local jurisdictions to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) MIS-C national surveillance system. Patients' case reports were reviewed to ensure that they met the CDC MIS-C case definition and had sufficient data for analysis. The prevalence of use of treatments for MIS-C, temporal trends in use of these treatments, and frequency of administration of different treatment combinations were analyzed. Results: There were 4470 patients meeting the MIS-C case definition with onset dates from 19 February 2020 to 31 July 2021. The proportion of patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) has declined over time, from 78.7% in April 2020 to 57.5% in June 2021 (P = .001). The most common treatments were intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), given to 85.6% of patients; steroids (77.7%), and antiplatelet medications (73.7%); use of each of these treatments has increased over time, particularly in patients not requiring admission to an ICU (all P < .001). Older patients and non-Hispanic Black patients were more likely to receive additional modes of therapy including vasoactive medication, noninvasive respiratory support, anticoagulation medication, and intubation/mechanical ventilation. Conclusions: IVIG, steroids, and antiplatelet medication have become increasingly utilized as standard treatment for MIS-C patients, while the use of other treatments may be contingent on the type and severity of clinical findings.

13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(11): 416-421, 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1744554

ABSTRACT

The mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine is a lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated, nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccine encoding the stabilized prefusion spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. During December 2020, the vaccine was granted Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued an interim recommendation for use among persons aged ≥18 years (1), which was adopted by CDC. During December 19, 2020-January 30, 2022, approximately 204 million doses of Moderna COVID-19 vaccine were administered in the United States (2) as a primary series of 2 intramuscular doses (100 µg [0.5 mL] each) 4 weeks apart. On January 31, 2022, FDA approved a Biologics License Application (BLA) for use of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine (Spikevax, ModernaTX, Inc.) in persons aged ≥18 years (3). On February 4, 2022, the ACIP COVID-19 Vaccines Work Group conclusions regarding recommendations for the use of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine were presented to ACIP at a public meeting. The Work Group's deliberations were based on the Evidence to Recommendation (EtR) Framework,* which incorporates the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach† to rank evidence quality. In addition to initial clinical trial data, ACIP considered new information gathered in the 12 months since issuance of the interim recommendations, including additional follow-up time in the clinical trial, real-world vaccine effectiveness studies, and postauthorization vaccine safety monitoring. ACIP also considered comparisons of mRNA vaccine effectiveness and safety in real-world settings when first doses were administered 8 weeks apart instead of the original intervals used in clinical trials (3 weeks for BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech] COVID-19 vaccine and 4 weeks for Moderna COVID-19 vaccine). Based on this evidence, CDC has provided guidance that an 8-week interval might be optimal for some adolescents and adults. The additional information gathered since the issuance of the interim recommendations increased certainty that the benefits of preventing symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization, and death outweigh vaccine-associated risks of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine. On February 4, 2022, ACIP modified its interim recommendation to a standard recommendation§ for use of the fully licensed Moderna COVID-19 vaccine in persons aged ≥18 years.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , Advisory Committees , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Health Planning Guidelines , Immunization Schedule , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , United States
15.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(3): ofac070, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The serologic and cytokine responses of children hospitalized with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) vs coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are poorly understood. METHODS: We performed a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study of hospitalized children who met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition for MIS-C (n = 118), acute COVID-19 (n = 88), or contemporaneous healthy controls (n = 24). We measured severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers and cytokine concentrations in patients and performed multivariable analysis to determine cytokine signatures associated with MIS-C. We also measured nucleocapsid IgG and convalescent RBD IgG in subsets of patients. RESULTS: Children with MIS-C had significantly higher SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG than children with acute COVID-19 (median, 2783 vs 146; P < .001), and titers correlated with nucleocapsid IgG. For patients with MIS-C, RBD IgG titers declined in convalescence (median, 2783 vs 1135; P = .010) in contrast to patients with COVID-19 (median, 146 vs 4795; P < .001). MIS-C was characterized by transient acute proinflammatory hypercytokinemia, including elevated levels of interleukin (IL) 6, IL-10, IL-17A, and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). Elevation of at least 3 of these cytokines was associated with significantly increased prevalence of prolonged hospitalization ≥8 days (prevalence ratio, 3.29 [95% CI, 1.17-9.23]). CONCLUSIONS: MIS-C was associated with high titers of SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG antibodies and acute hypercytokinemia with IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, and IFN-γ.

16.
J Pediatr ; 245: 95-101, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720473

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) findings of children recovered from multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) longer than 3 months after acute illness. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective cohort study of children hospitalized with MIS-C at a single institution receiving cardiac MR imaging between July 2020 and May 2021. Patient demographics, echocardiogram data from diagnosis through follow-up, and cardiac MR data obtained at approximately 3 months after hospitalization were recorded. RESULTS: In total, 51 children with a median age of 11.3 years were included; 80% of patients had left ventricular ejection fraction <55%, 65% of patients developed valvular regurgitation, and 20% of patients developed coronary artery dilation during acute illness. Cardiac MR was performed at a median time of 105 days after diagnosis; 8% of patients had left ventricular ejection fraction <55%; 1 patient had residual valvular regurgitation; and 2 patients had residual coronary artery dilation. Two of 51 patients were found to have late gadolinium enhancement, T1 mapping abnormalities, and abnormal or borderline extracellular volume calculations suggesting myocardial fibrosis. No patient had T2 mapping abnormalities corresponding with edema, and no patient met the modified Lake Louise criteria for acute myocarditis; 10 of 51 patients had isolated elevated T1 values. CONCLUSIONS: At 3-5 months following diagnosis, cardiac MR reveals no evidence of acute myocarditis as described by the modified Lake Louise criteria in patients with MIS-C. Two patients were observed to have myocardial fibrosis without regional wall motion abnormalities, and 10 had isolated imaging changes (elevated T1 values) in the absence of macroscopic fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Cardiomyopathies , Myocarditis , Acute Disease , COVID-19/complications , Child , Contrast Media , Fibrosis , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocardium/pathology , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Ventricular Function, Left
17.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 6(5): 303-312, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a hyperinflammatory condition associated with antecedent SARS-CoV-2 infection. In the USA, reporting of MIS-C after vaccination is required under COVID-19 vaccine emergency use authorisations. We aimed to investigate reports of individuals aged 12-20 years with MIS-C after COVID-19 vaccination reported to passive surveillance systems or through clinician outreach to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). METHODS: In this surveillance activity, we investigated potential cases of MIS-C after COVID-19 vaccination reported to CDC's MIS-C national surveillance system, the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (co-administered by CDC and the US Food and Drug Administration), and CDC's Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Project. A multidisciplinary team adjudicated cases by use of the CDC MIS-C definition. Any positive SARS-CoV-2 serology test satisfied case criteria; although anti-nucleocapsid antibodies indicate previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, anti-spike protein antibodies indicate either past or recent infection or COVID-19 vaccination. We describe the demographic and clinical features of cases, stratified by laboratory evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. To calculate the reporting rate of MIS-C, we divided the count of all individuals meeting the MIS-C case definition, and of those without evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, by the number of individuals aged 12-20 years in the USA who received one or more COVID-19 vaccine doses up to Aug 31, 2021, obtained from CDC national vaccine surveillance data. FINDINGS: Using surveillance results from Dec 14, 2020, to Aug 31, 2021, we identified 21 individuals with MIS-C after COVID-19 vaccination. Of these 21 individuals, median age was 16 years (range 12-20); 13 (62%) were male and eight (38%) were female. All 21 were hospitalised: 12 (57%) were admitted to an intensive care unit and all were discharged home. 15 (71%) of 21 individuals had laboratory evidence of past or recent SARS-CoV-2 infection, and six (29%) did not. As of Aug 31, 2021, 21 335 331 individuals aged 12-20 years had received one or more doses of a COVID-19 vaccine, making the overall reporting rate for MIS-C after vaccination 1·0 case per million individuals receiving one or more doses in this age group. The reporting rate in only those without evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 0·3 cases per million vaccinated individuals. INTERPRETATION: Here, we describe a small number of individuals with MIS-C who had received one or more doses of a COVID-19 vaccine before illness onset; the contribution of vaccination to these illnesses is unknown. Our findings suggest that MIS-C after COVID-19 vaccination is rare. Continued reporting of potential cases and surveillance for MIS-C illnesses after COVID-19 vaccination is warranted. FUNDING: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
The Lancet. Child & adolescent health ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1695114

ABSTRACT

Background Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a hyperinflammatory condition associated with antecedent SARS-CoV-2 infection. In the USA, reporting of MIS-C after vaccination is required under COVID-19 vaccine emergency use authorisations. We aimed to investigate reports of individuals aged 12–20 years with MIS-C after COVID-19 vaccination reported to passive surveillance systems or through clinician outreach to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Methods In this surveillance activity, we investigated potential cases of MIS-C after COVID-19 vaccination reported to CDC's MIS-C national surveillance system, the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (co-administered by CDC and the US Food and Drug Administration), and CDC's Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Project. A multidisciplinary team adjudicated cases by use of the CDC MIS-C definition. Any positive SARS-CoV-2 serology test satisfied case criteria;although anti-nucleocapsid antibodies indicate previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, anti-spike protein antibodies indicate either past or recent infection or COVID-19 vaccination. We describe the demographic and clinical features of cases, stratified by laboratory evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. To calculate the reporting rate of MIS-C, we divided the count of all individuals meeting the MIS-C case definition, and of those without evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, by the number of individuals aged 12–20 years in the USA who received one or more COVID-19 vaccine doses up to Aug 31, 2021, obtained from CDC national vaccine surveillance data. Findings Using surveillance results from Dec 14, 2020, to Aug 31, 2021, we identified 21 individuals with MIS-C after COVID-19 vaccination. Of these 21 individuals, median age was 16 years (range 12–20);13 (62%) were male and eight (38%) were female. All 21 were hospitalised: 12 (57%) were admitted to an intensive care unit and all were discharged home. 15 (71%) of 21 individuals had laboratory evidence of past or recent SARS-CoV-2 infection, and six (29%) did not. As of Aug 31, 2021, 21 335 331 individuals aged 12–20 years had received one or more doses of a COVID-19 vaccine, making the overall reporting rate for MIS-C after vaccination 1·0 case per million individuals receiving one or more doses in this age group. The reporting rate in only those without evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 0·3 cases per million vaccinated individuals. Interpretation Here, we describe a small number of individuals with MIS-C who had received one or more doses of a COVID-19 vaccine before illness onset;the contribution of vaccination to these illnesses is unknown. Our findings suggest that MIS-C after COVID-19 vaccination is rare. Continued reporting of potential cases and surveillance for MIS-C illnesses after COVID-19 vaccination is warranted. Funding US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

19.
JAMA ; 327(4): 331-340, 2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649976

ABSTRACT

Importance: Vaccination against COVID-19 provides clear public health benefits, but vaccination also carries potential risks. The risks and outcomes of myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination are unclear. Objective: To describe reports of myocarditis and the reporting rates after mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: Descriptive study of reports of myocarditis to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) that occurred after mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine administration between December 2020 and August 2021 in 192 405 448 individuals older than 12 years of age in the US; data were processed by VAERS as of September 30, 2021. Exposures: Vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna). Main Outcomes and Measures: Reports of myocarditis to VAERS were adjudicated and summarized for all age groups. Crude reporting rates were calculated across age and sex strata. Expected rates of myocarditis by age and sex were calculated using 2017-2019 claims data. For persons younger than 30 years of age, medical record reviews and clinician interviews were conducted to describe clinical presentation, diagnostic test results, treatment, and early outcomes. Results: Among 192 405 448 persons receiving a total of 354 100 845 mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines during the study period, there were 1991 reports of myocarditis to VAERS and 1626 of these reports met the case definition of myocarditis. Of those with myocarditis, the median age was 21 years (IQR, 16-31 years) and the median time to symptom onset was 2 days (IQR, 1-3 days). Males comprised 82% of the myocarditis cases for whom sex was reported. The crude reporting rates for cases of myocarditis within 7 days after COVID-19 vaccination exceeded the expected rates of myocarditis across multiple age and sex strata. The rates of myocarditis were highest after the second vaccination dose in adolescent males aged 12 to 15 years (70.7 per million doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine), in adolescent males aged 16 to 17 years (105.9 per million doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine), and in young men aged 18 to 24 years (52.4 and 56.3 per million doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine and the mRNA-1273 vaccine, respectively). There were 826 cases of myocarditis among those younger than 30 years of age who had detailed clinical information available; of these cases, 792 of 809 (98%) had elevated troponin levels, 569 of 794 (72%) had abnormal electrocardiogram results, and 223 of 312 (72%) had abnormal cardiac magnetic resonance imaging results. Approximately 96% of persons (784/813) were hospitalized and 87% (577/661) of these had resolution of presenting symptoms by hospital discharge. The most common treatment was nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (589/676; 87%). Conclusions and Relevance: Based on passive surveillance reporting in the US, the risk of myocarditis after receiving mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines was increased across multiple age and sex strata and was highest after the second vaccination dose in adolescent males and young men. This risk should be considered in the context of the benefits of COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , Myocarditis/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/adverse effects , Male , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a severe hyperinflammatory condition in persons aged <21 years associated with antecedent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our objective was to describe MIS-C cases reported to CDC's national surveillance since the COVID-19 pandemic began. METHODS: We included patients meeting the MIS-C case definition with onset date from February 19, 2020 through July 31, 2021, using CDC's MIS-C case report form, which collects information on demographics, clinical presentation, and laboratory results. Trends over time across 3 MIS-C pandemic waves were assessed using Cochran-Armitage test for categorical and Jonckheere-Terpstra test for continuous variables. RESULTS: Of 4,901 reported cases, 4,470 met inclusion criteria. Median patient age increased over time (P<0.001), with a median of 9 years (interquartile range, 5-13 years) during the most recent (third) wave. Male predominance also increased (62% in third wave, P<0.001). A significant (P<0.001) increase in severe hematologic and gastrointestinal involvement was observed across the study period. Frequency of several cardiovascular complications (i.e., cardiac dysfunction, myocarditis, and shock/ vasopressor receipt) and renal failure declined (P<0.001). Provision of critical care including mechanical ventilation (P<0.001) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO; P=0.046) decreased, as did duration of hospitalization and mortality (each P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Over the first 3 pandemic waves of MIS-C in the United States, cardiovascular complications and clinical outcomes including length of hospitalization, receipt of ECMO, and death decreased over time. These data serve as a baseline for monitoring future trends associated with SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) or other variants and increased COVID-19 vaccination among children.

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