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1.
Crit Care Clin ; 38(3): 587-600, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859370

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection leads to dysregulation of immune pathways. Therapies focusing on suppressing cytokine activity have some success. Current evidence supports the use of dexamethasone in hospitalized patients requiring oxygen to decrease mortality. Interleukin-6 inhibitors, like tocilizumab and sarilumab, are also beneficial in hypoxemic patients, if used early. Janus kinase inhibition in combination with glucocorticoids is emerging as a potential therapeutic option for patients with moderate to severe symptoms. Data on the role of anakinra, hyperimmune immunoglobulin/convalescent plasma, or plasma purification are limited.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive
3.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(6): 690-705, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850306

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To accommodate the unprecedented number of critically ill patients with pneumonia caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) expansion of the capacity of intensive care unit (ICU) to clinical areas not previously used for critical care was necessary. We describe the global burden of COVID-19 admissions and the clinical and organizational characteristics associated with outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Multicenter, international, point prevalence study, including adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a diagnosis of COVID-19 admitted to ICU between February 15th and May 15th, 2020. RESULTS: 4994 patients from 280 ICUs in 46 countries were included. Included ICUs increased their total capacity from 4931 to 7630 beds, deploying personnel from other areas. Overall, 1986 (39.8%) patients were admitted to surge capacity beds. Invasive ventilation at admission was present in 2325 (46.5%) patients and was required during ICU stay in 85.8% of patients. 60-day mortality was 33.9% (IQR across units: 20%-50%) and ICU mortality 32.7%. Older age, invasive mechanical ventilation, and acute kidney injury (AKI) were associated with increased mortality. These associations were also confirmed specifically in mechanically ventilated patients. Admission to surge capacity beds was not associated with mortality, even after controlling for other factors. CONCLUSIONS: ICUs responded to the increase in COVID-19 patients by increasing bed availability and staff, admitting up to 40% of patients in surge capacity beds. Although mortality in this population was high, admission to a surge capacity bed was not associated with increased mortality. Older age, invasive mechanical ventilation, and AKI were identified as the strongest predictors of mortality.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Adult , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Crit Care ; 71: 154050, 2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819524

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, intensive care units (ICU) introduced restrictions to in-person family visiting to safeguard patients, healthcare personnel, and visitors. METHODS: We conducted a web-based survey (March-July 2021) investigating ICU visiting practices before the pandemic, at peak COVID-19 ICU admissions, and at the time of survey response. We sought data on visiting policies and communication modes including use of virtual visiting (videoconferencing). RESULTS: We obtained 667 valid responses representing ICUs in all continents. Before the pandemic, 20% (106/525) had unrestricted visiting hours; 6% (30/525) did not allow in-person visiting. At peak, 84% (558/667) did not allow in-person visiting for patients with COVID-19; 66% for patients without COVID-19. This proportion had decreased to 55% (369/667) at time of survey reporting. A government mandate to restrict hospital visiting was reported by 53% (354/646). Most ICUs (55%, 353/615) used regular telephone updates; 50% (306/667) used telephone for formal meetings and discussions regarding prognosis or end-of-life. Virtual visiting was available in 63% (418/667) at time of survey. CONCLUSIONS: Highly restrictive visiting policies were introduced at the initial pandemic peaks, were subsequently liberalized, but without returning to pre-pandemic practices. Telephone became the primary communication mode in most ICUs, supplemented with virtual visits.

5.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 2079-2088, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777582

ABSTRACT

To expand our understanding of the role of angiotensin II (ANGII) in coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19), we conducted an international, multicenter registry study to assess the use of ANGII in patients with COVID-19 compared to patients not receiving ANGII. Critically ill adult patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 and received ANGII were matched with COVID-19 patients not receiving ANGII according to age, respiratory support, history of hypertension, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or ANGII receptor blocker, and date of admission. All outcomes were exploratory in nature and included improvement in oxygenation, duration of organ support, and mortality. In one year, 132 patients were included (65 in the ANGII group and 67 in the control group), and patients were comparable in baseline characteristics. During the first 12 h of infusion, patients in the ANGII had a faster decrease in FiO2  and maintained similar mean arterial pressure levels. Hospital mortality was not statistically significantly different between the groups (53.8% vs. 40.3%; p = 0.226). Within the limitations of such a study design, our findings confirm previous observations of a potentially positive effect of ANGII on blood pressure and FiO2 but no effect on patient-centered outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Adult , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321343

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in a significant surge of critically ill patients and an unprecedented demand on intensive care services. The rapidly evolving understanding of pathogenesis, limited disease specific evidence and demand-resource imbalances have posed significant challenges for intensive care clinicians. COVID-19 is a complex multisystem inflammatory vasculopathy with a significant mortality implication for those admitted to intensive care. Institutional strategic preparation and meticulous intensive care support are essential to maximising outcomes during the pandemic. The significant mortality variation observed between institutions and internationally, despite a single aetiology and uniform presentation, highlights the potential influence of management strategies on outcome. Given that optimal organ support and adjunctive therapies for COVID-19 have not yet been well defined by trial-based outcomes, strategies are predicated on existing literature and experiential learning. This review outlines the relevant pathophysiology and management strategies for critically ill patients with COVID-19, and shares some of the collective learning accumulated in a high volume Severe Respiratory Failure centre in London.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321342

ABSTRACT

The rapidly evolving understanding of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) respiratory failure pathogenesis, limited disease-specific evidence and demand-resource imbalances have posed significant challenges for intensive care clinicians. In this single-centre retrospective cohort study we describe the outcomes of COVID-19 patients admitted to Guy’s and St. Thomas’NHS Foundation Trust (GSTT) critical care service. Patients were managed according to a local respiratory failure management pathway that was predicated on timely invasive ventilation when indicated and tailored ventilatory strategies according to pulmonary mechanics. Between 2nd March and 25th May 2020 GSTT critical care service admitted 316 patients with confirmed COVID-19. Of the 201 patients admitted directly through the Emergency Department with a completed critical care outcome, 71.1% survived to critical care discharge. These favourable outcomes may serve to inform the wider debate on the optimal ventilatory management in COVID-19.

9.
Critical care clinics ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1678718

ABSTRACT

Synopsis: SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to dysregulation of immune pathways. Therapies focusing on suppressing cytokine activity have some success. Current evidence supports the use of dexamethasone in hospitalized patients requiring oxygen to decrease mortality. IL-6 inhibitors like tocilizumab and sarilumab are also beneficial in hypoxemic patients, if used early. JAK inhibition in combination with glucocorticoids is emerging as a potential therapeutic option for patients with moderate to severe symptoms. Data on the role of anakinra, hyperimmune immunoglobulin/convalescent plasma, or plasma purification is limited.

10.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 10(2): 97-98, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569157
11.
Crit Care Med ; 49(11): 1974-1982, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475880
12.
J Crit Care ; 66: 78-85, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469324

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the possible association between ventilatory settings on the first day of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and mortality in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this pre-planned sub-study of a prospective, multicentre observational study, 441 patients with SARI who received controlled IMV during the ICU stay were included in the analysis. RESULTS: ICU and hospital mortality rates were 23.1 and 28.1%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, tidal volume and respiratory rate on the first day of IMV were not associated with an increased risk of death; however, higher driving pressure (DP: odds ratio (OR) 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.1, p = 0.011), plateau pressure (Pplat) (OR 1.08; 95% CI: 1.04-1.13, p < 0.001) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (OR 1.13; 95% CI: 1.03-1.24, p = 0.006) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. In subgroup analysis, in hypoxemic patients and in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), higher DP, Pplat, and PEEP were associated with increased risk of in-hospital death. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with SARI receiving IMV, higher DP, Pplat and PEEP, and not tidal volume, were associated with a higher risk of in-hospital death, especially in those with hypoxemia or ARDS.


Subject(s)
Positive-Pressure Respiration , Respiration, Artificial , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Prospective Studies , Tidal Volume
13.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 123, 2021 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448276

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on acute kidney injury (AKI) progression and long-term outcomes in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). We aimed to describe the prevalence and risk factors for development of AKI, its subsequent clinical course and AKI progression, as well as renal recovery or dialysis dependence and survival in this group of patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study in an expanded tertiary care intensive care unit in London, United Kingdom. Critically ill patients admitted to ICU between 1st March 2020 and 31st July 2020 with confirmed SARS-COV2 infection were included. Analysis of baseline characteristics, organ support, COVID-19 associated therapies and their association with mortality and outcomes at 90 days was performed. RESULTS: Of 313 patients (70% male, mean age 54.5 ± 13.9 years), 240 (76.7%) developed AKI within 14 days after ICU admission: 63 (20.1%) stage 1, 41 (13.1%) stage 2, 136 (43.5%) stage 3. 113 (36.1%) patients presented with AKI on ICU admission. Progression to AKI stage 2/3 occurred in 36%. Risk factors for AKI progression were mechanical ventilation [HR (hazard ratio) 4.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.61-10.49] and positive fluid balance [HR 1.21 (95% CI 1.11-1.31)], while steroid therapy was associated with a reduction in AKI progression (HR 0.73 [95% CI 0.55-0.97]). Kidney replacement therapy (KRT) was initiated in 31.9%. AKI patients had a higher 90-day mortality than non-AKI patients (34% vs. 14%; p < 0.001). Dialysis dependence was 5% at hospital discharge and 4% at 90 days. Renal recovery was identified in 81.6% of survivors at discharge and in 90.9% at 90 days. At 3 months, 16% of all AKI survivors had chronic kidney disease (CKD); among those without renal recovery, the CKD incidence was 44%. CONCLUSIONS: During the first COVID-19 wave, AKI was highly prevalent among severely ill COVID-19 patients with a third progressing to severe AKI requiring KRT. The risk of developing CKD was high. This study identifies factors modifying AKI progression, including a potentially protective effect of steroid therapy. Recognition of risk factors and monitoring of renal function post-discharge might help guide future practice and follow-up management strategies. Trial registration NCT04445259.

15.
Crit Care Med ; 49(3): e219-e234, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic continues to affect millions worldwide. Given the rapidly growing evidence base, we implemented a living guideline model to provide guidance on the management of patients with severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019 in the ICU. METHODS: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Coronavirus Disease 2019 panel has expanded to include 43 experts from 14 countries; all panel members completed an electronic conflict-of-interest disclosure form. In this update, the panel addressed nine questions relevant to managing severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019 in the ICU. We used the World Health Organization's definition of severe and critical coronavirus disease 2019. The systematic reviews team searched the literature for relevant evidence, aiming to identify systematic reviews and clinical trials. When appropriate, we performed a random-effects meta-analysis to summarize treatment effects. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach, then used the evidence-to-decision framework to generate recommendations based on the balance between benefit and harm, resource and cost implications, equity, and feasibility. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Coronavirus Diease 2019 panel issued nine statements (three new and six updated) related to ICU patients with severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019. For severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019, the panel strongly recommends using systemic corticosteroids and venous thromboprophylaxis but strongly recommends against using hydroxychloroquine. In addition, the panel suggests using dexamethasone (compared with other corticosteroids) and suggests against using convalescent plasma and therapeutic anticoagulation outside clinical trials. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Coronavirus Diease 2019 panel suggests using remdesivir in nonventilated patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 and suggests against starting remdesivir in patients with critical coronavirus disease 2019 outside clinical trials. Because of insufficient evidence, the panel did not issue a recommendation on the use of awake prone positioning. CONCLUSION: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Coronavirus Diease 2019 panel issued several recommendations to guide healthcare professionals caring for adults with critical or severe coronavirus disease 2019 in the ICU. Based on a living guideline model the recommendations will be updated as new evidence becomes available.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Disease Management , Intensive Care Units , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants , Evidence-Based Medicine , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine , Immunization, Passive , Patient Positioning , Ventilation
17.
J Intensive Care Soc ; 23(2): 233-236, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977665

ABSTRACT

During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic institutions have needed to develop pragmatic clinical pathways to balance the excess critical care demand and local resources. In this single-centre retrospective cohort study we describe the outcomes of COVID-19 patients admitted to Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust (GSTT) critical care service. Patients were managed according to a local respiratory failure management pathway that was predicated on timely invasive ventilation when indicated and tailored ventilatory strategies according to pulmonary mechanics. Between 2 March and 25 May 2020 GSTT critical care service admitted 316 patients with confirmed COVID-19. Of the 201 patients admitted directly through the Emergency Department (ED) with a completed critical care outcome, 71.1% survived to critical care discharge. These favourable outcomes may serve to inform the wider debate on optimal organ support in COVID-19.

18.
J Crit Care ; 61: 119-124, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-920350

ABSTRACT

The management of COVID-19 patients in the ICUs requires several and prolonged life-support systems (mechanical ventilation, continuous infusions of medications and nutrition, renal replacement therapy). Parameters have to be entered continuously into the device user interface by healthcare personnel according to the dynamic clinical condition. This leads to an increased risk of cross-contamination, use of personal protective equipment and the need for stringent and demanding protocols. Cables and tubing extensions have been utilized to make certain devices usable outside the patient's room but at the cost of introducing further hazards. Remote control of these devices decreases the frequency of unnecessary interventions and reduces the risk of exposure for both patients and healthcare personnel.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Critical Care/methods , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Infection Control/instrumentation , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Health Personnel , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Renal Replacement Therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Risk , Robotics
20.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 16(12): 747-764, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872710

ABSTRACT

Kidney involvement in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is common, and can range from the presence of proteinuria and haematuria to acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT; also known as kidney replacement therapy). COVID-19-associated AKI (COVID-19 AKI) is associated with high mortality and serves as an independent risk factor for all-cause in-hospital death in patients with COVID-19. The pathophysiology and mechanisms of AKI in patients with COVID-19 have not been fully elucidated and seem to be multifactorial, in keeping with the pathophysiology of AKI in other patients who are critically ill. Little is known about the prevention and management of COVID-19 AKI. The emergence of regional 'surges' in COVID-19 cases can limit hospital resources, including dialysis availability and supplies; thus, careful daily assessment of available resources is needed. In this Consensus Statement, the Acute Disease Quality Initiative provides recommendations for the diagnosis, prevention and management of COVID-19 AKI based on current literature. We also make recommendations for areas of future research, which are aimed at improving understanding of the underlying processes and improving outcomes for patients with COVID-19 AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Consensus , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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