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1.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(12): e0138121, 2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522904

ABSTRACT

Commercially available SARS-CoV-2-directed antibody assays may assist in diagnosing past exposure to SARS-CoV-2 antigens. We cross-compared the following eight immunoassays detecting antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) or spike (S) antigens in three cohorts consisting of 859 samples from 622 patients: (#1) EDI novel coronavirus COVID-19 (Epitope), (#2) RecomWell SARS-CoV-2 (Mikrogen), (#3) COVID-19 ELISA (VirCell), (#4) Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 N (Roche), (#5) Liaison SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 (DiaSorin), (#6) anti-SARS-CoV-2 ELISA (EuroImmun), (#7) Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 S (Roche), and (#8) Liaison SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS (DiaSorin). In cross-sectional cohort 1 (68 sera from 38 patients with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection), agreement between assays #1 to #6 ranged from 75% to 93%, whereby discordance mostly resulted from N-based assays #1 to #4. In cross-sectional cohort 2 (510 sera from 510 patients; 56 documented, 454 unknown SARS-CoV-2 infection), assays #4 to #6 were analyzed further together with assays #7 and #8, revealing 94% concordance (44 [9%] positives and 485 [85%] negatives). Discordance was highest within 2 weeks after SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 diagnosis and confirmed in the longitudinal cohort 3 (281 sera from 74 COVID-19 patients), using assays #4, #6, #7, and #8. Subanalysis of 20 (27%) initially seronegative cohort 3 patients revealed assay-dependent 50% and 90% seroconversion rates after 8 to 11 days and 14 to 18 days, respectively. Increasing SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were significantly associated with declining levels of viral loads, lactate dehydrogenase, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein and preceded clearance of SARS-CoV-2 detection in the upper respiratory tract by approximately 1 week. SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody assays show substantial agreement, but interpretation of qualitative and semiquantitative results depends on the time elapsed postdiagnosis and the choice of viral antigen. Mounting of systemic SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies may predict recovery from viral injury and clearance of mucosal replication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G , Laboratories , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 765330, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518489

ABSTRACT

Aims: Although the exact factors promoting disease progression in COVID-19 are not fully elucidated, unregulated activation of the complement system (CS) seems to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by SARS-CoV-2. In particular, the lectin pathway (LP) has been implicated in previous autopsy studies. The primary purpose of our study is to investigate the role of the CS in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with varying degrees of disease severity. Methods: In a single-center prospective observational study, 154 hospitalized patients with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. Serum samples on admission to the COVID-19 ward were collected for analysis of CS pathway activities and concentrations of LP proteins [mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolin-3 (FCN-3)] & C1 esterase inhibitor (C1IHN). The primary outcome was mechanical ventilation or in-hospital death. Results: The patients were predominately male and had multiple comorbidities. ICU admission was required in 16% of the patients and death (3%) or mechanical ventilation occurred in 23 patients (15%). There was no significant difference in LP activity, MBL and FCN-3 concentrations according to different peak disease severities. The median alternative pathway (AP) activity was significantly lower (65%, IQR 50-94) in patients with death/invasive ventilation compared to patients without (87%, IQR 68-102, p=0.026). An optimal threshold of <65.5% for AP activity was derived from a ROC curve resulting in increased odds for death or mechanical ventilation (OR 4,93; 95% CI 1.70-14.33, p=0.003) even after adjustment for confounding factors. Classical pathway (CP) activity was slightly lower in patients with more severe disease (median 101% for death/mechanical ventilation vs 109%, p=0.014). C1INH concentration correlated positively with length of stay, inflammatory markers and disease severity on admission but not during follow-up. Conclusion: Our results point to an overactivated AP in critically ill COVID-19 patients in vivo leading to complement consumption and consequently to a significantly reduced AP activity in vitro. The LP does not seem to play a role in the progression to severe COVID-19. Apart from its acute phase reaction the significance of C1INH in COVID-19 requires further studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Complement System Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/immunology , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Lectins/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Severity of Illness Index
3.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w20572, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332303

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The aim of this study was to analyse the demographics, risk factors and in-hospital mortality rates of patients admitted with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland. METHODS: In this single-centre retrospective cohort study at the University Hospital Basel, we included all patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection hospitalised from 27 February 2020 to 10 May 2021. Patients’ characteristics were extracted from the electronic medical record system. The primary outcome of this study was temporal trends of COVID-19-related in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were COVID-19-related mortality in patients hospitalised on the intensive care unit (ICU), admission to ICU, renal replacement therapy and length of hospital stay, as well as a descriptive analysis of risk factors for in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: During the study period we included 943 hospitalisations of 930 patients. The median age was 65 years (interquartile range [IQR] 53–76) and 63% were men. The numbers of elderly patients, patients with multiple comorbidities and need for renal replacement therapy decreased from the first and second to the third wave. The median length of stay and need for ICU admission were similar in all waves. Throughout the study period 88 patients (9.3%) died during the hospital stay. Crude in-hospital mortality was similar over the course of the first two waves (9.5% and 10.2%, respectively), whereas it decreased in the third wave (5.4%). Overall mortality in patients without comorbidities was low at 1.6%, but it increased in patients with any comorbidity to 12.6%. Predictors of all-cause mortality over the whole period were age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] per 10-year increase 1.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45–2.26; p <0.001), male sex (aOR 1.68, 95% CI 1.00–2.82; p = 0.048), immunocompromising condition (aOR 2.09, 95% CI 1.01–4.33; p = 0.048) and chronic kidney disease (aOR 2.25, 95% CI 1.35–3.76; p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: In our study in-hospital mortality was 9.5%, 10.2% and 5.4% in the first, second and third waves, respectively. Age, immunocompromising condition, male sex and chronic kidney disease were factors associated with in-hospital mortality. Importantly, patients without any comorbidity had a very low in-hospital mortality regardless of age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Replacement Therapy/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Switzerland/epidemiology
4.
Microorganisms ; 9(5)2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234778

ABSTRACT

A variety of antiviral treatments for COVID-19 have been investigated, involving many repurposed drugs. Currently, the SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, encoded by nsp12-nsp7-nsp8) has been targeted by numerous inhibitors, e.g., remdesivir, the only provisionally approved treatment to-date, although the clinical impact of these interventions remains inconclusive. However, the potential emergence of antiviral resistance poses a threat to the efficacy of any successful therapies on a wide scale. Here, we propose a framework to monitor the emergence of antiviral resistance, and as a proof of concept, we address the interaction between RdRp and remdesivir. We show that SARS-CoV-2 RdRp is under purifying selection, that potential escape mutations are rare in circulating lineages, and that those mutations, where present, do not destabilise RdRp. In more than 56,000 viral genomes from 105 countries from the first pandemic wave, we found negative selective pressure affecting nsp12 (Tajima's D = -2.62), with potential antiviral escape mutations in only 0.3% of sequenced genomes. Potential escape mutations included known key residues, such as Nsp12:Val473 and Nsp12:Arg555. Of the potential escape mutations involved globally, in silico structural models found that they were unlikely to be associated with loss of stability in RdRp. No potential escape mutation was found in a local cohort of remdesivir treated patients. Collectively, these findings indicate that RdRp is a suitable drug target, and that remdesivir does not seem to exert high selective pressure. We anticipate our framework to be the starting point of a larger effort for a global monitoring of drug resistance throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.

5.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2374-2384, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217387

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is key to the clinical and epidemiological assessment of CoVID-19. We cross-validated manual and automated high-throughput testing for SARS-CoV-2-RNA, evaluated SARS-CoV-2 loads in nasopharyngeal-oropharyngeal swabs (NOPS), lower respiratory fluids, and plasma, and analyzed detection rates after lockdown and relaxation measures. METHODS: Basel-S-gene, Roche-E-gene, and Roche-cobas®6800-Target1 and Target2 were prospectively validated in 1344 NOPS submitted during the first pandemic peak (Week 13). Follow-up cohort (FUP) 1, 2, and 3 comprised 10,999, 10,147, and 19,389 NOPS submitted during a 10-week period until Weeks 23, 33, and 43, respectively. RESULTS: Concordant results were obtained in 1308 cases (97%), including 97 (9%) SARS-CoV-2-positives showing high quantitative correlations (Spearman's r > .95; p < .001) for all assays and high precision by Bland-Altman analysis. Discordant samples (N = 36, 3%) had significantly lower SARS-CoV-2 loads (p < .001). Following lockdown, detection rates declined to <1% in FUP-1, reducing single-test positive predictive values from 99.3% to 85.1%. Following relaxation, rates flared up to 4% and 12% in FUP-2 and -3, but infected patients were younger than during lockdown (34 vs. 52 years, p < .001). In 261 patients providing 936 NOPS, SARS-CoV-2 loads declined by three orders of magnitude within 10 days postdiagnosis (p < .001). SARS-CoV-2 loads in NOPS correlated with those in time-matched lower respiratory fluids or in plasma but remained detectable in some cases with negative follow-up NOPS, respectively. CONCLUSION: Manual and automated assays significantly correlated qualitatively and quantitatively. Following a successful lockdown, declining positive predictive values require independent dual-target confirmation for reliable assessment. Confirmatory and quantitative follow-up testing should be obtained within <5 days and consider lower respiratory fluids in symptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2-negative NOPS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Female , Genome, Viral , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Switzerland/epidemiology , Viral Load
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(3): e1009374, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143300

ABSTRACT

The first case of SARS-CoV-2 in Basel, Switzerland was detected on February 26th 2020. We present a phylogenetic study to explore viral introduction and evolution during the exponential early phase of the local COVID-19 outbreak from February 26th until March 23rd. We sequenced SARS-CoV-2 naso-oropharyngeal swabs from 746 positive tests that were performed at the University Hospital Basel during the study period. We successfully generated 468 high quality genomes from unique patients and called variants with our COVID-19 Pipeline (COVGAP), and analysed viral genetic diversity using PANGOLIN taxonomic lineages. To identify introduction and dissemination events we incorporated global SARS-CoV-2 genomes and inferred a time-calibrated phylogeny. Epidemiological data from patient questionnaires was used to facilitate the interpretation of phylogenetic observations. The early outbreak in Basel was dominated by lineage B.1 (83·6%), detected first on March 2nd, although the first sample identified belonged to B.1.1. Within B.1, 68·2% of our samples fall within a clade defined by the SNP C15324T ('Basel cluster'), including 157 identical sequences at the root of the 'Basel cluster', some of which we can specifically trace to regional spreading events. We infer the origin of B.1-C15324T to mid-February in our tri-national region. The other genomes map broadly over the global phylogenetic tree, showing several introduction events from and/or dissemination to other regions of the world via travellers. Family transmissions can also be traced in our data. A single lineage variant dominated the outbreak in the Basel area while other lineages, such as the first (B.1.1), did not propagate. A mass gathering event was the predominant initial source of cases, with travel returners and family transmissions to a lesser extent. We highlight the importance of adding specific questions to epidemiological questionnaires, to obtain data on attendance of large gatherings and their locations, as well as travel history, to effectively identify routes of transmissions in up-coming outbreaks. This phylogenetic analysis in concert with epidemiological and contact tracing data, allows connection and interpretation of events, and can inform public health interventions. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04351503.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Contact Tracing/methods , Crowding , Genome, Viral , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Switzerland/epidemiology
8.
J Intensive Care ; 9(1): 10, 2021 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067283

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: SARS-CoV-2 may cause acute lung injury, and secondary infections are thus relevant complications in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. However, detailed information on community- and hospital-acquired infections among patients with COVID-19 pneumonia is scarce. METHODS: We identified 220 SARS-CoV-2-positive patients hospitalized at the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland (between 25 February and 31 May 2020). We excluded patients who declined the general consent (n = 12), patients without clinical evidence of pneumonia (n = 29), and patients hospitalized for < 24 h (n = 17). We evaluated the frequency of community- and hospital-acquired infections using respiratory and blood culture materials with antigen, culture-based, and molecular diagnostics. For ICU patients, all clinical and microbial findings were re-evaluated interdisciplinary (intensive care, infectious disease, and clinical microbiology), and agreement reached to classify patients with infections. RESULTS: In the final cohort of 162 hospitalized patients (median age 64.4 years (IQR, 50.4-74.2); 61.1% male), 41 (25.3%) patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, 34/41 (82.9%) required mechanical ventilation, and 17 (10.5%) of all hospitalized patients died. In total, 31 infections were diagnosed including five viral co-infections, 24 bacterial infections, and three fungal infections (ventilator-associated pneumonia, n = 5; tracheobronchitis, n = 13; pneumonia, n = 1; and bloodstream infection, n = 6). Median time to respiratory tract infection was 12.5 days (IQR, 8-18) and time to bloodstream infection 14 days (IQR, 6-30). Hospital-acquired bacterial and fungal infections were more frequent among ICU patients than other patients (36.6% vs. 1.7%). Antibiotic or antifungal treatment was administered in 71 (43.8%) patients. CONCLUSIONS: Community-acquired viral and bacterial infections were rare among COVID-19 pneumonia patients. By contrast, hospital-acquired bacterial or fungal infections were frequently complicating the course among ICU patients.

9.
Trials ; 22(1): 1, 2021 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060153

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Conestat alfa, a recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor, is a multi-target inhibitor of inflammatory cascades including the complement, the kinin-kallikrein and the contact activation system. The study objective is to investigate the efficacy and safety of conestat alfa in improving disease severity and short-term outcome in COVID-19 patients with pulmonary disease. TRIAL DESIGN: This study is an investigator-initiated, randomized (2:1 ratio), open-label, parallel-group, controlled, multi-center, phase 2a clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: This trial is conducted in 3 hospitals in Switzerland, 1 hospital in Brazil and 1 hospital in Mexico (academic and non-academic). All patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospitalization for at least 3 calendar days for severe COVID-19 will be screened for study eligibility. INCLUSION CRITERIA: - Signed informed consent - Age 18-85 years - Evidence of pulmonary involvement on CT scan or X-ray of the chest - Duration of symptoms associated with COVID-19 ≤ 10 days - At least one of the following risk factors for progression to mechanical ventilation on the day of enrolment: 1) Arterial hypertension 2) ≥ 50 years 3) Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) 4) History of cardiovascular disease 5) Chronic pulmonary disease 6) Chronic renal disease 7) C-reactive protein > 35mg/L 8) Oxygen saturation at rest of ≤ 94% when breathing ambient air Exclusion criteria: - Incapacity or inability to provide informed consent - Contraindications to the class of drugs under investigation (C1 esterase inhibitor) - Treatment with tocilizumab or another IL-6R or IL-6 inhibitor before enrolment - History or suspicion of allergy to rabbits - Pregnancy or breast feeding - Active or anticipated treatment with any other complement inhibitor - Liver cirrhosis (any Child-Pugh score) - Admission to an ICU on the day or anticipated within the next 24 hours of enrolment - Invasive or non-invasive ventilation - Participation in another study with any investigational drug within the 30 days prior to enrolment - Enrolment of the study investigators, their family members, employees and other closely related or dependent persons INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Patients randomized to the experimental arm will receive conestat alfa in addition to standard of care (SOC). Conestat alfa (8400 U followed by 4200 U every 8 hours) will be administered as a slow intravenous injection (5-10 minutes) over a 72-hour period (i.e. 9 administrations in total). The first conestat alfa treatment will be administered on the day of enrolment. The control group will receive SOC only. SOC treatment will be administered according to local institutional guidelines, including supplemental oxygen, antibiotics, corticosteroids, remdesivir, and anticoagulation. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary endpoint of this trial is disease severity on day 7 after enrolment assessed by an adapted WHO Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement (score 0 will be omitted and score 6 and 7 will be combined) from 1 (no limitation of activities) to 7 (death). Secondary outcomes include (i) the time to clinical improvement (time from randomization to an improvement of two points on the WHO ordinal scale or discharge from hospital) within 14 days after enrolment, (ii) the proportion of participants alive and not having required invasive or non-invasive ventilation at 14 days after enrolment and (iii) the proportion of subjects without an acute lung injury (defined by PaO2/FiO2 ratio of ≤300mmHg) within 14 days after enrolment. Exploratory outcomes include virological clearance, C1 esterase inhibitor pharmacokinetics and changes in routine laboratory parameters and inflammatory proteins. RANDOMISATION: Subjects will be randomised in a 2:1 ratio to treatment with conestat alfa in addition to SOC or SOC only. Randomization is performed via an interactive web response system (SecuTrial®). BLINDING (MASKING): In this open-label trial, participants, caregivers and outcome assessors are not blinded to group assignment. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): We will randomise approximately 120 individuals (80 in the active treatment arm, 40 in the SOC group). Two interim analyses after 40 and 80 patients are planned according to the Pocock adjusted levels αp = 0.0221. The results of the interim analysis will allow adjustment of the sample size (Lehmacher, Wassmer, 1999). TRIAL STATUS: PROTECT-COVID-19 protocol version 3.0 (July 07 2020). Participant recruitment started on July 30 2020 in one center (Basel, Switzerland, first participant included on August 06 2020). In four of five study centers patients are actively recruited. Participation of the fifth study center (Mexico) is anticipated by mid December 2020. Completion of trial recruitment depends on the development of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, number: NCT04414631 , registered on 4 June 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/adverse effects , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/pharmacokinetics , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Injections, Intravenous/methods , Male , Mexico , Middle Aged , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pilot Projects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/adverse effects , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacokinetics , Severity of Illness Index , Switzerland , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
10.
Trials ; 22(1): 1, 2021 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007150

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Conestat alfa, a recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor, is a multi-target inhibitor of inflammatory cascades including the complement, the kinin-kallikrein and the contact activation system. The study objective is to investigate the efficacy and safety of conestat alfa in improving disease severity and short-term outcome in COVID-19 patients with pulmonary disease. TRIAL DESIGN: This study is an investigator-initiated, randomized (2:1 ratio), open-label, parallel-group, controlled, multi-center, phase 2a clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: This trial is conducted in 3 hospitals in Switzerland, 1 hospital in Brazil and 1 hospital in Mexico (academic and non-academic). All patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospitalization for at least 3 calendar days for severe COVID-19 will be screened for study eligibility. INCLUSION CRITERIA: - Signed informed consent - Age 18-85 years - Evidence of pulmonary involvement on CT scan or X-ray of the chest - Duration of symptoms associated with COVID-19 ≤ 10 days - At least one of the following risk factors for progression to mechanical ventilation on the day of enrolment: 1) Arterial hypertension 2) ≥ 50 years 3) Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) 4) History of cardiovascular disease 5) Chronic pulmonary disease 6) Chronic renal disease 7) C-reactive protein > 35mg/L 8) Oxygen saturation at rest of ≤ 94% when breathing ambient air Exclusion criteria: - Incapacity or inability to provide informed consent - Contraindications to the class of drugs under investigation (C1 esterase inhibitor) - Treatment with tocilizumab or another IL-6R or IL-6 inhibitor before enrolment - History or suspicion of allergy to rabbits - Pregnancy or breast feeding - Active or anticipated treatment with any other complement inhibitor - Liver cirrhosis (any Child-Pugh score) - Admission to an ICU on the day or anticipated within the next 24 hours of enrolment - Invasive or non-invasive ventilation - Participation in another study with any investigational drug within the 30 days prior to enrolment - Enrolment of the study investigators, their family members, employees and other closely related or dependent persons INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Patients randomized to the experimental arm will receive conestat alfa in addition to standard of care (SOC). Conestat alfa (8400 U followed by 4200 U every 8 hours) will be administered as a slow intravenous injection (5-10 minutes) over a 72-hour period (i.e. 9 administrations in total). The first conestat alfa treatment will be administered on the day of enrolment. The control group will receive SOC only. SOC treatment will be administered according to local institutional guidelines, including supplemental oxygen, antibiotics, corticosteroids, remdesivir, and anticoagulation. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary endpoint of this trial is disease severity on day 7 after enrolment assessed by an adapted WHO Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement (score 0 will be omitted and score 6 and 7 will be combined) from 1 (no limitation of activities) to 7 (death). Secondary outcomes include (i) the time to clinical improvement (time from randomization to an improvement of two points on the WHO ordinal scale or discharge from hospital) within 14 days after enrolment, (ii) the proportion of participants alive and not having required invasive or non-invasive ventilation at 14 days after enrolment and (iii) the proportion of subjects without an acute lung injury (defined by PaO2/FiO2 ratio of ≤300mmHg) within 14 days after enrolment. Exploratory outcomes include virological clearance, C1 esterase inhibitor pharmacokinetics and changes in routine laboratory parameters and inflammatory proteins. RANDOMISATION: Subjects will be randomised in a 2:1 ratio to treatment with conestat alfa in addition to SOC or SOC only. Randomization is performed via an interactive web response system (SecuTrial®). BLINDING (MASKING): In this open-label trial, participants, caregivers and outcome assessors are not blinded to group assignment. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): We will randomise approximately 120 individuals (80 in the active treatment arm, 40 in the SOC group). Two interim analyses after 40 and 80 patients are planned according to the Pocock adjusted levels αp = 0.0221. The results of the interim analysis will allow adjustment of the sample size (Lehmacher, Wassmer, 1999). TRIAL STATUS: PROTECT-COVID-19 protocol version 3.0 (July 07 2020). Participant recruitment started on July 30 2020 in one center (Basel, Switzerland, first participant included on August 06 2020). In four of five study centers patients are actively recruited. Participation of the fifth study center (Mexico) is anticipated by mid December 2020. Completion of trial recruitment depends on the development of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, number: NCT04414631 , registered on 4 June 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/adverse effects , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/pharmacokinetics , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Injections, Intravenous/methods , Male , Mexico , Middle Aged , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pilot Projects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/adverse effects , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacokinetics , Severity of Illness Index , Switzerland , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
11.
Pflege ; 33(4): 247-255, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-982157

ABSTRACT

Between dream and distress - Setting up and running a cohort ward for COVID-19 Patients at an acute hospital - A case study Abstract. Background: In the context of the pandemic, hospitals must be able to care for COVID-19 patients within a very short timeframe. OBJECTIVE: Description of the setting up of a cohort ward for patients with COVID-19 on a surgical ward including the development of the nursing team. METHODS: The intrinsic retrospective case study describes the situation, identifies special phenomena in a reflective manner and links them to existing knowledge. Data were anecdotal, routine data were collected in the context of nursing practice development. RESULTS: Setting up the cohort ward in a Swiss hospital consisted of structural and technical planning, infection control measures, the establishment of interprofessional structures, and internal communication. During the four-week operation, 71 patients were treated. The use of practice development methodology initiated a cultural change. The reflection describes a field of tension between "dream and distress": As a dream, the lived experience of optimal care, with well-functioning processes, sufficient material, sufficient personnel and a very good interprofessional cooperation was evaluated. Distress in the form of high infection rates as well as psychological and physical stress did not occur. After the cohort ward was closed, there was a risk working back in normal operations based on existing economical and organizational conditions, with the knowledge that a different cooperation and organization is possible. CONCLUSIONS: Positive experiences from the "crisis mode" should be used to further develop essential operations during normal times.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/nursing , Hospital Units/organization & administration , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/nursing , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Psychological Distress , Retrospective Studies , Switzerland/epidemiology
12.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2072, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760863

ABSTRACT

A dysregulated immune response with hyperinflammation is observed in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and potential benefits of human recombinant C1 esterase inhibitor (conestat alfa), a complement, contact activation and kallikrein-kinin system regulator, in severe COVID-19. Patients with evidence of progressive disease after 24 h including an oxygen saturation <93% at rest in ambient air were included at the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland in April 2020. Conestat alfa was administered by intravenous injections of 8400 IU followed by 3 additional doses of 4200 IU in 12-h intervals. Five patients (age range, 53-85 years; one woman) with severe COVID-19 pneumonia (11-39% lung involvement on computed tomography scan of the chest) were treated a median of 1 day (range 1-7 days) after admission. Treatment was well-tolerated. Immediate defervescence occurred, and inflammatory markers and oxygen supplementation decreased or stabilized in 4 patients (e.g., median C-reactive protein 203 (range 31-235) mg/L before vs. 32 (12-72) mg/L on day 5). Only one patient required mechanical ventilation. All patients recovered. C1INH concentrations were elevated before conestat alfa treatment. Levels of complement activation products declined after treatment. Viral loads in nasopharyngeal swabs declined in 4 patients. In this uncontrolled case series, targeting multiple inflammatory cascades by conestat alfa was safe and associated with clinical improvements in the majority of severe COVID-19 patients. Controlled clinical trials are needed to assess its safety and efficacy in preventing disease progression.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/therapeutic use , Complement C1/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Kallikrein-Kinin System/drug effects , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/analysis , Factor XIa/antagonists & inhibitors , Female , Humans , Kallikreins/antagonists & inhibitors , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load/drug effects
13.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 64(9)2020 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639066

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) leads to inflammatory cytokine release, which can downregulate the expression of metabolizing enzymes. This cascade affects drug concentrations in the plasma. We investigated the association between lopinavir (LPV) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) plasma concentrations and the levels of the acute-phase inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP). LPV plasma concentrations in 92 patients hospitalized at our institution were prospectively collected. Lopinavir-ritonavir was administered every 12 hours, 800/200 mg on day 1 and 400/100 mg on day 2 until day 5 or 7. HCQ was given at 800 mg, followed by 400 mg after 6, 24, and 48 h. Hematological, liver, kidney, and inflammation laboratory values were analyzed on the day of drug level determination. The median age of study participants was 59 (range, 24 to 85) years, and 71% were male. The median durations from symptom onset to hospitalization and treatment initiation were 7 days (interquartile range [IQR], 4 to 10) and 8 days (IQR, 5 to 10), respectively. The median LPV trough concentration on day 3 of treatment was 26.5 µg/ml (IQR, 18.9 to 31.5). LPV plasma concentrations positively correlated with CRP values (r = 0.37, P < 0.001) and were significantly lower when tocilizumab was preadministered. No correlation was found between HCQ concentrations and CRP values. High LPV plasma concentrations were observed in COVID-19 patients. The ratio of calculated unbound drug fraction to published SARS-CoV-2 50% effective concentrations (EC50) indicated insufficient LPV concentrations in the lung. CRP values significantly correlated with LPV but not HCQ plasma concentrations, implying inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) metabolism by inflammation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacokinetics , Lopinavir/pharmacokinetics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Ritonavir/pharmacokinetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/blood , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/blood , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lopinavir/blood , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/blood , Ritonavir/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
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