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Obes Rev ; 22 Suppl 6: e13215, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553950


Establishment of the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) has resulted in a surveillance system which provides regular, reliable, timely, and accurate data on children's weight status-through standardized measurement of bodyweight and height-in the WHO European Region. Additional data on dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary behavior, family background, and school environments are collected in several countries. In total, 45 countries in the European Region have participated in COSI. The first five data collection rounds, between 2007 and 2021, yielded measured anthropometric data on over 1.3 million children. In COSI, data are collected according to a common protocol, using standardized instruments and procedures. The systematic collection and analysis of these data enables intercountry comparisons and reveals differences in the prevalence of childhood thinness, overweight, normal weight, and obesity between and within populations. Furthermore, it facilitates investigation of the relationship between overweight, obesity, and potential risk or protective factors and improves the understanding of the development of overweight and obesity in European primary-school children in order to support appropriate and effective policy responses.

Pediatric Obesity , Child , Exercise , Humans , Overweight , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence , Schools , World Health Organization
J Int Med Res ; 49(4): 3000605211012380, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206116


In this open-label case series trial, we evaluated the effects of a nitrate-based nutritional formula on oxygen saturation (SpO2) and patient-reported outcomes in individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Five adult patients (three men and two women, age 39.6 ± 6.9 years) with a positive COVID-19 test result, breathing difficulties, and SpO2 ≤95%, who were free from other pulmonary and cardiovascular conditions, were recruited for this study. Participants were assigned to receive a multi-component nutritional formula (containing 1200 mg of potassium nitrate, 200 mg of magnesium, 50 mg of zinc, and 1000 mg of citric acid) every 4 hours during the 48-hour monitoring period. In all participants, SpO2 improved immediately after administration of the nutritional formula, from 1 to 7 percentage points (mean increase 3.6 ± 2.7 points; 95% confidence interval 0.3 to 7.0). SpO2 remained above baseline values throughout the monitoring interval, with values persisting over threshold values (>92%) for all patients and at each time point during the 48 hours. No patients reported any side effects of the intervention. These promising and rather unexpected results call for immediate, well-sampled, mechanistic randomized controlled trials to validate our findings.

COVID-19 , Nitrates , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069851


Post-viral fatigue syndrome (PVFS) is a widespread chronic neurological disease with no definite etiological factor(s), no actual diagnostic test, and no approved pharmacological treatment, therapy, or cure. Among other features, PVFS could be accompanied by various irregularities in creatine metabolism, perturbing either tissue levels of creatine in the brain, the rates of phosphocreatine resynthesis in the skeletal muscle, or the concentrations of the enzyme creatine kinase in the blood. Furthermore, supplemental creatine and related guanidino compounds appear to impact both patient- and clinician-reported outcomes in syndromes and maladies with chronic fatigue. This paper critically overviews the most common disturbances in creatine metabolism in various PVFS populations, summarizes human trials on dietary creatine and creatine analogs in the syndrome, and discusses new frontiers and open questions for using creatine in a post-COVID-19 world.

Creatine/administration & dosage , Creatine/metabolism , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/diet therapy , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Creatine/analogs & derivatives , Dietary Supplements , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/diagnosis , Humans , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic