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1.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328705

ABSTRACT

Background: There are several reports of the association between SARS-CoV-2infection (COVID-19) and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). In this study, we aimed to compare the hospitalization rate of CVST before and during the COVID-19 pandemic (before vaccination program). Methods In this retrospective cohort study, the hospitalization rate of adult CVST patients in Namazi hospital, a tertiary referral center in the south of Iran, was compared in two periods of time. We defined March 2018 to March 2019 as the pre-COVID-19 period and March 2020 to March 2021 as the COVID-19 period. Results 50 and 77 adult CVST patients were hospitalized in the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods, respectively. The crude CVST hospitalization rate increased from 14.33 in the pre-COVID-19 period to 21.7 per million in the COVID-19 era (P=0.021). However, after age and sex adjustment, the incremental trend in hospitalization rate was not significant (95% CrI: -2.2, 5.14). Patients > 50-year-old were more often hospitalized in the COVID-19 period. (P=0.042) SARS-CoV-2 PCR test was done in 49.3% out of all COVID-19 period patients, which were positive in 6.5%. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≥3 at three-month follow-up was associated with age (P=0.015) and malignancy (P=0.014) in pre-COVID period;and was associated with age (P=0.025), altered mental status on admission time (P<0.001), malignancy (P=0.041) and COVID-19 infection (P=0.008) in COVID-19 period. Conclusion Since there was a more dismal outcome in COVID-19 associated CVST, a high index of suspicion for CVST among COVID-19 positive is recommended.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320278

ABSTRACT

Background: Aneurysm formation of internal carotid arteries (ICA) in patients with mucormycosis is a scarce phenomenon. However, the prevalence of rhino-cerebral mucormycosis has been reported to increase after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods Three patients with stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ICA aneurysm after the involvement of adjacent paranasal sinuses with mucormycosis were presented. All patients were recruited from Namazi and Khalili hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in Iran from April 2021 to May 2021. Results They had a history of diabetes and corticosteroid use. Also, one of them was treated with imatinib. Two out of three patients were infected with SARS-CoV-2 infection before developing mucormycosis. Two patients had diagnostic angiography before endovascular intervention. One patient did not undergo any therapeutic intervention due to total artery occlusion, whereas the other patient experienced a successful parent artery occlusion by coiling, and only this patient survived. Although all patients received antifungal treatment and surgical debridement, two of them died. Conclusions In the patients with rhino-cerebral mucormycosis evolving of aneurysm should be promptly and meticulously investigated by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and computed tomography angiography (CTA). As this type of aneurysms was very fast-growing, as soon as the involvement of sphenoid sinus was detected, the possibility of ICA aneurysm formation should always be kept in mind. If the patient developed an aneurysm, prompt intensive antifungal therapy and therapeutic endovascular interventions such as stenting, coiling, or sacrificing should be considered as soon as possible to optimize outcomes.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318440

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the COVID-19 pandemic, several cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) have been reported in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. This study provides a series of patients with CVST and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: : Consecutive patients with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as clinical and radiological characteristics of CVST, were reported from three teaching hospitals in the South West, North West, and the center of Iran from June to July 2020. We also searched the abstract archives until the end of August 2020 and gathered 28 reported cases. The diagnostic criteria for SARS-CoV-2 infection were determined according to SARS-CoV-2 detection in oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal samples in clinically suspected patients. Demographics, main COVID-19 symptoms, confirmatory tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis, the interval between the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and CVST, clinical and radiological features of CVST, therapeutic strategies, CVST outcomes, rate of hemorrhagic transformation, and mortality rate were investigated. Results: : Six patients (aged 31 to 62 years old) with confirmed CVST and SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted to our centers. Four patients had no respiratory symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Five out of six patients developed the clinical manifestations of CVST and SARS-CoV-2 infection simultaneously. Three patients had known predisposing factors for CVST. Despite receiving CVST and SARS-CoV-2 infection treatments, four out of six patients passed away. Conclusions: : The role of SARS-CoV-2 as a “cause” versus an “additive contributor” remains to be elucidated. Practitioners should be aware of the possibility of CVST in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318001

ABSTRACT

Background: Methanol is widely used in industry;however, methanol poisoning is not common. In this regard, a number of outbreaks have been recently reported due to inappropriate processing of alcoholic beverages. Shiraz, a city located in the southern part of Iran, faced one of such outbreaks in 2020 during COVID-19 pandemic. There is no sufficient literature on the electrocardiographic findings in methanol toxicity. This study aimed to address this gap in the literature. Method : A total of 356 cases with methanol toxicity referred to Shiraz University of Medical Science Tertiary Hospitals (Faghihi and Namazi) in March and April, 2020. The clinical findings of blindness and impaired level of consciousness, lab data such as arterial blood gas, electrolytes, and creatinine, and the most common findings from ECGs were collected. Results : The most common ECG findings were J point elevation (68.8%), presence of U wave (59.2%), QTc prolongation (53.2% in males and 28.6% in females), and fragmented QRS (33.7%). An outstanding finding in this study was the presence of myocardial infarction in 5.3% of the cases. This finding, to the best of our knowledge, has only been reported in a few case reports. Brugada pattern (8.1%) and Osborn wave (3.7%) were the other interesting findings. In multivariate analysis, when confounding factors were adjusted, myocardial infarction, atrioventricular conduction disturbances, sinus tachycardia, and the prolonged QTC>500 msecond were four independent factors correlated with methanol toxicity severity measured with arterial blood PH on arterial blood gas measurements, with odds ratios of 12.82, 4.46, 2.32 and 3.15 (P<0.05 for all) , respectively. Conclusion : Electrocardiographic variations during methanol intoxication are remarkable and well-correlated with poisoning severity. Myocardial infarction was an egregious and yet a common concerning finding in this sample, which need to be ruled out in methanol toxicity.

5.
J Neurovirol ; 27(4): 644-649, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338289

ABSTRACT

Among the ever-increasing literature of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there have been reports on several complications in association with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), such as secondary bacterial and fungal infections. We report a 61-year-old woman with a past history of diabetes mellitus who presented to our hospital suffering from COVID-19 infection. During the course of her hospitalization, the patient developed chemosis and proptosis in both eyes, ultimately leading to a diagnosis of invasive rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis and cerebrovascular thrombosis. This study strengthens the possible association between the occurrence of COVID-19 and invasive mucormycosis infection, providing new impetus for further investigations to substantiate this correlation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/complications , Brain Infarction/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Middle Aged , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/complications , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/microbiology
6.
J Neurol ; 268(10): 3549-3560, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092677

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of COVID-19 pandemic, several cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) have been reported in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. METHODS: Consecutive patients with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as clinical and radiological characteristics of CVST, were reported from three teaching hospitals in the South West, North West, and the center of Iran between June and July 2020. We also searched the abstract archives until the end of August 2020 and gathered 28 reported cases. The diagnostic criteria for SARS-CoV-2 infection were determined according to SARS-CoV-2 detection in oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal samples in clinically suspected patients. Demographics, prominent COVID-19 symptoms, confirmatory tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis, the interval between the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and CVST, clinical and radiological features of CVST, therapeutic strategies, CVST outcomes, rate of hemorrhagic transformation, and mortality rate were investigated. RESULTS: Six patients (31-62 years-old) with confirmed CVST and SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted to our centers. Four patients had no respiratory symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Five patients developed the clinical manifestations of CVST and SARS-CoV-2 infection simultaneously. Three patients had known predisposing factors for CVST. Despite receiving CVST and SARS-CoV-2 infection treatments, four patients died. SARS-COV-2 associated CVST patients were older (49.26 vs. 37.77 years-old), had lower female/male ratio (1.42 vs. 2.19), and higher mortality rate (35.29% vs. 6.07%) than CVST not associated with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The role of SARS-CoV-2 as a "cause" versus an "additive contributor" remains to be elucidated. Practitioners should be aware of the possibility of CVST in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology
7.
Cerebellum ; 19(6): 911-914, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690463

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2: SARS-CoV-2), which originated from Wuhan, China, has spread to the other countries in a short period of time. We report a 47-year-old male who was admitted to our hospital due to suffering from progressive vertigo and ataxia for 7 days prior to the admission. Neurological examination revealed cerebellar dysfunction, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depicted edema of the cerebellar hemisphere associated with leptomeningeal enhancement. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed mild lymphocytic pleocytosis, elevated protein, and lactate dehydrogenase. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in the oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal and CSF specimens. As a result, treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir was initiated, and patient symptoms and signs improved significantly during the course of hospitalization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of acute cerebellitis associated with COVID-19 disease which is reported in the literature so far.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cerebellar Diseases/complications , Cerebellar Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Acute Disease , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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