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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 10(4): ofad155, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301732

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is likely underdiagnosed, and current diagnostic tools are either invasive or insensitive. Methods: A retrospective study of mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 admitted to 5 Johns Hopkins hospitals between March 2020 and June 2021 was performed. Multivariable logistic regression was used for the CAPA prediction model building. Performance of the model was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: In the cohort of 832 patients, 98 (11.8%) met criteria for CAPA. Age, time since intubation, dexamethasone for COVID-19 treatment, underlying pulmonary circulatory diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, multiple myeloma, cancer, or hematologic malignancies were statistically significantly associated with CAPA and were included in the CAPA prediction model, which showed an AUC of 0.75 (95% confidence interval, .70-.80). At a screening cutoff of ≥0.085, it had a sensitivity of 82%, a specificity of 51%, a positive predictive value of 18.6%, and a negative predictive value of 95.3%. (The CAPA screening score calculator is available at www.transplantmodels.com). Conclusions: We developed a CAPA risk score as a noninvasive tool to aid in CAPA screening for patients with severe COVID-19. Our score will also identify a group of patients who are unlikely to have CAPA and who therefore need not undergo additional diagnostics and/or empiric antifungal therapy.

2.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 42(7): 953-963, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244174

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory viral infections (RVI) are associated with chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) and mortality in lung transplant recipients (LTRs). However, the prevalence and impact of secondary invasive fungal infections (IFIs) post RVIs in LTRs have not been investigated. METHODS: We performed a single center retrospective study including LTRs diagnosed with 5 different respiratory viral pathogens between January 2010 to May 2021 and evaluated their clinical outcomes in 1 year. The risk factors of IFIs were evaluated by logistic regression. The impact of IFIs on CLAD stage progression/death was examined by Cox regression. RESULTS: A total of 202 RVI episodes (50 influenza, 31 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, 30 metapneumovirus, 44 parainfluenza, and 47 respiratory syncytial virus) in 132 patients was included for analysis. Thirty-one episodes (15%) were associated with secondary IFIs, and 27 occurred in LTRs with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI; 28% from 96 LRTI episodes). Aspergillosis was the most common IFI (80%). LTRs with IFIs had higher disease severity during RVI episodes. In multivariable analysis, RVI with LTRI was associated with IFI (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval (CI)] of 7.85 (2.48-24.9). Secondary IFIs were associated with CLAD stage progression/death after accounting for LRTI, pre-existing CLAD, intensive care unit admission, secondary bacterial pneumonia and underlying lung diseases pre-transplant with adjusted hazard ratio (95%CI) of 2.45 (1.29-4.64). CONCLUSIONS: This cohort demonstrated 15% secondary IFI prevalence in LTRs with RVIs. Importantly, secondary IFIs were associated with CLAD stage progression/death, underscoring the importance of screening for fungal infections in this setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Fungal Infections , Lung Transplantation , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Transplant Recipients , Lung , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Allografts , Lung Transplantation/adverse effects
3.
Transplant Direct ; 8(1): e1268, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few reports have focused on newer coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) therapies (remdesivir, dexamethasone, and convalescent plasma) in solid organ transplant recipients; concerns had been raised regarding possible adverse impact on allograft function or secondary infections. METHODS: We studied 77 solid organ transplant inpatients with COVID-19 during 2 therapeutic eras (Era 1: March-May 2020, 21 patients; and Era 2: June-November 2020, 56 patients) and 52 solid organ transplant outpatients. RESULTS: In Era 1, no patients received remdesivir or dexamethasone, and 4 of 21 (19.4%) received convalescent plasma, whereas in Era 2, remdesivir (24/56, 42.9%), dexamethasone (24/56, 42.9%), and convalescent plasma (40/56, 71.4%) were commonly used. Mortality was low across both eras, 4 of 77 (5.6%), and rejection occurred in only 2 of 77 (2.8%) inpatients; infections were similar in hypoxemic patients with or without dexamethasone. Preexisting graft dysfunction was associated with greater need for hospitalization, higher severity score, and lower survival. Acute kidney injury was present in 37.3% of inpatients; renal function improved more rapidly in patients who received remdesivir and convalescent plasma. Post-COVID-19 renal and liver function were comparable between eras, out to 90 d. CONCLUSIONS: Newer COVID-19 therapies did not appear to have a deleterious effect on allograft function, and infectious complications were comparable.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(1): 83-91, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621573

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) occurs in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Risks and outcomes remain poorly understood. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of mechanically ventilated adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to 5 Johns Hopkins hospitals was conducted between March and August 2020. CAPA was defined using composite clinical criteria. Fine and Gray competing risks regression was used to analyze clinical outcomes and, multilevel mixed-effects ordinal logistic regression was used to compare longitudinal disease severity scores. RESULTS: In the cohort of 396 people, 39 met criteria for CAPA. Patients with CAPA were more likely than those without CAPA to have underlying pulmonary vascular disease (41% vs 21.6%, respectively; P = .01), liver disease (35.9% vs 18.2%; P = .02), coagulopathy (51.3% vs 33.1%; P = .03), solid tumors (25.6% vs 10.9%; P = .02), multiple myeloma (5.1% vs 0.3%; P = .03), and corticosteroid exposure during the index admission (66.7% vs 42.6%; P = .005), and had lower body mass indexes (median, 26.6 vs 29.9 [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared]; P = .04). Patients with CAPA had worse outcomes, as measured by ordinal severity of disease scores, requiring longer time to improvement (adjusted odds ratio, 1.081.091.1; P < .001), and advancing in severity almost twice as quickly (subhazard ratio, 1.31.82.5; P < .001). They were intubated twice as long as those without CAPA (subhazard ratio, 0.40.50.6; P < .001) and had longer hospital stays (median [interquartile range], 41.1 [20.5-72.4) vs 18.5 [10.7-31.8] days; P < .001). CONCLUSION: CAPA is associated with poor outcomes. Attention to preventive measures (screening and/or prophylaxis) is warranted in people with high risk of CAPA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Adult , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Am J Transplant ; 21(7): 2498-2508, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-960766

ABSTRACT

Immunosuppression and comorbidities might place solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients at higher risk from COVID-19, as suggested by recent case series. We compared 45 SOT vs. 2427 non-SOT patients who were admitted with COVID-19 to our health-care system (March 1, 2020 - August 21, 2020), evaluating hospital length-of-stay and inpatient mortality using competing-risks regression. We compared trajectories of WHO COVID-19 severity scale using mixed-effects ordinal logistic regression, adjusting for severity score at admission. SOT and non-SOT patients had comparable age, sex, and race, but SOT recipients were more likely to have diabetes (60% vs. 34%, p < .001), hypertension (69% vs. 44%, p = .001), HIV (7% vs. 1.4%, p = .024), and peripheral vascular disorders (19% vs. 8%, p = .018). There were no statistically significant differences between SOT and non-SOT in maximum illness severity score (p = .13), length-of-stay (sHR: 0.9 1.11.4 , p = .5), or mortality (sHR: 0.1 0.41.6 , p = .19), although the severity score on admission was slightly lower for SOT (median [IQR] 3 [3, 4]) than for non-SOT (median [IQR] 4 [3-4]) (p = .042) Despite a higher risk profile, SOT recipients had a faster decline in disease severity over time (OR = 0.76 0.810.86 , p < .001) compared with non-SOT patients. These findings have implications for transplant decision-making during the COVID-19 pandemic, and insights about the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on immunosuppressed patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Humans , Inpatients , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
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