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1.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in Portuguese | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328042

ABSTRACT

Objetivos. Determinar los factores asociados a mortalidad de los pacientes adultos hospitalizados con COVID-19 en un hospital de referencia de la seguridad social. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de cohorte prospectivo. Se incluyó a pacientes mayores de 18 años hospitalizados con el diagnostico de infección por SARS-CoV-2 y se excluyó a quienes ingresaron asintomáticos respiratorios, con prueba rápida serológica positiva al ingreso y sin imágenes compatibles. Los datos se recolectaron a partir de la historia clínica. Resultados. Se incluyó un total de 813 adultos, 544 (66.9%) tuvieron COVID-19 confirmado. La media de la edad fue de 61.2 años (DE: 15.0) y 575 (70.5%) fueron de sexo masculino. Las comorbilidades más frecuentes fueron hipertensión arterial (34.1%) y obesidad (25.9%). Los síntomas más frecuentes al ingreso fueron disnea (82.2%) y tos (53.9%). Un total de 114 (14.0%) pacientes recibieron ventilación mecánica, 38 (4.7%) ingresaron a UCI y 377 (46.4%) fallecieron. El requerimiento de soporte ventilatorio, el mayor compromiso pulmonar, las comorbilidades y los marcadores inflamatorios se asociaron a la mortalidad. Se halló que por cada 10 años que aumenta la edad, el riesgo de morir se incrementa en 32% (RR: 1.32 IC95%: 1.25 a 1.38). Aquellos que requirieron ingreso a UCI y ventilación mecánica tuvieron 1.39 (IC95%: 1.13 a 1.69) y 1.97 (IC95%: 1.69 a 2.29) veces el riesgo de morir, respectivamente. Conclusión. La mortalidad encontrada en nuestro estudio fue alta y estuvo asociada a la edad,  marcadores inflamatorios y compromiso respiratorio. 

2.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 45: e131, 2021.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579358

ABSTRACT

With millions of people in the world in situations of physical distancing because of COVID-19, information and communication technology (ICT) has become as one of the principal means of interaction and collaboration. The following advantages of ICT have been cited since the start of the new millennium: increased access to information and service delivery, educational strengthening, quality control of screening programs, and reduction of health care costs. In the case of telemedicine, however, a number of barriers-especially technological, human and social, psychosocial, anthropological, economic, and governance-related-have stood in the way of its adoption. The past 20 years have seen an increase in the availability of resources and technical capacity, improvements in digital education, empowerment of patients regarding their treatment, and increased public interest in this area. Successes have included the use of interdisciplinary teams, academic and professional networking, and virtual medical consultations. After reviewing the state of telemedicine in the Region of the Americas, the authors recommend the urgent adoption of measures aimed at implementing national telemedicine policies and programs, including a regulatory framework and adequate funding. Implementation of the measures should be integrated and interoperable and include the support of academic networks and the collaboration of specialized institutions. The policies should generate an enabling context that ensures sustainability of the progress achieved, bearing in mind the possible barriers mentioned.


Com milhões de pessoas no mundo em situação de distanciamento físico devido à COVID-19, as tecnologias da informação e comunicação (TICs) se enquadraram como um dos meios principais de interação e colaboração. Já no início deste milênio, começaram a ser mencionadas as seguintes vantagens: maior acesso à informação e à prestação de serviços; fortalecimento da educação; controle de qualidade dos programas de detecção e redução dos custos na atenção à saúde. No entanto, entre as principais barreiras de adoção da telemedicina se encontram as de caráter: tecnológico; humano e social; psicossocial e antropológico; de governança e econômico. Nestes 20 anos, houve um aumento nos recursos e na capacidade técnica, uma melhora na educação digital, um empoderamento do paciente em seu tratamento e um maior interesse público nessa área. Em especial, são consideradas bem-sucedidas a constituição de equipes interdisciplinares e as redes acadêmicas e profissionais, e as consultas médicas virtuais. Após revisar o estado da telemedicina na Região das Américas, os autores recomendam a adoção de medidas urgentes para implementar políticas e programas nacionais de telemedicina, incluindo o marco normativo e o orçamento necessário. Essa implementação deve ser realizada de maneira integral e interoperável e sustentada por redes acadêmicas, de parceria e instituições especializadas. Tais políticas devem gerar um contexto favorável, dando sustentabilidade ao avanço obtido e considerando os aspectos mencionados nas possíveis barreiras.

3.
Blood Cancer J ; 11(12): 202, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585877

ABSTRACT

There is evidence of reduced SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness in patients with hematological malignancies. We hypothesized that tumor and treatment-related immunosuppression can be depicted in peripheral blood, and that immune profiling prior to vaccination can help predict immunogenicity. We performed a comprehensive immunological characterization of 83 hematological patients before vaccination and measured IgM, IgG, and IgA antibody response to four viral antigens at day +7 after second-dose COVID-19 vaccination using multidimensional and computational flow cytometry. Health care practitioners of similar age were the control group (n = 102). Forty-four out of 59 immune cell types were significantly altered in patients; those with monoclonal gammopathies showed greater immunosuppression than patients with B-cell disorders and Hodgkin lymphoma. Immune dysregulation emerged before treatment, peaked while on-therapy, and did not return to normalcy after stopping treatment. We identified an immunotype that was significantly associated with poor antibody response and uncovered that the frequency of neutrophils, classical monocytes, CD4, and CD8 effector memory CD127low T cells, as well as naive CD21+ and IgM+D+ memory B cells, were independently associated with immunogenicity. Thus, we provide novel immune biomarkers to predict COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness in hematological patients, which are complementary to treatment-related factors and may help tailoring possible vaccine boosters.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 45: e131, 2021.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498313

ABSTRACT

With millions of people in the world in situations of physical distancing because of COVID-19, information and communication technology (ICT) has become as one of the principal means of interaction and collaboration. The following advantages of ICT have been cited since the start of the new millennium: increased access to information and service delivery, educational strengthening, quality control of screening programs, and reduction of health care costs. In the case of telemedicine, however, a number of barriers-especially technological, human and social, psychosocial, anthropological, economic, and governance-related-have stood in the way of its adoption. The past 20 years have seen an increase in the availability of resources and technical capacity, improvements in digital education, empowerment of patients regarding their treatment, and increased public interest in this area. Successes have included the use of interdisciplinary teams, academic and professional networking, and virtual medical consultations. After reviewing the state of telemedicine in the Region of the Americas, the authors recommend the urgent adoption of measures aimed at implementing national telemedicine policies and programs, including a regulatory framework and adequate funding. Implementation of the measures should be integrated and interoperable and include the support of academic networks and the collaboration of specialized institutions. The policies should generate an enabling context that ensures sustainability of the progress achieved, bearing in mind the possible barriers mentioned.


Com milhões de pessoas no mundo em situação de distanciamento físico devido à COVID-19, as tecnologias da informação e comunicação (TICs) se enquadraram como um dos meios principais de interação e colaboração. Já no início deste milênio, começaram a ser mencionadas as seguintes vantagens: maior acesso à informação e à prestação de serviços; fortalecimento da educação; controle de qualidade dos programas de detecção e redução dos custos na atenção à saúde. No entanto, entre as principais barreiras de adoção da telemedicina se encontram as de caráter: tecnológico; humano e social; psicossocial e antropológico; de governança e econômico. Nestes 20 anos, houve um aumento nos recursos e na capacidade técnica, uma melhora na educação digital, um empoderamento do paciente em seu tratamento e um maior interesse público nessa área. Em especial, são consideradas bem-sucedidas a constituição de equipes interdisciplinares e as redes acadêmicas e profissionais, e as consultas médicas virtuais. Após revisar o estado da telemedicina na Região das Américas, os autores recomendam a adoção de medidas urgentes para implementar políticas e programas nacionais de telemedicina, incluindo o marco normativo e o orçamento necessário. Essa implementação deve ser realizada de maneira integral e interoperável e sustentada por redes acadêmicas, de parceria e instituições especializadas. Tais políticas devem gerar um contexto favorável, dando sustentabilidade ao avanço obtido e considerando os aspectos mencionados nas possíveis barreiras.

5.
Medwave ; 21(6): e8231, 2021 Jul 05.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320619

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe and assess clinical characteristics and factors associated with mortality in adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to a national referral hospital in Peru. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study that included hospitalized patients older than 18 years with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection diagnosis. Patients with a positive rapid serological test on admission but no respiratory symptoms nor compatible images were excluded. We collected the data from clinical records. RESULTS: A total of 813 adults were included, 544 (66.9%) with confirmed COVID-19. The mean age was 61.2 years (standard deviation: 15.0), and 575 (70.5%) were male. The most frequent comorbidities were hypertension (34.1%) and obesity (25.9%). On admission, the most frequent symptoms were dyspnea (82.2%) and cough (53.9%). A total of 114 (14.0%) patients received mechanical ventilation, 38 (4.7%) were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 377 (46.4%) died. The requirement for ventilatory support, greater lung involvement, and inflammatory markers were associated with higher mortality. It was found that for every 10-year age increase, the risk of dying increased 32% (relative risk: 1.32; 95% confidence interval: 1.25 to 1.38). Those who were admitted to the intensive care unit and and were placed on mechanical ventilation had 1.39 (95% confidence interval: 1.13 to 1.69) and 1.97 (95% confidence interval: 1.69 to 2.29) times the risk of dying compared to those who did not, respectively. CONCLUSION: We found a high mortality rate among hospitalized patients associated with older age, higher inflammatory markers, and greater lung involvement.


OBJETIVOS: Describir las características clínicas y evaluar los factores asociados con la mortalidad de los pacientes adultos con la nueva enfermedad causada por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) ingresados a un hospital de referencia nacional de Perú. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte prospectivo. Se incluyó a pacientes mayores de 18 años hospitalizados con el diagnóstico de infección por coronavirus 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo (SARS-CoV-2). Se excluyó a quienes ingresaron con prueba rápida serológica positiva al ingreso, sin clínica sugestiva ni imágenes compatibles. Los datos se recolectaron a partir de la historia clínica. RESULTADOS: Se incluyó un total de 813 adultos, 544 (66,9%) tuvieron COVID-19 confirmado. La media de la edad fue de 61,2 años (desviación estándar: 15) y 575 (70,5%) fueron de sexo masculino. Las comorbilidades más frecuentes fueron hipertensión arterial (34,1%) y obesidad (25,9%). Los síntomas más frecuentes al ingreso fueron disnea (82,2%) y tos (53,9%). Un total de 114 (14%) pacientes recibieron ventilación mecánica, 38 (4,7%) ingresaron a unidad de cuidados intensivos y 377 (46,4%) fallecieron. Se asociaron a la mortalidad el requerimiento de soporte ventilatorio, el mayor compromiso pulmonar y los marcadores inflamatorios. Encontramos que por cada 10 años que aumentó la edad, el riesgo de morir se incrementó en 32% (riesgo relativo: 1,32; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,25 a 1,38). Aquellos pacientes que requirieron ingreso a unidad de cuidados intensivos y ventilación mecánica tuvieron 1,39 (intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,13 a 1,69) y 1,97 (intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,69 a 2,29) veces el riesgo de morir, respectivamente. CONCLUSIÓN: La mortalidad encontrada en nuestro estudio fue alta y estuvo asociada a la edad, marcadores inflamatorios y compromiso respiratorio.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peru/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
6.
Yearb Med Inform ; 30(1): 8-12, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196869

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To summarize the major activities of the International Academy of Health Sciences Informatics (IAHSI) in the 2020 time period and to welcome its 2020 Class of Fellows. METHOD: Report from the members of the Academy's Board. RESULTS: Due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, both Plenary meetings in 2020 had to be organized as virtual meetings. Scientific discussions, focusing on mobilizing computable biomedical knowledge and on data standards and interoperability formed major parts of these meetings. A statement on the use of informatics in pandemic situations was elaborated and sent to the World Health Organization. A panel on data standards and interoperability started its work. 34 Fellows were welcomed in the 2020 Class of Fellows so that the Academy now consists of 179 members. CONCLUSIONS: There was a shift from supporting to strategic activities in the Academy's work. After having achieved organizational stability, the Academy can now focus on its strategic work and so on its main objective.


Subject(s)
Academies and Institutes/organization & administration , Medical Informatics , Global Health , National Academy of Sciences, U.S. , United States
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