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1.
RSC Adv ; 13(26): 17667-17677, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232823

ABSTRACT

The papain-like protease (PLpro) plays a critical role in SARS-CoV-2 (SCoV-2) pathogenesis and is essential for viral replication and for allowing the virus to evade the host immune response. Inhibitors of PLpro have great therapeutic potential, however, developing them has been challenging due to PLpro's restricted substrate binding pocket. In this report, we screened a 115 000-compound library for PLpro inhibitors and identified a new pharmacophore, based on a mercapto-pyrimidine fragment that is a reversible covalent inhibitor (RCI) of PLpro and inhibits viral replication in cells. Compound 5 had an IC50 of 5.1 µM for PLpro inhibition and hit optimization yielded a derivative with increased potency (IC50 0.85 µM, 6-fold higher). Activity based profiling of compound 5 demonstrated that it reacts with PLpro cysteines. We show here that compound 5 represents a new class of RCIs, which undergo an addition elimination reaction with cysteines in their target proteins. We further show that their reversibility is catalyzed by exogenous thiols and is dependent on the size of the incoming thiol. In contrast, traditional RCIs are all based upon the Michael addition reaction mechanism and their reversibility is base-catalyzed. We identify a new class of RCIs that introduces a more reactive warhead with a pronounced selectivity profile based on thiol ligand size. This could allow the expansion of RCI modality use towards a larger group of proteins important for human disease.

2.
mBio ; : e0088923, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244072

ABSTRACT

Viruses targeting mammalian cells can indirectly alter the gut microbiota, potentially compounding their phenotypic effects. Multiple studies have observed a disrupted gut microbiota in severe cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection that require hospitalization. Yet, despite demographic shifts in disease severity resulting in a large and continuing burden of non-hospitalized infections, we still know very little about the impact of mild SARS-CoV-2 infection on the gut microbiota in the outpatient setting. To address this knowledge gap, we longitudinally sampled 14 SARS-CoV-2-positive subjects who remained outpatient and 4 household controls. SARS-CoV-2 cases exhibited a significantly less stable gut microbiota relative to controls. These results were confirmed and extended in the K18-humanized angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 mouse model, which is susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. All of the tested SARS-CoV-2 variants significantly disrupted the mouse gut microbiota, including USA-WA1/2020 (the original variant detected in the USA), Delta, and Omicron. Surprisingly, despite the fact that the Omicron variant caused the least severe symptoms in mice, it destabilized the gut microbiota and led to a significant depletion in Akkermansia muciniphila. Furthermore, exposure of wild-type C57BL/6J mice to SARS-CoV-2 disrupted the gut microbiota in the absence of severe lung pathology.IMPORTANCETaken together, our results demonstrate that even mild cases of SARS-CoV-2 can disrupt gut microbial ecology. Our findings in non-hospitalized individuals are consistent with studies of hospitalized patients, in that reproducible shifts in gut microbial taxonomic abundance in response to SARS-CoV-2 have been difficult to identify. Instead, we report a long-lasting instability in the gut microbiota. Surprisingly, our mouse experiments revealed an impact of the Omicron variant, despite producing the least severe symptoms in genetically susceptible mice, suggesting that despite the continued evolution of SARS-CoV-2, it has retained its ability to perturb the intestinal mucosa. These results will hopefully renew efforts to study the mechanisms through which Omicron and future SARS-CoV-2 variants alter gastrointestinal physiology, while also considering the potentially broad consequences of SARS-CoV-2-induced microbiota instability for host health and disease.

3.
J Med Chem ; 66(12): 7785-7803, 2023 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243008

ABSTRACT

An under-explored target for SARS-CoV-2 is the S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferase Nsp14, which methylates the N7-guanosine of viral RNA at the 5'-end, allowing the virus to evade host immune response. We sought new Nsp14 inhibitors with three large library docking strategies. First, up to 1.1 billion lead-like molecules were docked against the enzyme's SAM site, leading to three inhibitors with IC50 values from 6 to 50 µM. Second, docking a library of 16 million fragments revealed 9 new inhibitors with IC50 values from 12 to 341 µM. Third, docking a library of 25 million electrophiles to covalently modify Cys387 revealed 7 inhibitors with IC50 values from 3.5 to 39 µM. Overall, 32 inhibitors encompassing 11 chemotypes had IC50 values < 50 µM and 5 inhibitors in 4 chemotypes had IC50 values < 10 µM. These molecules are among the first non-SAM-like inhibitors of Nsp14, providing starting points for future optimization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methyltransferases , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Exoribonucleases
4.
RSC Adv ; 13(16): 10636-10641, 2023 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296123

ABSTRACT

Covalent inhibitors of the papain-like protease (PLpro) from SARS-CoV-2 have great potential as antivirals, but their non-specific reactivity with thiols has limited their development. In this report, we performed an 8000 molecule electrophile screen against PLpro and identified an α-chloro amide fragment, termed compound 1, which inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in cells, and also had low non-specific reactivity with thiols. Compound 1 covalently reacts with the active site cysteine of PLpro, and had an IC50 of 18 µM for PLpro inhibition. Compound 1 also had low non-specific reactivity with thiols and reacted with glutathione 1-2 orders of magnitude slower than other commonly used electrophilic warheads. Finally, compound 1 had low toxicity in cells and mice and has a molecular weight of only 247 daltons and consequently has great potential for further optimization. Collectively, these results demonstrate that compound 1 is a promising lead fragment for future PLpro drug discovery campaigns.

5.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 2308, 2023 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304491

ABSTRACT

Although the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (BA.1) spread rapidly across the world and effectively evaded immune responses, its viral fitness in cell and animal models was reduced. The precise nature of this attenuation remains unknown as generating replication-competent viral genomes is challenging because of the length of the viral genome (~30 kb). Here, we present a plasmid-based viral genome assembly and rescue strategy (pGLUE) that constructs complete infectious viruses or noninfectious subgenomic replicons in a single ligation reaction with >80% efficiency. Fully sequenced replicons and infectious viral stocks can be generated in 1 and 3 weeks, respectively. By testing a series of naturally occurring viruses as well as Delta-Omicron chimeric replicons, we show that Omicron nonstructural protein 6 harbors critical attenuating mutations, which dampen viral RNA replication and reduce lipid droplet consumption. Thus, pGLUE overcomes remaining barriers to broadly study SARS-CoV-2 replication and reveals deficits in nonstructural protein function underlying Omicron attenuation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
Stem Cell Reports ; 18(3): 636-653, 2023 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263746

ABSTRACT

Ancestral SARS coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and variants of concern (VOC) caused a global pandemic with a spectrum of disease severity. The mechanistic explaining variations related to airway epithelium are relatively understudied. Here, we biobanked airway organoids (AO) by preserving stem cell function. We optimized viral infection with H1N1/PR8 and comprehensively characterized epithelial responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection in phenotypically stable AO from 20 different subjects. We discovered Tetraspanin-8 (TSPAN8) as a facilitator of SARS-CoV-2 infection. TSPAN8 facilitates SARS-CoV-2 infection rates independently of ACE2-Spike interaction. In head-to-head comparisons with Ancestral SARS-CoV-2, Delta and Omicron VOC displayed lower overall infection rates of AO but triggered changes in epithelial response. All variants shared highest tropism for ciliated and goblet cells. TSPAN8-blocking antibodies diminish SARS-CoV-2 infection and may spur novel avenues for COVID-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Organoids , Tetraspanins/genetics
7.
mBio ; : e0230822, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097925

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is frequently associated with neurological deficits, but how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces these effects remains unclear. Here, we show that astrocytes are readily infected by SARS-CoV-2, but surprisingly, neuropilin-1, not angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), serves as the principal receptor mediating cell entry. Infection is further positively modulated by the two-pore segment channel 2 (TPC2) protein that regulates membrane trafficking and endocytosis. Astrocyte infection produces a pathological response closely resembling reactive astrogliosis characterized by elevated type I interferon (IFN) production, increased inflammation, and the decreased expression of transporters of water, ions, choline, and neurotransmitters. These combined events initiated within astrocytes produce a hostile microenvironment that promotes the dysfunction and death of uninfected bystander neurons. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 infection primarily targets the lung but may also damage other organs, including the brain, heart, kidney, and intestine. Central nervous system (CNS) pathologies include loss of smell and taste, headache, delirium, acute psychosis, seizures, and stroke. Pathological loss of gray matter occurs in SARS-CoV-2 infection, but it is unclear whether this is due to direct viral infection, indirect effects associated with systemic inflammation, or both. Here, we used induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived brain organoids and primary human astrocytes from the cerebral cortex to study direct SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our findings support a model where SARS-CoV-2 infection of astrocytes produces a panoply of changes in the expression of genes regulating innate immune signaling and inflammatory responses. The deregulation of these genes in astrocytes produces a microenvironment within the CNS that ultimately disrupts normal neuron function, promoting neuronal cell death and CNS deficits.

8.
J Infect Dis ; 226(10): 1688-1698, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2034602

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As of early 2022, the Omicron variants are the predominant circulating lineages globally. Understanding neutralizing antibody responses against Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 after vaccine breakthrough infections will provide insights into BA.2 infectivity and susceptibility to subsequent reinfection. METHODS: Live virus neutralization assays were used to study immunity against Delta and Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 variants in samples from 86 individuals, 24 unvaccinated (27.9%) and 62 vaccinated (72.1%), who were infected with Delta (n = 42, 48.8%) or BA.1 (n = 44, 51.2%). Among the 62 vaccinated individuals, 39 were unboosted (62.9%), whereas 23 were boosted (37.1%). RESULTS: In unvaccinated infections, neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against the three variants were weak or undetectable, except against Delta for Delta-infected individuals. Both Delta and BA.1 breakthrough infections resulted in strong nAb responses against ancestral wild-type and Delta lineages, but moderate nAb responses against BA.1 and BA.2, with similar titers between unboosted and boosted individuals. Antibody titers against BA.2 were generally higher than those against BA.1 in breakthrough infections. CONCLUSIONS: These results underscore the decreased immunogenicity of BA.1 compared to BA.2, insufficient neutralizing immunity against BA.2 in unvaccinated individuals, and moderate to strong neutralizing immunity induced against BA.2 in Delta and BA.1 breakthrough infections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Vaccines , Humans , Antibodies, Viral
9.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(9): e1010811, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021986

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 non-structural protein Nsp14 is a highly conserved enzyme necessary for viral replication. Nsp14 forms a stable complex with non-structural protein Nsp10 and exhibits exoribonuclease and N7-methyltransferase activities. Protein-interactome studies identified human sirtuin 5 (SIRT5) as a putative binding partner of Nsp14. SIRT5 is an NAD-dependent protein deacylase critical for cellular metabolism that removes succinyl and malonyl groups from lysine residues. Here we investigated the nature of this interaction and the role of SIRT5 during SARS-CoV-2 infection. We showed that SIRT5 interacts with Nsp14, but not with Nsp10, suggesting that SIRT5 and Nsp10 are parts of separate complexes. We found that SIRT5 catalytic domain is necessary for the interaction with Nsp14, but that Nsp14 does not appear to be directly deacylated by SIRT5. Furthermore, knock-out of SIRT5 or treatment with specific SIRT5 inhibitors reduced SARS-CoV-2 viral levels in cell-culture experiments. SIRT5 knock-out cells expressed higher basal levels of innate immunity markers and mounted a stronger antiviral response, independently of the Mitochondrial Antiviral Signaling Protein MAVS. Our results indicate that SIRT5 is a proviral factor necessary for efficient viral replication, which opens novel avenues for therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sirtuins , Antiviral Agents , Exoribonucleases/metabolism , Humans , Lysine , Methyltransferases/metabolism , NAD , Proviruses , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sirtuins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
10.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 22(10): 591-592, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984399

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans
11.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech ; 1865(7): 194859, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982601

ABSTRACT

Viruses use diverse tactics to hijack host cellular machineries to evade innate immune responses and maintain their life cycles. Being critical transcriptional regulators, human BET proteins are prominent targets of a growing number of viruses. The BET proteins associate with chromatin through the interaction of their bromodomains with acetylated histones, whereas the carboxy-terminal domains of these proteins contain docking sites for various human co-transcriptional regulators. The same docking sites however can be occupied by viral proteins that exploit the BET proteins to anchor their genome components to chromatin in the infected host cell. In this review we highlight the pathological functions of the BET proteins upon viral infection, focusing on the mechanisms underlying their direct interactions with viral proteins, such as the envelope protein from SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Histones , Chromatin , Histones/metabolism , Humans , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Viral Proteins/genetics
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(31): e2200592119, 2022 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960616

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant contains extensive sequence changes relative to the earlier-arising B.1, B.1.1, and Delta SARS-CoV-2 variants that have unknown effects on viral infectivity and response to existing vaccines. Using SARS-CoV-2 virus-like particles (VLPs), we examined mutations in all four structural proteins and found that Omicron and Delta showed 4.6-fold higher luciferase delivery overall relative to the ancestral B.1 lineage, a property conferred mostly by enhancements in the S and N proteins, while mutations in M and E were mostly detrimental to assembly. Thirty-eight antisera samples from individuals vaccinated with Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna, or Johnson & Johnson vaccines and convalescent sera from unvaccinated COVID-19 survivors had 15-fold lower efficacy to prevent cell transduction by VLPs containing the Omicron mutations relative to the ancestral B.1 spike protein. A third dose of Pfizer vaccine elicited substantially higher neutralization titers against Omicron, resulting in detectable neutralizing antibodies in eight out of eight subjects compared to one out of eight preboosting. Furthermore, the monoclonal antibody therapeutics casirivimab and imdevimab had robust neutralization activity against B.1 and Delta VLPs but no detectable neutralization of Omicron VLPs, while newly authorized bebtelovimab maintained robust neutralization across variants. Our results suggest that Omicron has similar assembly efficiency and cell entry compared to Delta and that its rapid spread is due mostly to reduced neutralization in sera from previously vaccinated subjects. In addition, most currently available monoclonal antibodies will not be useful in treating Omicron-infected patients with the exception of bebtelovimab.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(30): 13663-13672, 2022 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960253

ABSTRACT

Many existing protein detection strategies depend on highly functionalized antibody reagents. A simpler and easier to produce class of detection reagent is highly desirable. We designed a single-component, recombinant, luminescent biosensor that can be expressed in laboratory strains of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This biosensor is deployed in multiple homogeneous and immobilized assay formats to detect recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen and cultured virus. The chemiluminescent signal generated facilitates detection by an unaugmented cell phone camera. Binding-activated tandem split-enzyme (BAT) biosensors may serve as a useful template for diagnostics and reagents that detect SARS-CoV-2 antigens and other proteins of interest.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(30): e2122236119, 2022 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947759

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) readily infects a variety of cell types impacting the function of vital organ systems, with particularly severe impact on respiratory function. Neurological symptoms, which range in severity, accompany as many as one-third of COVID-19 cases, indicating a potential vulnerability of neural cell types. To assess whether human cortical cells can be directly infected by SARS-CoV-2, we utilized stem-cell-derived cortical organoids as well as primary human cortical tissue, both from developmental and adult stages. We find significant and predominant infection in cortical astrocytes in both primary tissue and organoid cultures, with minimal infection of other cortical populations. Infected and bystander astrocytes have a corresponding increase in inflammatory gene expression, reactivity characteristics, increased cytokine and growth factor signaling, and cellular stress. Although human cortical cells, particularly astrocytes, have no observable ACE2 expression, we find high levels of coronavirus coreceptors in infected astrocytes, including CD147 and DPP4. Decreasing coreceptor abundance and activity reduces overall infection rate, and increasing expression is sufficient to promote infection. Thus, we find tropism of SARS-CoV-2 for human astrocytes resulting in inflammatory gliosis-type injury that is dependent on coronavirus coreceptors.


Subject(s)
Astrocytes , Cerebral Cortex , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Tropism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Astrocytes/enzymology , Astrocytes/virology , Cerebral Cortex/virology , Humans , Organoids/virology , Primary Cell Culture , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
15.
Chem ; 8(10): 2766-2783, 2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936147

ABSTRACT

The long-lasting COVID-19 pandemic and increasing SARS-CoV-2 variants demand effective drugs for prophylactics and treatment. Protein-based biologics offer high specificity, yet their noncovalent interactions often lead to drug dissociation and incomplete inhibition. Here, we have developed covalent nanobodies capable of binding with SARS-CoV-2 irreversibly via a proximity-enabled reactive therapeutic (PERx) mechanism. A latent bioreactive amino acid (FFY) was designed and genetically encoded into nanobodies to accelerate the PERx reaction rate. Compared with the noncovalent wild-type nanobody, the FFY-incorporated covalent nanobodies neutralized both wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and its Alpha, Delta, Epsilon, Lambda, and Omicron variants with drastically higher potency. This PERx-enabled covalent-nanobody strategy and the related insights into increased potency can be valuable to developing effective therapeutics for various viral infections.

16.
Cell Rep ; 40(3): 111088, 2022 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906848

ABSTRACT

Inhibitors of bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) proteins are possible anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) prophylactics as they downregulate angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Here we show that BET proteins should not be inactivated therapeutically because they are critical antiviral factors at the post-entry level. Depletion of BRD3 or BRD4 in cells overexpressing ACE2 exacerbates SARS-CoV-2 infection; the same is observed when cells with endogenous ACE2 expression are treated with BET inhibitors during infection and not before. Viral replication and mortality are also enhanced in BET inhibitor-treated mice overexpressing ACE2. BET inactivation suppresses interferon production induced by SARS-CoV-2, a process phenocopied by the envelope (E) protein previously identified as a possible "histone mimetic." E protein, in an acetylated form, directly binds the second bromodomain of BRD4. Our data support a model where SARS-CoV-2 E protein evolved to antagonize interferon responses via BET protein inhibition; this neutralization should not be further enhanced with BET inhibitor treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Interferons , Mice , Nuclear Proteins , Transcription Factors , Viral Proteins
17.
Nature ; 607(7918): 351-355, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852428

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron are globally relevant variants of concern. Although individuals infected with Delta are at risk of developing severe lung disease, infection with Omicron often causes milder symptoms, especially in vaccinated individuals1,2. The question arises of whether widespread Omicron infections could lead to future cross-variant protection, accelerating the end of the pandemic. Here we show that without vaccination, infection with Omicron induces a limited humoral immune response in mice and humans. Sera from mice overexpressing the human ACE2 receptor and infected with Omicron neutralize only Omicron, but not other variants of concern, whereas broader cross-variant neutralization was observed after WA1 and Delta infections. Unlike WA1 and Delta, Omicron replicates to low levels in the lungs and brains of infected animals, leading to mild disease with reduced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and diminished activation of lung-resident T cells. Sera from individuals who were unvaccinated and infected with Omicron show the same limited neutralization of only Omicron itself. By contrast, Omicron breakthrough infections induce overall higher neutralization titres against all variants of concern. Our results demonstrate that Omicron infection enhances pre-existing immunity elicited by vaccines but, on its own, may not confer broad protection against non-Omicron variants in unvaccinated individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Protection , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cross Protection/immunology , Cytokines , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
18.
JCI Insight ; 7(12)2022 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846629

ABSTRACT

Pregnancy confers unique immune responses to infection and vaccination across gestation. To date, there are limited data comparing vaccine- and infection-induced neutralizing Abs (nAbs) against COVID-19 variants in mothers during pregnancy. We analyzed paired maternal and cord plasma samples from 60 pregnant individuals. Thirty women vaccinated with mRNA vaccines (from December 2020 through August 2021) were matched with 30 naturally infected women (from March 2020 through January 2021) by gestational age of exposure. Neutralization activity against the 5 SARS-CoV-2 spike sequences was measured by a SARS-CoV-2-pseudotyped spike virion assay. Effective nAbs against SARS-CoV-2 were present in maternal and cord plasma after both infection and vaccination. Compared with WT spike protein, these nAbs were less effective against the Delta and Mu spike variants. Vaccination during the third trimester induced higher cord-nAb levels at delivery than did infection during the third trimester. In contrast, vaccine-induced nAb levels were lower at the time of delivery compared with infection during the first trimester. The transfer ratio (cord nAb level divided by maternal nAb level) was greatest in mothers vaccinated in the second trimester. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination or infection in pregnancy elicits effective nAbs with differing neutralization kinetics that are influenced by gestational time of exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Mothers , Neutralization Tests , Vaccination
19.
Cell ; 185(9): 1539-1548.e5, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748150

ABSTRACT

Virus-like particle (VLP) and live virus assays were used to investigate neutralizing immunity against Delta and Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variants in 259 samples from 128 vaccinated individuals. Following Delta breakthrough infection, titers against WT rose 57-fold and 3.1-fold compared with uninfected boosted and unboosted individuals, respectively, versus only a 5.8-fold increase and 3.1-fold decrease for Omicron breakthrough infection. Among immunocompetent, unboosted patients, Delta breakthrough infections induced 10.8-fold higher titers against WT compared with Omicron (p = 0.037). Decreased antibody responses in Omicron breakthrough infections relative to Delta were potentially related to a higher proportion of asymptomatic or mild breakthrough infections (55.0% versus 28.6%, respectively), which exhibited 12.3-fold lower titers against WT compared with moderate to severe infections (p = 0.020). Following either Delta or Omicron breakthrough infection, limited variant-specific cross-neutralizing immunity was observed. These results suggest that Omicron breakthrough infections are less immunogenic than Delta, thus providing reduced protection against reinfection or infection from future variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans
20.
Cell ; 184(25): 6022-6036.e18, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536466

ABSTRACT

Viral-deletion mutants that conditionally replicate and inhibit the wild-type virus (i.e., defective interfering particles, DIPs) have long been proposed as single-administration interventions with high genetic barriers to resistance. However, theories predict that robust, therapeutic DIPs (i.e., therapeutic interfering particles, TIPs) must conditionally spread between cells with R0 >1. Here, we report engineering of TIPs that conditionally replicate with SARS-CoV-2, exhibit R0 >1, and inhibit viral replication 10- to 100-fold. Inhibition occurs via competition for viral replication machinery, and a single administration of TIP RNA inhibits SARS-CoV-2 sustainably in continuous cultures. Strikingly, TIPs maintain efficacy against neutralization-resistant variants (e.g., B.1.351). In hamsters, both prophylactic and therapeutic intranasal administration of lipid-nanoparticle TIPs durably suppressed SARS-CoV-2 by 100-fold in the lungs, reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and prevented severe pulmonary edema. These data provide proof of concept for a class of single-administration antivirals that may circumvent current requirements to continually update medical countermeasures against new variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Defective Interfering Viruses/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology , Defective Interfering Viruses/pathogenicity , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Male , Mesocricetus , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vero Cells
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