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1.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 2022 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984399
2.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms ; : 194859, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1982601

ABSTRACT

Viruses use diverse tactics to hijack host cellular machineries to evade innate immune responses and maintain their life cycles. Being critical transcriptional regulators, human BET proteins are prominent targets of a growing number of viruses. The BET proteins associate with chromatin through the interaction of their bromodomains with acetylated histones, whereas the carboxy-terminal domains of these proteins contain docking sites for various human co-transcriptional regulators. The same docking sites however can be occupied by viral proteins that exploit the BET proteins to anchor their genome components to chromatin in the infected host cell. In this review we highlight the pathological functions of the BET proteins upon viral infection, focusing on the mechanisms underlying their direct interactions with viral proteins, such as the envelope protein from SARS-CoV-2.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(31): e2200592119, 2022 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960616

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant contains extensive sequence changes relative to the earlier-arising B.1, B.1.1, and Delta SARS-CoV-2 variants that have unknown effects on viral infectivity and response to existing vaccines. Using SARS-CoV-2 virus-like particles (VLPs), we examined mutations in all four structural proteins and found that Omicron and Delta showed 4.6-fold higher luciferase delivery overall relative to the ancestral B.1 lineage, a property conferred mostly by enhancements in the S and N proteins, while mutations in M and E were mostly detrimental to assembly. Thirty-eight antisera samples from individuals vaccinated with Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna, or Johnson & Johnson vaccines and convalescent sera from unvaccinated COVID-19 survivors had 15-fold lower efficacy to prevent cell transduction by VLPs containing the Omicron mutations relative to the ancestral B.1 spike protein. A third dose of Pfizer vaccine elicited substantially higher neutralization titers against Omicron, resulting in detectable neutralizing antibodies in eight out of eight subjects compared to one out of eight preboosting. Furthermore, the monoclonal antibody therapeutics casirivimab and imdevimab had robust neutralization activity against B.1 and Delta VLPs but no detectable neutralization of Omicron VLPs, while newly authorized bebtelovimab maintained robust neutralization across variants. Our results suggest that Omicron has similar assembly efficiency and cell entry compared to Delta and that its rapid spread is due mostly to reduced neutralization in sera from previously vaccinated subjects. In addition, most currently available monoclonal antibodies will not be useful in treating Omicron-infected patients with the exception of bebtelovimab.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(30): 13663-13672, 2022 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960253

ABSTRACT

Many existing protein detection strategies depend on highly functionalized antibody reagents. A simpler and easier to produce class of detection reagent is highly desirable. We designed a single-component, recombinant, luminescent biosensor that can be expressed in laboratory strains of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This biosensor is deployed in multiple homogeneous and immobilized assay formats to detect recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen and cultured virus. The chemiluminescent signal generated facilitates detection by an unaugmented cell phone camera. Binding-activated tandem split-enzyme (BAT) biosensors may serve as a useful template for diagnostics and reagents that detect SARS-CoV-2 antigens and other proteins of interest.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(30): e2122236119, 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947759

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) readily infects a variety of cell types impacting the function of vital organ systems, with particularly severe impact on respiratory function. Neurological symptoms, which range in severity, accompany as many as one-third of COVID-19 cases, indicating a potential vulnerability of neural cell types. To assess whether human cortical cells can be directly infected by SARS-CoV-2, we utilized stem-cell-derived cortical organoids as well as primary human cortical tissue, both from developmental and adult stages. We find significant and predominant infection in cortical astrocytes in both primary tissue and organoid cultures, with minimal infection of other cortical populations. Infected and bystander astrocytes have a corresponding increase in inflammatory gene expression, reactivity characteristics, increased cytokine and growth factor signaling, and cellular stress. Although human cortical cells, particularly astrocytes, have no observable ACE2 expression, we find high levels of coronavirus coreceptors in infected astrocytes, including CD147 and DPP4. Decreasing coreceptor abundance and activity reduces overall infection rate, and increasing expression is sufficient to promote infection. Thus, we find tropism of SARS-CoV-2 for human astrocytes resulting in inflammatory gliosis-type injury that is dependent on coronavirus coreceptors.


Subject(s)
Astrocytes , Cerebral Cortex , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Tropism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Astrocytes/enzymology , Astrocytes/virology , Cerebral Cortex/virology , Humans , Organoids/virology , Primary Cell Culture , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
6.
Chem ; 2022 Jul 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936147

ABSTRACT

The long-lasting COVID-19 pandemic and increasing SARS-CoV-2 variants demand effective drugs for prophylactics and treatment. Protein-based biologics offer high specificity yet their noncovalent interactions often lead to drug dissociation and incomplete inhibition. Here we developed covalent nanobodies capable of binding with SARS-CoV-2 irreversibly via proximity-enabled reactive therapeutic (PERx) mechanism. A latent bioreactive amino acid FFY was designed and genetically encoded into nanobodies to accelerate PERx reaction rate. In comparison with the noncovalent wildtype nanobody, the FFY-incorporated covalent nanobodies neutralized both wildtype SARS-CoV-2 and its Alpha, Delta, Epsilon, Lambda, and Omicron variants with potency drastically increased. This PERx-enabled covalent nanobody strategy and insights on potency increase can be valuable to developing effective therapeutics for various viral infections.

7.
Cell Rep ; 40(3): 111088, 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906848

ABSTRACT

Inhibitors of bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) proteins are possible anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) prophylactics as they downregulate angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Here we show that BET proteins should not be inactivated therapeutically because they are critical antiviral factors at the post-entry level. Depletion of BRD3 or BRD4 in cells overexpressing ACE2 exacerbates SARS-CoV-2 infection; the same is observed when cells with endogenous ACE2 expression are treated with BET inhibitors during infection and not before. Viral replication and mortality are also enhanced in BET inhibitor-treated mice overexpressing ACE2. BET inactivation suppresses interferon production induced by SARS-CoV-2, a process phenocopied by the envelope (E) protein previously identified as a possible "histone mimetic." E protein, in an acetylated form, directly binds the second bromodomain of BRD4. Our data support a model where SARS-CoV-2 E protein evolved to antagonize interferon responses via BET protein inhibition; this neutralization should not be further enhanced with BET inhibitor treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Interferons , Mice , Nuclear Proteins , Transcription Factors , Viral Proteins
8.
Nature ; 607(7918): 351-355, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852428

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron are globally relevant variants of concern. Although individuals infected with Delta are at risk of developing severe lung disease, infection with Omicron often causes milder symptoms, especially in vaccinated individuals1,2. The question arises of whether widespread Omicron infections could lead to future cross-variant protection, accelerating the end of the pandemic. Here we show that without vaccination, infection with Omicron induces a limited humoral immune response in mice and humans. Sera from mice overexpressing the human ACE2 receptor and infected with Omicron neutralize only Omicron, but not other variants of concern, whereas broader cross-variant neutralization was observed after WA1 and Delta infections. Unlike WA1 and Delta, Omicron replicates to low levels in the lungs and brains of infected animals, leading to mild disease with reduced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and diminished activation of lung-resident T cells. Sera from individuals who were unvaccinated and infected with Omicron show the same limited neutralization of only Omicron itself. By contrast, Omicron breakthrough infections induce overall higher neutralization titres against all variants of concern. Our results demonstrate that Omicron infection enhances pre-existing immunity elicited by vaccines but, on its own, may not confer broad protection against non-Omicron variants in unvaccinated individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Protection , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cross Protection/immunology , Cytokines , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
9.
JCI Insight ; 7(12)2022 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846629

ABSTRACT

Pregnancy confers unique immune responses to infection and vaccination across gestation. To date, there are limited data comparing vaccine- and infection-induced neutralizing Abs (nAbs) against COVID-19 variants in mothers during pregnancy. We analyzed paired maternal and cord plasma samples from 60 pregnant individuals. Thirty women vaccinated with mRNA vaccines (from December 2020 through August 2021) were matched with 30 naturally infected women (from March 2020 through January 2021) by gestational age of exposure. Neutralization activity against the 5 SARS-CoV-2 spike sequences was measured by a SARS-CoV-2-pseudotyped spike virion assay. Effective nAbs against SARS-CoV-2 were present in maternal and cord plasma after both infection and vaccination. Compared with WT spike protein, these nAbs were less effective against the Delta and Mu spike variants. Vaccination during the third trimester induced higher cord-nAb levels at delivery than did infection during the third trimester. In contrast, vaccine-induced nAb levels were lower at the time of delivery compared with infection during the first trimester. The transfer ratio (cord nAb level divided by maternal nAb level) was greatest in mothers vaccinated in the second trimester. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination or infection in pregnancy elicits effective nAbs with differing neutralization kinetics that are influenced by gestational time of exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Mothers , Neutralization Tests , Vaccination
10.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335230

ABSTRACT

In the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, considerable focus has been placed on a model of viral entry into host epithelial populations, with a separate focus upon the responding immune system dysfunction that exacerbates or causes disease. We developed a precision-cut lung slice model to investigate very early host-viral pathogenesis and found that SARS-CoV-2 had a rapid and specific tropism for myeloid populations in the human lung. Infection of alveolar macrophages was partially dependent upon their expression of ACE2 and the infections were productive for amplifying virus, both findings which were in contrast with their neutralization of another pandemic virus, Influenza A virus (IAV). Compared to IAV, SARS-CoV-2 was extremely poor at inducing interferon-stimulated genes in infected myeloid cells, providing a window of opportunity for modest titers to amplify within these cells. Endotracheal aspirate samples from humans with COVID-19 confirmed the lung slice findings, revealing a persistent myeloid depot. In the early phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection, myeloid cells may provide a safe harbor for the virus with minimal immune stimulatory cues being generated, resulting in effective viral colonization and quenching of the immune system.

11.
Cell ; 185(9): 1539-1548.e5, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748150

ABSTRACT

Virus-like particle (VLP) and live virus assays were used to investigate neutralizing immunity against Delta and Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variants in 259 samples from 128 vaccinated individuals. Following Delta breakthrough infection, titers against WT rose 57-fold and 3.1-fold compared with uninfected boosted and unboosted individuals, respectively, versus only a 5.8-fold increase and 3.1-fold decrease for Omicron breakthrough infection. Among immunocompetent, unboosted patients, Delta breakthrough infections induced 10.8-fold higher titers against WT compared with Omicron (p = 0.037). Decreased antibody responses in Omicron breakthrough infections relative to Delta were potentially related to a higher proportion of asymptomatic or mild breakthrough infections (55.0% versus 28.6%, respectively), which exhibited 12.3-fold lower titers against WT compared with moderate to severe infections (p = 0.020). Following either Delta or Omicron breakthrough infection, limited variant-specific cross-neutralizing immunity was observed. These results suggest that Omicron breakthrough infections are less immunogenic than Delta, thus providing reduced protection against reinfection or infection from future variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans
12.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330379

ABSTRACT

The long-lasting COVID-19 pandemic and increasing SARS-CoV-2 variants demand effective drugs for prophylactics and treatment. Protein-based biologics offer high specificity yet their noncovalent interactions often lead to drug dissociation and incomplete inhibition. Here we developed covalent nanobodies capable of binding with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein irreversibly via proximity-enabled reactive therapeutic (PERx) mechanism. A novel latent bioreactive amino acid FFY was designed and genetically encoded into nanobodies to accelerate PERx reaction rate. After covalent engineering, nanobodies binding with the Spike in the down state, but not in the up state, were discovered to possess striking enhancement in inhibiting viral infection. In comparison with the noncovalent wildtype nanobody, the FFY-incorporated covalent nanobody neutralized both authentic SARS-CoV-2 and its Alpha and Delta variants with potency drastically increased over tens of folds. This PERx-enabled covalent nanobody strategy and uncovered insights on potency increase can be valuable to developing effective therapeutics for various viral infections.

13.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327144

ABSTRACT

Virus-like particle (VLP) and live virus assays were used to investigate neutralizing immunity to Delta and Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variants in 239 samples from 125 fully vaccinated individuals. In uninfected, non-boosted individuals, VLP neutralization titers to Delta and Omicron were reduced 2.7-fold and 15.4-fold, respectively, compared to wild-type (WT), while boosted individuals (n=23) had 18-fold increased titers. Delta breakthrough infections (n=39) had 57-fold and 3.1-fold titers whereas Omicron breakthrough infections (n=14) had 5.8-fold and 0.32-fold titers compared to uninfected non-boosted and boosted individuals, respectively. The difference in titers (p=0.049) was related to a higher proportion of moderate to severe infections in the Delta cohort (p=0.014). Correlation of neutralizing and spike quantitative antibody titers was decreased with Delta or Omicron compared to WT. Neutralizing antibodies in Delta and Omicron breakthrough infections increase overall, but the relative magnitude of increase is greater in more clinically severe infection and against the specific infecting variant.

14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296833

ABSTRACT

Pregnancy confers unique immune responses to infection and vaccination across gestation. To date, there is limited data comparing vaccine versus infection-induced nAb to COVID-19 variants in mothers during pregnancy. We analyzed paired maternal and cord plasma samples from 60 pregnant individuals. Thirty women vaccinated with mRNA vaccines were matched with 30 naturally infected women by gestational age of exposure. Neutralization activity against the five SARS-CoV-2 Spike sequences was measured by a SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped Spike virion assay. Effective nAbs against SARS-CoV-2 were present in maternal and cord plasma after both infection and vaccination. Compared to wild type or Alpha variant Spike, these nAbs were less effective against the Kappa, Delta, and Mu Spike variants. Vaccination during the third trimester induced higher nAb levels at delivery than infection during the third trimester. In contrast, vaccine-induced nAb levels were lower at the time of delivery compared to infection during the first trimester. The transfer ratio (cord nAb level/maternal nAb level) was greatest in mothers vaccinated in the second trimester. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination or infection in pregnancy elicit effective nAbs with differing neutralization kinetics that is impacted by gestational time of exposure. Vaccine induced neutralizing activity was reduced against the Delta, Mu, and Kappa variants. Graphic abstract

15.
Cell ; 184(25): 6022-6036.e18, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536466

ABSTRACT

Viral-deletion mutants that conditionally replicate and inhibit the wild-type virus (i.e., defective interfering particles, DIPs) have long been proposed as single-administration interventions with high genetic barriers to resistance. However, theories predict that robust, therapeutic DIPs (i.e., therapeutic interfering particles, TIPs) must conditionally spread between cells with R0 >1. Here, we report engineering of TIPs that conditionally replicate with SARS-CoV-2, exhibit R0 >1, and inhibit viral replication 10- to 100-fold. Inhibition occurs via competition for viral replication machinery, and a single administration of TIP RNA inhibits SARS-CoV-2 sustainably in continuous cultures. Strikingly, TIPs maintain efficacy against neutralization-resistant variants (e.g., B.1.351). In hamsters, both prophylactic and therapeutic intranasal administration of lipid-nanoparticle TIPs durably suppressed SARS-CoV-2 by 100-fold in the lungs, reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and prevented severe pulmonary edema. These data provide proof of concept for a class of single-administration antivirals that may circumvent current requirements to continually update medical countermeasures against new variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Male , Mesocricetus , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vero Cells
16.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292882

ABSTRACT

Inhibitors of Bromodomain and Extra-terminal domain (BET) proteins are possible anti-SARS-CoV-2 prophylactics as they downregulate angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Here, we show that BET proteins should not be inactivated therapeutically as they are critical antiviral factors at the post-entry level. Knockouts of BRD3 or BRD4 in cells overexpressing ACE2 exacerbate SARS-CoV-2 infection;the same is observed when cells with endogenous ACE2 expression are treated with BET inhibitors during infection, and not before. Viral replication and mortality are also enhanced in BET inhibitor-treated mice overexpressing ACE2. BET inactivation suppresses interferon production induced by SARS-CoV-2, a process phenocopied by the envelope (E) protein previously identified as a possible "histone mimetic." E protein, in an acetylated form, directly binds the second bromodomain of BRD4. Our data support a model where SARS-CoV-2 E protein evolved to antagonize interferon responses via BET protein inhibition;this neutralization should not be further enhanced with BET inhibitor treatment.

17.
Science ; 374(6575): 1626-1632, 2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501519

ABSTRACT

Efforts to determine why new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants demonstrate improved fitness have been limited to analyzing mutations in the spike (S) protein with the use of S-pseudotyped particles. In this study, we show that SARS-CoV-2 virus-like particles (SC2-VLPs) can package and deliver exogenous transcripts, enabling analysis of mutations within all structural proteins and at multiple steps in the viral life cycle. In SC2-VLPs, four nucleocapsid (N) mutations found universally in more-transmissible variants independently increased messenger RNA delivery and expression ~10-fold, and in a reverse genetics model, the serine-202→arginine (S202R) and arginine-203→methionine (R203M) mutations each produced >50 times as much virus. SC2-VLPs provide a platform for rapid testing of viral variants outside of a biosafety level 3 setting and demonstrate N mutations and particle assembly to be mechanisms that could explain the increased spread of variants, including B.1.617.2 (Delta, which contains the R203M mutation).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Cell Line , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Humans , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Plasmids , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Genome Packaging , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Virus Internalization
19.
Nat Chem Biol ; 17(9): 982-988, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345566

ABSTRACT

Direct, amplification-free detection of RNA has the potential to transform molecular diagnostics by enabling simple on-site analysis of human or environmental samples. CRISPR-Cas nucleases offer programmable RNA-guided RNA recognition that triggers cleavage and release of a fluorescent reporter molecule, but long reaction times hamper their detection sensitivity and speed. Here, we show that unrelated CRISPR nucleases can be deployed in tandem to provide both direct RNA sensing and rapid signal generation, thus enabling robust detection of ~30 molecules per µl of RNA in 20 min. Combining RNA-guided Cas13 and Csm6 with a chemically stabilized activator creates a one-step assay that can detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA extracted from respiratory swab samples with quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR)-derived cycle threshold (Ct) values up to 33, using a compact detector. This Fast Integrated Nuclease Detection In Tandem (FIND-IT) approach enables sensitive, direct RNA detection in a format that is amenable to point-of-care infection diagnosis as well as to a wide range of other diagnostic or research applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Humans , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
20.
ACS Infect Dis ; 7(8): 2337-2351, 2021 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269368

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has emerged as a major global health threat. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in over 168 million cases and 3.4 million deaths to date, while the number of cases continues to rise. With limited therapeutic options, the identification of safe and effective therapeutics is urgently needed. The repurposing of known clinical compounds holds the potential for rapid identification of drugs effective against SARS-CoV-2. Here, we utilized a library of FDA-approved and well-studied preclinical and clinical compounds to screen for antivirals against SARS-CoV-2 in human pulmonary epithelial cells. We identified 13 compounds that exhibit potent antiviral activity across multiple orthogonal assays. Hits include known antivirals, compounds with anti-inflammatory activity, and compounds targeting host pathways such as kinases and proteases critical for SARS-CoV-2 replication. We identified seven compounds not previously reported to have activity against SARS-CoV-2, including B02, a human RAD51 inhibitor. We further demonstrated that B02 exhibits synergy with remdesivir, the only antiviral approved by the FDA to treat COVID-19, highlighting the potential for combination therapy. Taken together, our comparative compound screening strategy highlights the potential of drug repurposing screens to identify novel starting points for development of effective antiviral mono- or combination therapies to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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