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Infect Dis (Lond) ; 54(1): 63-71, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406440


BACKGROUND: In a country-wide seroprevalence study of COVID-19 in Estonia, we aimed to determine the seroprevalence and the dynamics of IgG against SARS-CoV-2 after vaccination or positive PCR-test. METHODS: Leftover blood samples were selected between 8 February and 25 March 2021, by SYNLAB Estonia from all counties and age groups (0-9, 10-19, 20-59, 60-69, 70-79 and 80-100 years) proportionally to the whole Estonian population and tested for IgG against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain (anti-S-RBD IgG) using Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant assay. Antibody levels after positive PCR-test or vaccination were described by exponential increase-decrease models. RESULTS: According to total of 2517 samples, overall seroprevalence (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 20.1% (18.5-21.7%), similar in all age groups, but varied between counties. If individuals vaccinated with the first dose at least 14 d before antibody measurement were assumed to be seronegative, the overall seroprevalence was 15.8% (14.4-17.3%), 4.0-fold larger than the proportion of PCR-confirmed COVID-19 cases. Of seropositive individuals (n = 506) 194 (38.3%; 33.8-43.1%) had not had positive PCR-test or been vaccinated. According to exponential increase-decrease model, the peak of anti-S-RBD IgG in a 52-year-old (median age of PCR-positive and/or vaccinated individuals) was significantly higher after vaccination compared with positive PCR-test (22,082 (12,897-26,875) vs. 6732 (2321-8243) AU/mL), but half-life was similar (26.5 (6.9-46.1) vs. 38.3 (8.2-68.5) d). CONCLUSIONS: One year after the start of COVID-19 pandemic the actual prevalence of infection is still underestimated compared with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 cases. Older compared with younger individuals have lower anti-S-RBD IgG level after vaccination, but similar decline rate.

Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Estonia , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Young Adult