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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 490, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621267

ABSTRACT

Based on the findings from the Phase III clinical trials of inactivated SARS COV-2 Vaccine, (BBIBP-CORV) emergency use authorization (EUA) was granted for the vaccine to frontline workers in the UAE. A prospective cohort study was conducted among frontline workers to estimate the incidence rate and risk of symptomatic COVID-19 infection 14 days after the second dose of inoculation with BBIBP-CORV inactivated vaccine. Those who received two doses of the BBIBP-CORV vaccine in the period from 14th of September 2020 (first dose) to 21st of December 2020 (second dose) were followed up for COVID-19 infections. 11,322 individuals who received the two-dose BBIBP-CORV vaccine were included and were followed up post the second dose plus fourteen days. The incidence rate of symptomatic infection was 0.08 per 1000-person days (95% CI 0.07, 0.10). The estimated absolute risk of developing symptomatic infection was 0.97% (95% CI 0.77%, 1.17%). The confirmed seroconversion rate was 92.8%. There were no serious adverse events reported and no individuals suffered from severe disease. Our findings show that vaccinated individuals are likely to remain protected against symptomatic infection or becoming PCR positive for SARS COV 2 following the second dose of the vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Headache/etiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e047134, 2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455715

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) decreases the morbidity and mortality risk among patients with cardiac diseases; however, the impact of CR on patients with diabetes remains underexplored. This is a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis methodology to explore if the effect of CR on mortality and morbidity is the same in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with patients without diabetes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Interventional and non-interventional studies comparing the effect of CR, for at least 1 month, on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes including fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction, revascularisation and rehospitalisation in adults with cardiac diseases will be deemed eligible for inclusion. Studies published between 1990 and 2020 will be searched in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, CINAHL, Scopus and in registries for randomised controlled trials. Eligible studies will be selected using the Covidence software, and their salient details regarding the design, population, tested interventions and outcomes of interest will be gathered. The quality of studies to be deemed eligible and reviewed will be assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's tools. The appraisal process will be based on the study design (interventional and non-interventional). In the meta-analysis step, the pooled effect of CR on the outcomes will be estimated. All meta-analyses will be done using the random-effects model approach (inverse-variance method). I 2 and p value of χ2 statistics will guide the heterogeneity assessment. Subgroup analyses will also be performed. The small study effect will be investigated by generating the funnel plots. The symmetry of the latter will be tested by performing Egger's test. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The systematic review will use data from published literature; hence, no ethical approval will be required. Findings of the systematic review and meta-analysis will be published in peer-reviewed international journals and will be disseminated in local and international scientific meetings. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020148832.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Rehabilitation , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Myocardial Infarction , Adult , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Morbidity , Research Design , Systematic Reviews as Topic
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e048770, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376502

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To identify factors influencing the mortality risk in critically ill patients with COVID-19, and to develop a risk prediction score to be used at admission to intensive care unit (ICU). DESIGN: A multicentre cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 1542 patients with COVID-19 admitted to ICUs in public hospitals of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates between 1 March 2020 and 22 July 2020. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was time from ICU admission until death. We used competing risk regression models and Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator to identify the factors, and to construct a risk score. Predictive ability of the score was assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and the Brier score using 500 bootstraps replications. RESULTS: Among patients admitted to ICU, 196 (12.7%) died, 1215 (78.8%) were discharged and 131 (8.5%) were right-censored. The cumulative mortality incidence was 14% (95% CI 12.17% to 15.82%). From 36 potential predictors, we identified seven factors associated with mortality, and included in the risk score: age (adjusted HR (AHR) 1.98; 95% CI 1.71 to 2.31), neutrophil percentage (AHR 1.71; 95% CI 1.27 to 2.31), lactate dehydrogenase (AHR 1.31; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.49), respiratory rate (AHR 1.31; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.49), creatinine (AHR 1.19; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.28), Glasgow Coma Scale (AHR 0.70; 95% CI 0.63 to 0.78) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) (AHR 0.82; 95% CI 0.74 to 0.91). The mean AUC was 88.1 (95% CI 85.6 to 91.6), and the Brier score was 8.11 (95% CI 6.74 to 9.60). We developed a freely available web-based risk calculator (https://icumortalityrisk.shinyapps.io/ICUrisk/). CONCLUSION: In critically ill patients with COVID-19, we identified factors associated with mortality, and developed a risk prediction tool that showed high predictive ability. This tool may have utility in clinical settings to guide decision-making, and may facilitate the identification of supportive therapies to improve outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 107: 188-194, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275363

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between plasma levels of the soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and the incidence of severe complications of COVID-19. METHODS: 403 RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients were recruited and prospectively followed-up at a major hospital in the United Arab Emirates. The primary endpoint was time from admission until the development of a composite outcome, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, or death from any cause. Patients discharged alive were considered as competing events to the primary outcome. Competing risk regression was used to quantify the association between suPAR and the incidence of the primary outcome. RESULTS: 6.2% of patients experienced ARDS or ICU admission, but none died. Taking into account competing risk, the incidence of the primary outcome was 11.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.7-16.3) in patients with suPAR levels >3.91 ng/mL compared to 2.9% (95% CI, 0.4-5.5) in those with suPAR ≤3.91 ng/mL. Also, an increase by 1 ng/mL in baseline suPAR resulted in a 58% rise in the hazard of developing the primary outcome (hazard ratio 1.6, 95% CI, 1.2-2.1, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: suPAR has an excellent prognostic utility in predicting severe complications in hospitalised COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Prospective Studies
5.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(2): 589-598, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969453

ABSTRACT

AIM: To assess predictors of in-hospital mortality in people with prediabetes and diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19 infection and to develop a risk score for identifying those at the greatest risk of a fatal outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A combined prospective and retrospective, multicentre, cohort study was conducted at 10 sites in Austria in 247 people with diabetes or newly diagnosed prediabetes who were hospitalized with COVID-19. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality and the predictor variables upon admission included clinical data, co-morbidities of diabetes or laboratory data. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify significant predictors and to develop a risk score for in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: The mean age of people hospitalized (n = 238) for COVID-19 was 71.1 ± 12.9 years, 63.6% were males, 75.6% had type 2 diabetes, 4.6% had type 1 diabetes and 19.8% had prediabetes. The mean duration of hospital stay was 18 ± 16 days, 23.9% required ventilation therapy and 24.4% died in the hospital. The mortality rate in people with diabetes was numerically higher (26.7%) compared with those with prediabetes (14.9%) but without statistical significance (P = .128). A score including age, arterial occlusive disease, C-reactive protein, estimated glomerular filtration rate and aspartate aminotransferase levels at admission predicted in-hospital mortality with a C-statistic of 0.889 (95% CI: 0.837-0.941) and calibration of 1.000 (P = .909). CONCLUSIONS: The in-hospital mortality for COVID-19 was high in people with diabetes but not significantly different to the risk in people with prediabetes. A risk score using five routinely available patient variables showed excellent predictive performance for assessing in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Health Status Indicators , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Prediabetic State/mortality , Aged , Austria , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Prediabetic State/virology , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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