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1.
Front Immunol ; 11: 596631, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004678

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a distinctive infection characterized by elevated inter-human transmission and presenting from absence of symptoms to severe cytokine storm that can lead to dismal prognosis. Like for HIV, lymphopenia and drastic reduction of CD4+ T cell counts in COVID-19 patients have been linked with poor clinical outcome. As CD4+ T cells play a critical role in orchestrating responses against viral infections, important lessons can be drawn by comparing T cell response in COVID-19 and in HIV infection and by studying HIV-infected patients who became infected by SARS-CoV-2. We critically reviewed host characteristics and hyper-inflammatory response in these two viral infections to have a better insight on the large difference in clinical outcome in persons being infected by SARS-CoV-2. The better understanding of mechanism of T cell dysfunction will contribute to the development of targeted therapy against severe COVID-19 and will help to rationally design vaccine involving T cell response for the long-term control of viral infection.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Lymphopenia/pathology , /immunology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Dysbiosis/pathology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , HIV Infections/pathology , Humans , Tight Junctions/pathology
2.
Front Immunol ; 11: 570063, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874478

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Most infected people have mild or moderate symptoms and recover without the need for extensive treatment. However, for seriously ill patients, no specific treatments are currently available. Convalescent plasma therapy (CPT), a passive immunotherapy, involves infusing plasma from recovered people into actively infected people, and is thought to be a specific intervention to improve outcome in patients with severe COVID-19. The presumed mechanism involves neutralizing antibodies and antibody dependent cytotoxicity/phagocytosis. Previous CPT trials showed an effect in SARS and pilot studies suggest CPT is an effective and safe strategy for seriously ill COVID-19 patients. CPT is currently being tested in large randomized clinical trials. Herein, we critically review the mechanism, applications and the challenges for CPT in the treatment of severe COVID-19, paving the way toward vaccine and immunotherapy development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Plasma/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
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