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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 810: 152290, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560713

ABSTRACT

Household and personal care products (HPCPs) are a kind of contaminants closely related to daily life, capturing worldwide concern. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt focusing on the spatiotemporal occurrence and mixture risk of HPCPs in the waters from rivers to Laizhou Bay. Nine HPCPs were quantitated in 216 water samples gathered from Laizhou Bay and its adjacent rivers in 2018, 2019, and 2021 to reveal the spatiotemporal occurrence and mixture ecological risks in Laizhou Bay. Eight HPCPs were detected with detection frequencies ranging from 74% to 100%. The total concentrations were in the ranges 105-721 ng L-1 in river water and 51.3-332 ng L-1 in seawater. The HPCPs were dominated by p-hydroxybenzoic and triclosan, which together contributed over 75% of the total HPCPs. The average level of the total HPCP concentration in the summer of 2018 (96.1 ng L-1) was slightly exceed that in the spring of 2019 (91.6 ng L-1), which is associated with the higher usage of HPCPs and enhanced tourism during summer. However, the highest total concentrations were found in spring of 2021 (124 ng L-1 in average), which was attribute to a higher level of methylparaben, a predominant paraben used as preservatives in commercial pharmaceuticals of China. Influenced by riverine inputs and ocean currents, higher HPCP concentrations in Laizhou Bay were found nearby the estuary of Yellow River and the southern part of the bay. Triclosan should be given constant concern considering its medium to high risks (RQ > 0.1) in nearly 80% of the water samples. The cumulative risk assessment in two approaches revealed that HPCP mixtures generally elicit medium or high risk to three main aquatic taxa. Considering the worldwide outbreak of COVID-19, the levels and risks of multiple HPCPs in natural waters requires constant attention in future studies.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(19)2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203480

ABSTRACT

Capabilities in continuous monitoring of key physiological parameters of disease have never been more important than in the context of the global COVID-19 pandemic. Soft, skin-mounted electronics that incorporate high-bandwidth, miniaturized motion sensors enable digital, wireless measurements of mechanoacoustic (MA) signatures of both core vital signs (heart rate, respiratory rate, and temperature) and underexplored biomarkers (coughing count) with high fidelity and immunity to ambient noises. This paper summarizes an effort that integrates such MA sensors with a cloud data infrastructure and a set of analytics approaches based on digital filtering and convolutional neural networks for monitoring of COVID-19 infections in sick and healthy individuals in the hospital and the home. Unique features are in quantitative measurements of coughing and other vocal events, as indicators of both disease and infectiousness. Systematic imaging studies demonstrate correlations between the time and intensity of coughing, speaking, and laughing and the total droplet production, as an approximate indicator of the probability for disease spread. The sensors, deployed on COVID-19 patients along with healthy controls in both inpatient and home settings, record coughing frequency and intensity continuously, along with a collection of other biometrics. The results indicate a decaying trend of coughing frequency and intensity through the course of disease recovery, but with wide variations across patient populations. The methodology creates opportunities to study patterns in biometrics across individuals and among different demographic groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Heart Rate , Respiratory Rate , Respiratory Sounds , SARS-CoV-2 , Wireless Technology , Biomarkers , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic
3.
Cell Prolif ; 54(1): e12953, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991253

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Using strategy of drug repurposing, antiviral agents against influenza A virus (IAV) and newly emerging SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, also as 2019-nCoV) could be quickly screened out. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A previously reported engineered replication-competent PR8 strain carrying luciferase reporter gene (IAV-luc) and multiple pseudotyped IAV and SARS-CoV-2 virus was used. To specifically evaluate the pH change of vesicles containing IAV, we constructed an A549 cell line with endosomal and lysosomal expression of pHluorin2. RESULTS: Here, we identified azithromycin (AZ) as an effective inhibitor against multiple IAV and SARS-CoV-2 strains. We found that AZ treatment could potently inhibit IAV infection in vitro. Moreover, using pseudotyped virus model, AZ could also markedly block the entry of SARS-CoV-2 in HEK293T-ACE2 and Caco2 cells. Mechanistic studies further revealed that such effect was independent of interferon signalling. AZ treatment neither impaired the binding and internalization of IAV virions, nor the viral replication, but rather inhibited the fusion between viral and vacuolar membranes. Using a NPC1-pHluorin2 reporter cell line, we confirmed that AZ treatment could alkalize the vesicles containing IAV virions, thereby preventing pH-dependent membrane fusion. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our findings demonstrate that AZ can exert broad-spectrum antiviral effects against IAV and SARS-CoV-2, and could be served as a potential clinical anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug in emergency as well as a promising lead compound for the development of next-generation anti-IAV drugs.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Azithromycin/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , Influenza A virus/metabolism , Influenza, Human/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , A549 Cells , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , Caco-2 Cells , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/genetics , Interferons/genetics , Interferons/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/genetics
4.
Chem Eng J ; 405: 126683, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716580

ABSTRACT

Plastics have become a severe transboundary threat to natural ecosystems and human health, with studies predicting a twofold increase in the number of plastic debris (including micro and nano-sized plastics) by 2030. However, such predictions will likely be aggravated by the excessive use and consumption of single-use plastics (including personal protective equipment such as masks and gloves) due to COVID-19 pandemic. This review aimed to provide a comprehensive overview on the effects of COVID-19 on macroplastic pollution and its potential implications on the environment and human health considering short- and long-term scenarios; addressing the main challenges and discussing potential strategies to overcome them. It emphasises that future measures, involved in an emergent health crisis or not, should reflect a balance between public health and environmental safety as they are both undoubtedly connected. Although the use and consumption of plastics significantly improved our quality of life, it is crucial to shift towards sustainable alternatives, such as bio-based plastics. Plastics should remain in the top of the political agenda in Europe and across the world, not only to minimise plastic leakage and pollution, but to promote sustainable growth and to stimulate both green and blue- economies. Discussions on this topic, particularly considering the excessive use of plastic, should start soon with the involvement of the scientific community, plastic producers and politicians in order to be prepared for the near future.

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