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Front Public Health ; 10: 831087, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952770


Background: Restrictions to contain the COVID-19 pandemic affect the social participation of people worldwide. Especially those at high risk for a severe disease tend to abstain from social gatherings. While there are a few questionnaires to measure social participation in elderly or chronic patients, a valid survey instrument that includes pandemic-related social participation is needed. Methods: We developed a social participation questionnaire that aims to assess pandemic-related restrictions in social participation. Items were developed using a theory and literature-based approach and then compiled in a discursive process involving experts and lay people. This was followed by the validation of the questionnaire through a cross-sectional survey on 431 individuals. Items with low item-total correlations and low factor loadings using exploratory factor analysis [EFA] were excluded. Using EFA on the remaining items, the factor structure was retrieved and tested with a confirmatory factor analysis [CFA]. Internal consistency was assessed with Chronbachs α. Results: Initially, 27 items were developed which were used for validation. 13 items were excluded due to low item-total correlations and factors loadings. EFA of the remaining 14 items revealed three factors which were identified as domains "active social participation," "wellbeing," and "restrictions". CFA showed an acceptable model fit using the three-dimensional structure. Chronbachs α of 0.81 and McDonalds Ω of 0.87 indicate good internal consistency. Correlation analysis showed an association between the developed questionnaire and previously-established participation and mental health scales. Conclusion: This study suggests that our 14 item questionnaire is of high reliability and validity and can be used to measure social participation during a pandemic.

COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Psychometrics/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Social Participation , Surveys and Questionnaires
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 403, 2022 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808345


BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised people (ICP) and elderly individuals (older than 80 years) are at increased risk for severe coronavirus infections. To protect against serious infection with SARS-CoV-2, ICP are taking precautions that may include a reduction of social contacts and participation in activities which they normally enjoy. Furthermore, for these people, there is an uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of the vaccination. The COVID-19 Contact (CoCo) Immune study strives to characterize the immune response to COVID-19 vaccination in immunocompromised, elderly people, and patients with hematological or oncological diseases. The study uses blood-based screenings to monitor the humoral and cellular immune response in these groups after vaccination. Questionnaires and qualitative interviews are used to describe the level of social participation. METHODS: The CoCo Immune Study is a mixed methods prospective, longitudinal, observational study at two large university hospitals in Northern Germany. Starting in March 2021, it monitors anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune responses and collects information on social participation in more than 600 participants, at least 18 years old. Inclusion criteria and subcohorts: Participants with (1) regularly intake of immunosuppressive medication (ICP-cohort) or (2) age ≥ 80 years (80 + -cohort). Additionally, patients with current or former (3) myeloid, (4) lymphatic disease or (5) solid tumor under checkpoint inhibition (3-5: HO-cohort). EXCLUSION CRITERIA: (1) refusal to give informed consent, (2) contraindication to blood testing, (3) inability to declare consent. Participants complete a questionnaire at four different time points: prior to full vaccination, and 1, 6 and 12 months after completed vaccination. In addition, participants draw blood samples themselves or through a local health care provider and send them with their questionnaires per post at the respective time points after vaccination. Patients of the HO cohort dispense additional blood samples at week 3 to 12 and at month 6 to 9 after 2nd vaccination to gain additional knowledge in B and T cell responses. Selected participants are invited to qualitative interviews about social participation. DISCUSSION: This observational study is designed to gain insight into the immune response of people with weakened immune systems and to find out how social participation is affected after COVID-19 vaccination. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered with German Clinical Trial Registry (registration number: DRKS00023972) on 30th December 2020.

COVID-19 , Hematologic Diseases , Neoplasms , Adolescent , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cocos , Humans , Immunity , Observational Studies as Topic , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome