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1.
BMJ Supportive and Palliative Care ; 11:A68-A69, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032510

ABSTRACT

St Christopher's Hospice and Greenwich and Bexley Community Hospice established HELP in 2019 to respond to the learning needs of end-of-life care professionals in South East London. This already successful partnership was mobilised during the pandemic to meet the demands of the clinicians asthey dealt with the significant increase in people dying from COVID-19 and this poster explores the themes that emerged by undertaking this work. Initially a whole scale digital pivot was required as the pandemic hit: moving all existing education activity online utilising tools such as Zoom for live teaching and providing asynchronous, self-study opportunities using an online learning platform to ensure professionals could continue to be upskilled during this time. An innovative example of this was the development of a fully asynchronous product on Nurse Verification of Expected Death, a clinical need that grew exponentially during this time. The HELP team provided two bespoke webinar series, which responded to clinical needs and was developed in collaboration with a range of clinicians who were able to provide case studies and examples to secure the learning. The first webinar series in April 2020 focused on two distinct areas, supporting GPs and supporting colleagues in care homes. The team provided weekly care homes webinars and additional ECHO sessions for them. The positive feedback received resulted in further consultation to design the second wave webinar series in November which was open to all professionals in the region and included topics continuing the conversation around wellbeing along with the opportunity to contextualise dying during COVID-19 and highlighting the value of joint working during this difficult time. This poster explores this range of activities that were undertaken during the pandemic and focuses specifically on the values that underpin the approach including the need to be responsive and flexible, collaborative, current and contextspecific in the design of these learning opportunities.

2.
Radiography (Lond) ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2028431

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic caused an unprecedented health crisis resulting in over 6 million deaths worldwide, a figure, which continues to grow. In addition to the excess mortality, there are individuals who recovered from the acute stages, but suffered long-term changes in their health post COVID-19, commonly referred to as long COVID. It is estimated there are currently 1.8 million long COVID sufferers by May 2022 in the UK alone. The aim of this narrative literature review is to explore the signs, symptoms and diagnosis of long COVID and the potential impact on imaging services. KEY FINDINGS: Long COVID is estimated to occur in 9.5% of those with two doses of vaccination and 14.6% if those with a single dose or no vaccination. Long COVID is defined by ongoing symptoms lasting for 12 or more weeks post acute infection. Symptoms are associated with reductions in the quality of daily life and may involve multisystem manifestations or present as a single symptom. CONCLUSION: The full impact of long COVID on imaging services is yet to be realised, but there is likely to be significant increased demand for imaging, particularly in CT for the assessment of lung disease. Educators will need to include aspects related to long COVID pathophysiology and imaging presentations in curricula, underpinned by the rapidly evolving evidence base. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Symptoms relating to long COVID are likely to become a common reason for imaging, with a particular burden on Computed Tomography services. Planning, education and updating protocols in line with a rapidly emerging evidence base is going to be essential.

3.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0264298, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021610

ABSTRACT

The association between COVID-19 symptoms and antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 is poorly characterized. We analyzed antibody levels in individuals with known SARS-CoV-2 infection to identify potential antibody-symptom associations. Convalescent plasma from 216 SARS-CoV-2 RNA+ individuals with symptomatology information were tested for the presence of IgG to the spike S1 subunit (Euroimmun ELISA), IgG to receptor binding domain (RBD, CoronaCHEK rapid test), and for IgG, IgA, and IgM to nucleocapsid (N, Bio-Rad ELISA). Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of having a COVID-19 symptom from the antibody response, adjusting for sex and age. Cough strongly associated with antibodies against S1 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.33; 95% CI from 1.51 to 18.86) and RBD (aOR = 4.36; CI 1.49, 12.78). In contrast, sore throat significantly associated with the absence of antibodies to S1 and N (aOR = 0.25; CI 0.08, 0.80 and aOR = 0.31; 0.11, 0.91). Similarly, lack of symptoms associated with the absence of antibodies to N and RBD (aOR = 0.16; CI 0.03, 0.97 and aOR = 0.16; CI 0.03, 1.01). Cough appeared to be correlated with a seropositive result, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals exhibiting lower respiratory symptoms generate a robust antibody response. Conversely, those without symptoms or limited to a sore throat while infected with SARS-CoV-2 were likely to lack a detectable antibody response. These findings strongly support the notion that severity of infection correlates with robust antibody response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharyngitis , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/therapy , Cough , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
4.
Psychological services ; 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008250

ABSTRACT

Treating those with mental illness frequently requires collaboration among health care providers from different disciplines as well as easy access to care. Neither interprofessional collaboration (IPC) nor accessible care can be assumed to automatically occur or be available in the busy health care environment. Early and deliberate exposure of graduate students in health care disciplines to interprofessional educational activities is imperative to strengthen IPC. Empirical evidence supports the linkage between interprofessional education (IPE) early-on in training and IPC. Additionally, early and focused training of graduate students in health care disciplines to telebehavioral health (TBH) can help promote care access. The current literature supports TBH as an effective treatment approach that enhances access to care. Thus, the creation of educational activities for graduate students in health care disciplines that use early exposure and training in both: IPE and TBH approaches to enhance IPC can position future providers to provide quality patient care, especially given the COVID-19 pandemic implications on health care and education. This article describes the authors' experience in implementing and evaluating an interprofessional, simulation-based educational activity in psychopharmacology using a TBH approach in graduate nursing and psychology students. This quality improvement process used the plan-do-study-act cycle of continuous quality improvement to establish the initial implementation and the 11 steps of the International Nursing Association for Clinical Simulation and Learning standards of best practice to then refine this educational activity. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

6.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):330, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880794

ABSTRACT

Background: Monitoring new mutations in SARS-CoV-2 is crucial for identifying diagnostic and therapeutic targets and important insights to achieve a more effective COVID-19 control strategy. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been widely used for whole-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2. However, NGS methods may be limited by the complexity of workflow, which limits scalability. Here, we address this limitation by designing a workflow optimized for high-throughput studies. Methods: We utilized modified ARTIC network v3 primers for SARS-CoV-2 whole-genome amplification. Similar to a previously reported tailed PCR approach, libraries were prepared by a 2-step PCR method but optimized to improve amplicon balance, integrate robotic liquid handlers, and minimize amplicon dropout for viral genomes harboring primer-binding site mutation(s). Sequencing was performed on the Illumina NovaSeq 6000 and the Illumina MiSeq. An in-house analysis pipeline utilized the BWA aligner and iVar software. Assay precision was assessed with unique clinical samples. Assay sensitivity was assessed with serial dilutions of clinical samples. Robustness was assessed by sequencing samples and controls on the NovaSeq from multiple prior ARTIC v3 runs. Results: Intra-assay (n=188) and inter-assay (n=168) precision at the amino acid substitution level was 99.8% and 99.5%, respectively. Over 98.2% (111/113) of samples with a cycle threshold (Ct) <28 yielded a near-complete (≥97%) consensus sequence, and 98.7% (147/149) of samples with a Ct <30 yielded ≥90% consensus coverage. 2,688 samples and controls were sequenced in a single NovaSeq run yielding a 94.3% (2,416/2,562) sample pass rate. The optimized workflow gave more complete SARS-CoV-2 genome consensus sequences for most viral clades than the original ARTIC v3 workflow (Table). From over 65,000 clinical samples sequenced in 2021, we observed clade and lineage prevalence in-line with those documented by the CDC in 2021, including the Alpha clade that peaked at 65.3% in May, and the Delta clade that attained near-100% prevalence in September. Conclusion: We present an optimized workflow to process up to 2,688 samples in a single NovaSeq 6000 run without compromising sensitivity or robustness and with fewer amplicon dropout events compared to the standard ARTIC protocol. We additionally report results for over 65,000 SARS-CoV-2 clinical specimens collected in the United States between January and September of 2021, as part of an ongoing national genomics surveillance effort.

7.
AGU Advances ; 3(2), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1870733

ABSTRACT

This study quantifies the association between the COVID‐19 economic downturn and 2020 tropospheric ozone anomalies above Europe and western North America, and their impact on long‐term trends. Anomaly detection for an atmospheric time series is usually carried out by identifying potentially aberrant data points relative to climatological values. However, detecting ozone anomalies from sparsely sampled ozonesonde profiles (once per week at most sites) is challenging due to ozone's high temporal variability. We first demonstrate the challenges for summarizing regional trends based on independent time series from multiple nearby ozone profiling stations. We then propose a novel regional‐scale anomaly detection framework based on generalized additive mixed models, which accounts for the sampling frequency and inherent data uncertainty associated with each vertical profile data set, measured by ozonesondes, lidar or commercial aircraft. This method produces a long‐term monthly time series with high vertical resolution that reports ozone anomalies from the surface to the middle‐stratosphere under a unified framework, which can be used to quantify the regional‐scale ozone anomalies during the COVID‐19 economic downturn. By incorporating extensive commercial aircraft data and frequently sampled ozonesonde profiles above Europe, we show that the complex interannual variability of ozone can be adequately captured by our modeling approach. The results show that free tropospheric ozone negative anomalies in 2020 are the most profound since the benchmark year of 1994 for both Europe and western North America, and positive trends over 1994–2019 are diminished in both regions by the 2020 anomalies. Key Points 2020 is the only year that both Europe and western North America show strong negative tropospheric ozone anomalies since 1994 Positive free tropospheric ozone trends above Europe and western North America since 1994 are diminished by the 2020 anomalies Data integration of multiple time series provides a better understanding of ozone variability compared to individual records

8.
Mult Scler ; 28(7): 1060-1071, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861981

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with MS (pwMS) have had higher rates of anxiety and depression than the general population before the COVID-19 pandemic, placing them at higher risk of experiencing poor psychological wellbeing during the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To assess mental health and its social/lifestyle determinants in pwMS during the first wave of the outbreak in the United Kingdom. METHODS: This is a community-based, prospective longitudinal cohort and cross-sectional case-control online questionnaire study. It includes 2010 pwMS from the UK MS Register and 380 people without MS. RESULTS: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores of pwMS for anxiety and depression during the outbreak did not change from the previous year. PwMS were more likely to have anxiety (using General Anxiety Disorder-7) and/or depression (using Patient Health Questionnaire-9) than controls during the outbreak (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.58-2.91). PwMS felt lonelier (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.04-1.80) reported worse social support (OR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.18-3.07) and reported worsened exercise habits (OR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.18-2.32) during the outbreak than controls. CONCLUSION: Early in the pandemic, pwMS remained at higher risk of experiencing anxiety and depression than the general population. It is important that multidisciplinary teams improve their support for the wellbeing of pwMS, who are vulnerable to the negative effects of the pandemic on their lifestyle and social support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Oxf Open Immunol ; 2(1): iqab016, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860899

ABSTRACT

Destabilization of balanced immune cell numbers and frequencies is a common feature of viral infections. This occurs due to, and further enhances, viral immune evasion and survival. Since the discovery of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which manifests in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a great number of studies have described the association between this virus and pathologically increased or decreased immune cell counts. In this review, we consider the absolute and relative changes to innate and adaptive immune cell numbers, in COVID-19. In severe disease particularly, neutrophils are increased, which can lead to inflammation and tissue damage. Dysregulation of other granulocytes, basophils and eosinophils represents an unusual COVID-19 phenomenon. Contrastingly, the impact on the different types of monocytes leans more strongly to an altered phenotype, e.g. HLA-DR expression, rather than numerical changes. However, it is the adaptive immune response that bears the most profound impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection. T cell lymphopenia correlates with increased risk of intensive care unit admission and death; therefore, this parameter is particularly important for clinical decision-making. Mild and severe diseases differ in the rate of immune cell counts returning to normal levels post disease. Tracking the recovery trajectories of various immune cell counts may also have implications for long-term COVID-19 monitoring. This review represents a snapshot of our current knowledge, showing that much has been achieved in a short period of time. Alterations in counts of distinct immune cells represent an accessible metric to inform patient care decisions or predict disease outcomes.

10.
Cureus ; 14(4): e24247, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1856251

ABSTRACT

Background and objective The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has presented tremendous challenges to the healthcare systems worldwide. Consequently, ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs) have been forced to find new and innovative ways to function safely and maintain operations. We conducted a study at a large United States (US) private orthopedic surgery practice, where a universal screening policy and testing protocol for COVID-19 was implemented for patients and ASC personnel including surgeons, in order to examine the incidence of COVID-19 in patients scheduled for orthopedic surgery in ASC settings as well as the incidence among the surgeons and ASC personnel. Methods The universal screening protocol was implemented in the ASCs of the facility during the early stage of the pandemic for an eight-month period from April 28, 2020, to December 31, 2020. All ASC personnel including surgeons had their symptoms tracked daily and were rapid-tested every two weeks. All patients were screened and tested before they entered the ASC. Results A total of 70 out of 12,115 patients and 41 out of 642 ASC personnel tested positive for COVID-19, resulting in infection rates of 0.6% and 6.4%, respectively. Individual symptoms, age, the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores, and comorbidities were documented, and no single factor was found to be common among positive (+) tests. Conclusions The implementation of universal screening and symptom-reporting procedures was associated with a very low rate of infections among ASC patients, staff, and surgeons, and it offers a reproducible framework for other facilities to continue to provide orthopedic outpatient operations in ASC settings during the ongoing iterations of the COVID-19 pandemic.

11.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(5): ofac142, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788525

ABSTRACT

Background: Population-based seroprevalence studies offer comprehensive characterization of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread, but barriers exist and marginalized populations may not be captured. We assessed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody seroprevalence among decedents in Maryland over 6 months in 2020. Methods: Data were collected on decedents undergoing forensic postmortem examination in Maryland from 24 May through 30 November 2020 from whom a blood specimen could be collected. Those with available blood specimens were tested with the CoronaCHEK lateral flow antibody assay. We assessed monthly seroprevalence compared to the statewide estimated number of cases and proportion of positive test results (testing positivity). We used Poisson regression with robust variance to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations of demographic characteristics, homelessness, and manner of death with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Results: Among 1906 decedents, 305 (16%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Monthly seroprevalence increased from 11% to 22% over time and was consistently higher than state-level estimates of testing positivity. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with 2- to 3.2-fold higher seropositivity (P < .05) irrespective of sex. Deaths due to motor vehicle crash were associated with 62% increased seropositivity (aPR, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.15-2.28]) vs natural manner of death. Though seroprevalence was lower in decedents of illicit drug overdose vs nonoverdose in early months, this shifted, and seroprevalence was comparable by November 2020. Conclusions: Decedents undergoing forensic postmortem examination, especially those dying due to motor vehicle trauma, may be a sentinel population for COVID-19 spread in the general population and merits exploration in other states/regions.

12.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 9(5), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1781870

ABSTRACT

Background Population-based seroprevalence studies offer comprehensive characterization of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread, but barriers exist and marginalized populations may not be captured. We assessed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody seroprevalence among decedents in Maryland over 6 months in 2020. Methods Data were collected on decedents undergoing forensic postmortem examination in Maryland from 24 May through 30 November 2020 from whom a blood specimen could be collected. Those with available blood specimens were tested with the CoronaCHEK lateral flow antibody assay. We assessed monthly seroprevalence compared to the statewide estimated number of cases and proportion of positive test results (testing positivity). We used Poisson regression with robust variance to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations of demographic characteristics, homelessness, and manner of death with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Results Among 1906 decedents, 305 (16%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Monthly seroprevalence increased from 11% to 22% over time and was consistently higher than state-level estimates of testing positivity. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with 2- to 3.2-fold higher seropositivity (P < .05) irrespective of sex. Deaths due to motor vehicle crash were associated with 62% increased seropositivity (aPR, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.15–2.28]) vs natural manner of death. Though seroprevalence was lower in decedents of illicit drug overdose vs nonoverdose in early months, this shifted, and seroprevalence was comparable by November 2020. Conclusions Decedents undergoing forensic postmortem examination, especially those dying due to motor vehicle trauma, may be a sentinel population for COVID-19 spread in the general population and merits exploration in other states/regions. SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence was 16% among Maryland decedents undergoing forensic postmortem examination (May–November 2020). Hispanic ethnicity and motor vehicle deaths were associated with seropositivity. Estimates in decedents exemplify feasible/real-time data for disease spread and potential sentinel surveillance meriting exploration.

13.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22270718

ABSTRACT

The association between COVID-19 symptoms and antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 is poorly characterized. We analyzed antibody levels in individuals with known SARS-CoV-2 infection to identify potential antibody-symptom associations. Convalescent plasma from 216 SARS-CoV-2 RNA+ individuals with symptomatology information were tested for the presence of IgG to the spike S1 subunit (Euroimmun ELISA), IgG to receptor binding domain (RBD, CoronaCHEK rapid test), and for IgG, IgA, and IgM to nucleocapsid (N, Bio-Rad ELISA). Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of having a COVID-19 symptom from the antibody response, adjusting for sex and age. Cough strongly associated with antibodies against S1 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]= 5.33; 95% CI from 1.51 to 18.86) and RBD (aOR=4.36; CI 1.49, 12.78). In contrast, sore throat significantly associated with the absence of antibodies to S1 and N (aOR=0.25; CI 0.08, 0.80 and aOR=0.31; 0.11, 0.91). Similarly, lack of symptoms associated with the absence of antibodies to N and RBD (aOR=0.16; CI 0.03, 0.97 and aOR=0.16; CI 0.03, 1.01). Cough appeared to be correlated with a seropositive result, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals exhibiting lower respiratory symptoms generate a robust antibody response. Conversely, those without symptoms or limited to a sore throat while infected with SARS-CoV-2 were likely to lack a detectable antibody response. These findings strongly support the notion that severity of infection correlates with robust antibody response.

14.
Natural Sciences Education ; 50(2), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1596675

ABSTRACT

As with many aspects of teaching, the COVID-19 pandemic forced soil judging teams to attempt new strategies towards achieving student learning outcomes. Soil judging Regions IV and V hosted remote regional contests in October 2020 in place of traditional, in-person contests typically held each fall. We conducted pre- and post-contest surveys to assess student learning outcomes, attitudes, and reflections on the remote contest experience compared to past, in-person contest experiences. We received 108 total responses from students who participated in the Region IV and Region V remote soil judging contests (>80% response rate). In self-reported learning outcomes, there were no significant gains post-contest and there were minimal differences between students in Regions IV and V. Female students, students with more soil judging experience, and students who had taken more soil science courses agreed more strongly that soil science is important, that they planned to pursue careers in soil science, and that they gained important skills from soil judging. Finally, students who previously participated in contests reported that they gained more knowledge and enjoyed in-person contests more than the remote contests held in Fall 2020. Thus, while it is possible to replicate some aspects of the soil judging experience in a remote contest, other aspects that are critical to student engagement are lost when teams are unable to gather at the contest location and examine soils in the field. © 2021 The Authors. Natural Sciences Education published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society of Agronomy

15.
Blood ; 138:81, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582401

ABSTRACT

Background Although the median age of patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) is 70-74 years, recruitment of frail older patients to clinical trials is poor. The International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) frailty score predicts survival, adverse events and treatment tolerability using age, the Katz Activity of Daily Living, the Lawton Instrumental Activity of Daily Living, and the Charlson Comorbidity Index, rather than age alone. Despite IMWG score prognostic biomarker capability, to date no evidence exists of its predictive biomarker potential. The UK-MRA Myeloma Risk Profile (MRP) has also been shown in both clinical trial and real-world populations to be a prognostic biomarker in transplant ineligible patients but prospective comparisons of the two scores have not been previously conducted. Study Design/Methods The FiTNEss trial (Myeloma XIV, NCT03720041, Figure 1A) is a UK-MRA phase III, multi-centre, randomised controlled trial for newly diagnosed MM patients not suitable for stem cell transplant. The primary objectives are 1) to compare early treatment cessation (<60 days from randomisation) between patients randomised to standard (reactive) and frailty-adjusted (adaptive, based on IMWG score) induction therapy delivery with the triplet ixazomib, lenalidomide and dexamethasone (IRd) 2) to compare progression free survival for maintenance lenalidomide plus placebo (R) and lenalidomide plus ixazomib (IR). The FiTNEss trial is designed as an all-comers study with few exclusion criteria other than necessary for safety including some haematological and biochemical parameters, but there is no exclusion based on renal function. Patients with grade 2 or greater baseline peripheral neuropathy, current systemic infection or recent surgery or other cancer are excluded. Here we report the demographics for the first patients recruited, including IMWG frailty assessments and MRP to demonstrate the feasibility of recruiting frail patients to randomised phase III clinical trials. Results The FiTNEss trial opened on 04/08/2020 during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. At the time of data cut off (14/07/2021) recruitment is active at 84 sites, with 180 patients randomised. Baseline characteristics for the randomised patients are shown in Figure 1B. The median age of patients is 77 years (range 64, 93) with 36.1% aged 76-80 and 26.1% over 80. In keeping with the older patient population 26.6% have an ECOG performance status of 2 or 3 and 31.7% ISS stage III. The IMWG frailty classification at baseline is FIT 43/180 (23.9%), UNFIT 53/180 (29.4%) and FRAIL 84/180 (46.7%). The effect of using age groups on the definition of patient frailty was explored. The IMWG frailty score defines all patients over 80 as FRAIL whilst an age of 76-80 contributes one point to the score. An analysis of patients' frailty was repeated with the contribution of age removed. For those aged over 80 years (n=47, 100% FRAIL) we found that 20 (42.6%) would have been re-classified as FIT and 18 (38.3%) as UNFIT, with only 9 (19.2%) retaining the FRAIL category. For those aged 76-80 (n=65, 53.8% UNFIT, 46.2% FRAIL) all 35 patients previously classified as UNFIT became FIT (53.8%) whilst 19 (29.2%) classed as FRAIL became UNFIT with 11 (16.9%) remaining FRAIL. The MRP classification, using age as a continuous variable, was Low-risk 45/180 (25.0%), Medium-risk 46/180 (25.6%), High-risk 75/180 (41.7%) and not available for 14/180 (7.8%) patients. Concordance between the IMWG frailty score and the MRP occurred in 48.9% of patients (88/180). 37.2% of FIT patients were classified as MRP Low-risk, 32.1% of UNFIT patients as MRP Medium-risk and 65.5% of FRAIL patients as MRP High-risk. Discussion The FiTNEss trial demonstrates the feasibility of recruiting older, less fit patients to clinical trials. Recruitment of patients classified as FRAIL was very high despite the COVID pandemic, likely due to the all-oral nature of the regimen under investigation enabling patients to avoid attendance at hospital day units for treatment and associa ed exposure risk. In the population recruited to date we found age to be a key contributor to the FRAIL category of the IMWG frailty score. Concordance between IMWG frailty score and MRP was highest in FRAIL/High-risk patients. The first interim analysis of the primary objectives is planned when 50% of required participants for R1 have reached 60 days post R1, which is anticipated in Q2 of 2022. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Cook: Amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding;BMS: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding;Sanofi: Consultancy, Honoraria;Karyopharm: Consultancy, Honoraria;Roche: Consultancy, Honoraria;Pfizer: Consultancy, Honoraria;Oncopeptides: Consultancy, Honoraria;Takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding;Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding. Pawlyn: Sanofi: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Celgene / BMS: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Janssen: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Amgen: Honoraria. Royle: BMS: Research Funding;Merck Sharpe and Dohme: Research Funding;Amgen: Research Funding;Takeda: Research Funding. Coulson: BMS / Celgene: Honoraria;Merck Sharpe and Dohme: Research Funding;Amgen: Research Funding;Takeda: Research Funding. Jenner: BMS/Celgene: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Pfizer: Consultancy;Takeda: Consultancy. Kishore: Sanofi: Other: Attending fees;Celgene: Other: Attending fees;Takeda: Other: Attending fees;Jannsen: Other: Attending fees. Rabin: BMS / Celgene: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Travel support for meetings;Takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Travel support for meetings;Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Travel support for meetings. Best: BMS/Celgene: Research Funding;Merck Sharpe and Dohme: Research Funding;Amgen: Research Funding;Takeda: Research Funding. Gillson: BMS / Celgene: Research Funding;Meck Sharpe and Dohme: Research Funding;Amgen: Research Funding;Takeda: Research Funding. Henderson: Takeda: Research Funding;Amgen: Research Funding;Merck Sharpe and Dohme: Research Funding;BMS / Celgene: Research Funding. Olivier: Merck Sharpe and Dohme: Research Funding;Takeda: Research Funding;Amgen: Research Funding;Celgene / BMS: Research Funding. Kaiser: AbbVie: Consultancy;GSK: Consultancy;Karyopharm: Consultancy, Research Funding;Pfizer: Consultancy;Amgen: Honoraria;Seattle Genetics: Consultancy;Takeda: Consultancy, Other: Educational support;Janssen: Consultancy, Other: Educational support, Research Funding;BMS/Celgene: Consultancy, Other: Travel support, Research Funding. Drayson: Abingdon Health: Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company. Jones: Janssen: Honoraria;BMS/Celgene: Other: Conference fees. Cairns: Merck Sharpe and Dohme: Research Funding;Amgen: Research Funding;Takeda: Research Funding;Celgene / BMS: Other: travel support, Research Funding. Jackson: celgene BMS: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau;amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau;GSK: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;J and J: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;oncopeptides: Consultancy;Sanofi: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau. OffLabel Disclosure: Frailty-score adapted dosing strategies

16.
Blood ; 138:2699, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582323

ABSTRACT

Background: Successful vaccination against SARS-CoV2 is highly effective in preventing serious COVID-19 illness and is particularly recommended for at risk populations including patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, there is uncertainty to which extent modern intensified therapies targeting plasma cell features might attenuate vaccination responses;some early vaccination recommendations for MM have proposed extended treatment breaks of several weeks to maximise vaccination success. Such an approach can be challenging in UHiR MM and pPCL, where maintaining treatment intensity is hallmark for preventing rapid relapse of the aggressive tumor. To address this uncertainty, we measured post-vaccination serological responses in patients treated uniformly with intensified Dara-VR consolidation and Dara-R maintenance post-ASCT for UHiR NDMM or pPCL in the UK OPTIMUM/MUKnine trial (NCT03188172). Methods: Between Sep 2017 and Jul 2019, 107 patients with UHiR NDMM or pPCL were recruited to OPTIMUM and received intensified post-ASCT consolidation with Dara-VR(d) for 18 cycles followed by maintenance with Dara-R until progression. In an exploratory analysis, centrally stored serum samples available for patients with a completed and documented vaccination history of two doses of an anti-SARS-CoV2 vaccine were analyzed for serological vaccine responses Total IgG/IgA/IgM Anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein was measured by ELISA (MK654;The Binding Site). As per UK national guidance and local availability, patients received two vaccine doses 12 weeks apart of either tozinameran (Pfizer/Biontech) or vaxzevria (AstraZeneca);serum taken at least 3 weeks after patients received their second dose was analyzed. Results were correlated with baseline characteristics and annotated with treatment and response data. Patient with available matched serological and vaccination status data at time of data cut-off (09 JUL 2021) were included. Collection of vaccination status data is ongoing and updated results comprising additional patients enrolled in OPTIMUM, as well as antigen levels, will be presented. Data will also comprise longitudinal antibody level measurements for patient with available sequential material. Results: Serological vaccine response data was available for 40 OPTIMUM patients with documented completed double vaccination status. Median patient age was 58.5 years (range 39-70) and clinical and molecular tumor features were similar to the overall trial safety population. All patients had received their second dose before June 2021. Of the 40 patients, 42.5% had received tozinameran and 57.5% vaxzevria. Baseline characteristics of the two groups were comparable. At time of second vaccine dose, 55% of patients were receiving Dara-VR consolidation treatment and 45% Dara-R maintenance. There was no recommendation to pause trial treatment for purposes of vaccination and no extended times off treatment for this reason were reported. Overall, 72.5% of patients had a positive vaccine antibody level as per manufacturer cut-point for high specificity evidence of antigen exposure (infection or vaccine). The response rate was nominally higher for vaxzevria (91.3%) than for tozinameran (47.1%), a dysbalance that will be further investigated with ongoing extension of the cohort. Of note, 90% of patients analyzed had reached a complete response (CR) of their MM prior to being vaccinated, and the majority of patients not in CR had a positive vaccine response. Response rates were nominally slightly higher in patients in receipt of Dara-R maintenance at time of second dose with 77.8% compared to Dara-VR consolidation with 68.2%. Conclusions: These results show a high serological response rate to COVID-19 vaccination in UHiR MM patients receiving intensified post-ASCT consolidation and maintenance therapy in remission. Findings suggest that continuation of intensified post-ASCT therapy for patients with aggressive tumors and a high risk of relapse are compatible with serological responses to commonly used COVID-19 vaccines. Disclosures: Jen er: Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;BMS/Celgene: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Takeda: Consultancy;Pfizer: Consultancy. Hall: BMS/Celgene: Research Funding;Janssen: Research Funding. Garg: University Hospital Leicester: Current Employment;Takeda Janssen Novartis Sanofi: Other: Travel Accommodations, Expenses;Amgen Janssen Novartis Sanofi Takeda: Honoraria. Jackson: J and J: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;GSK: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau;amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;celgene BMS: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau;oncopeptides: Consultancy;Sanofi: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau. Pratt: Binding Site: Consultancy;BMS/Celgene: Consultancy;Gilead: Consultancy;Janssen: Consultancy;Takeda: Consultancy;Amgen: Consultancy. Cook: Karyopharm: Consultancy;Sanofi: Consultancy;Takeda: Consultancy, Research Funding;Janssen: Consultancy, Research Funding;BMS/Celgene: Consultancy, Research Funding;Amgen: Consultancy. Drayson: Abingdon Health: Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company. Kaiser: BMS/Celgene: Consultancy, Other: Travel support, Research Funding;Janssen: Consultancy, Other: Educational support, Research Funding;GSK: Consultancy;Karyopharm: Consultancy, Research Funding;Pfizer: Consultancy;Amgen: Honoraria;Seattle Genetics: Consultancy;Takeda: Consultancy, Other: Educational support;AbbVie: Consultancy.

17.
[Unspecified Source]; 2020.
Preprint in English | [Unspecified Source] | ID: ppcovidwho-292758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid point-of-care tests (POCTs) for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies vary in performance. A critical need exists to perform head-to-head comparison of these assays. METHODS: Performance of fifteen different lateral flow POCTs for the detection of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies was performed on a well characterized set of 100 samples. Of these, 40 samples from known SARS-CoV-2-infected, convalescent individuals (average of 45 days post symptom onset) were used to assess sensitivity. Sixty samples from the pre-pandemic era (negative control), that were known to have been infected with other respiratory viruses (rhinoviruses A, B, C and/or coronavirus 229E, HKU1, NL63 OC43) were used to assess specificity. The timing of seroconversion was assessed on five POCTs on a panel of 272 longitudinal samples from 47 patients of known time since symptom onset. RESULTS: For the assays that were evaluated, the sensitivity and specificity for any reactive band ranged from 55%-97% and 78%-100%, respectively. When assessing the performance of the IgM and the IgG bands alone, sensitivity and specificity ranged from 0%-88% and 80%-100% for IgM and 25%-95% and 90%-100% for IgG. Longitudinal testing revealed that median time post symptom onset to a positive result was 7 days (IQR 5.4, 9.8) for IgM and 8.2 days (IQR 6.3 to 11.3). CONCLUSION: The testing performance varied widely among POCTs with most variation related to the sensitivity of the assays. The IgM band was most likely to misclassify pre-pandemic samples. The appearance of IgM and IgG bands occurred almost simultaneously.

18.
Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia ; 21:S2-S3, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1517533

ABSTRACT

Background: The role of upfront ASCT for NDTE MM remains under evaluation with high MRD rates following novel induction and consolidation (cons) strategies. K maintenance represents an alternative strategy to lenalidomide maintenance. The CARDAMON trial investigated K maintenance following KCd induction plus either ASCT or KCd cons. Methods: NDTE pts received 4 x KCd induction (K 20/56 mg/m2 biweekly, C 500 mg D 1,8,15, d 40mg weekly) before 1:1 randomisation to ASCT or 4 x KCd cons followed by 18 cycles K maintenance (56mg/m2 D1,8,15). Flow cytometric MRD (10-5) was assessed post induction, pre-maintenance and at 6 months maintenance. Primary endpoints were ≥VGPR post induction and 2-year PFS from randomisation. Secondary endpoints included improvements in disease response and MRD conversion following ASCT/ cons and maintenance. Results: 281 patients were registered, with 218 randomised to either ASCT or cons. The median PFS for ASCT was not yet reached vs 3.4 years for cons, with cons failing to show non-inferiority (difference in 2-year PFS 6.5%, 70% CI 1.0% to 11.1%). 196 patients received K maintenance (99 ASCT, 97 cons), 17 remain on treatment. A median of 16 cycles (1-18) were given over a median of 15.9 months (0-21.5). COVID-19 led to maintenance treatment interruptions in 41 (8 ASCT, 6 Cons) and treatment discontinuation in 15 (9 ASCT, 6 Cons). The median K dose given was 50.6mg/m2 and was similar across both arms (51.2 vs 49.4mg/m2, p=0.03). K maintenance was discontinued for PD in 14.1% (ASCT) vs 22.7% (cons), and for adverse events (AEs) in 7.1% (ASCT) vs 4.1% (cons). Most common AEs were hypertension and infections and more ≥G3 AEs were noted in ASCT vs cons (p=0.01). Patient/ clinician withdrawals from maintenance were low but occurred more in the ASCT arm (9.1% vs 1%). MRD neg patients post ASCT/ Cons had a longer PFS than MRD pos (p=0.002);with a higher MRD neg rate in the ASCT arm (53.6% vs 35.1% in Cons, p=0.01). MRD neg patients at 6 months post maintenance also had longer PFS (p=0.004 cf MRD pos patients);again with higher MRD neg rates in the ASCT arm (58.1% ASCT vs 40.5% Cons, p=0.02). There was no difference in PFS for MRD neg patients according to treatment arm from PBSCH, post-ASCT/ Cons or 6 months maintenance timepoints. Overall, 27.8% of MRD pos patients converted to MRD neg post ASCT/ Cons with more converting with ASCT (39.1% ASCT vs 16.1%, p=0.004). 23.5% of MRD pos patients converted to neg during maintenance (30.6% ASCT, 17.8%: p=0.2). Maintenance of MRD negativity over the first 6 months was similar between ASCT and Cons arms (p=0.3). There was no evidence that the timing of achievement of MRD negativity impacted PFS. Conclusions: K maintenance at 56mg/m2 weekly was deliverable and tolerable, with continued higher MRD neg rates at 6 months post-ASCT compared to post-Cons. However more ≥G3 AEs and discontinuations for AEs/ patient choice were noted for K maintenance after ASCT.

19.
Archives of Disease in Childhood ; 106(SUPPL 1):A372, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1495096

ABSTRACT

Background More children and young people (CYP) attend Emergency departments (EDs) each year than over-65s and CYP account for up to 40% of all primary care consultations. Many CYP seen in ED or primary care are triaged through NHS 111, which is a free telephone service, wherein all calls are initially triaged by a call-handler. Where appropriate, calls are passed on to the Clinical Assessment Services (CAS) for a call-back from a clinician. During the Covid-19 pandemic, NHS 111 experienced an increase in volume of calls offered. Objectives To support NHS 111 providers in responding to paediatric calls during the Covid-19 pandemic, and to assess the feasibility of including paediatric expertise within NHS 111 CAS and its impact on service delivery. Methods In May 2020, 70 paediatric clinicians, identified via the RCPCH (or locally), were on-boarded and trained to work remotely within the CAS of six NHS 111 providers in England. Across all six NHS 111 provider sites, the volunteers worked alongside existing CAS clinicians, providing call-backs to carers of paediatric cases under 16 years old, irrespective of the presenting complaint. Data were gathered from existing NHS 111 provider systems to include immediate outcomes (dispositions) and patient/carer feedback. Contributing paediatric clinicians and NHS 111 staff were surveyed by questionnaire and/or phone call. Results 2535 paediatric cases were taken by paediatric clinicians and 137,008 paediatric cases by non-paediatric clinicians working in the six NHS 111 providers from 25th May to 4th December 2020. Disposition rates varied between the calls taken by paediatric vs non-paediatric clinicians (table 1). ∗ ∗All categories significant at p<0.01 e.g. self-care versus primary care referrals χ2 (df =1, N = 78938) = 37.95, p<0.01 Survey data from 62/70 volunteers indicated that they enjoyed working for NHS 111. NHS 111 staff surveyed (n=14) and interviewed (n=5) reported that paediatricians contributed to improving the service delivery to young patients. Feedback from carers whose calls had been taken by paediatric clinicians at one NHS 111 provider (n=60) showed higher satisfaction rates when compared with national averages for all calls (including adults and children) (92% vs 67%), with more reporting that their problem was resolved (92% vs 26%). Conclusions The data showed that enhanced paediatric support within NHS 111 CAS is likely to reduce the large volume of children advised to attend ED or primary care, while improving the families' experience. Further work will explore the longer term outcomes within the NHS, and more detailed carer feedback. In future, more integrated models of care for CYP needing urgent and emergency care services may be achieved by this means, and better access to alternative healthcare support through hospital or community-based services, such as rapid access clinics.

20.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(7): e0083721, 2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486488

ABSTRACT

We assessed the performance of the CoronaCHEK lateral flow assay on samples from Uganda and Baltimore to determine the impact of geographic origin on assay performance. Plasma samples from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) PCR-positive individuals (Uganda, 78 samples from 78 individuals, and Baltimore, 266 samples from 38 individuals) and from prepandemic individuals (Uganda, 1,077, and Baltimore, 532) were evaluated. Prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated to identify factors associated with a false-positive test. After the first positive PCR in Ugandan samples, the sensitivity was 45% (95% confidence interval [CI], 24,68) at 0 to 7 days, 79% (95% CI, 64 to 91) at 8 to 14 days, and 76% (95% CI, 50 to 93) at >15 days. In samples from Baltimore, sensitivity was 39% (95% CI, 30 to 49) at 0 to 7 days, 86% (95% CI, 79 to 92) at 8 to 14 days, and 100% (95% CI, 89 to 100) at 15 days after positive PCR. The specificity of 96.5% (95% CI, 97.5 to 95.2) in Ugandan samples was significantly lower than that in samples from Baltimore, 99.3% (95% CI, 98.1 to 99.8; P < 0.01). In Ugandan samples, individuals with a false-positive result were more likely to be male (PR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.03,3.69) or individuals who had had a fever more than a month prior to sample acquisition (PR, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.12 to 7.35). Sensitivity of the CoronaCHEK was similar in samples from Uganda and Baltimore. The specificity was significantly lower in Ugandan samples than in Baltimore samples. False-positive results in Ugandan samples appear to correlate with a recent history of a febrile illness, potentially indicative of a cross-reactive immune response in individuals from East Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Female , Humans , Male , Sensitivity and Specificity , Uganda
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