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1.
Arch Dis Child ; 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241792

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand community seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in children and adolescents. This is vital to understanding the susceptibility of this cohort to COVID-19 and to inform public health policy for disease control such as immunisation. DESIGN: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional seroprevalence study in participants aged 0-18 years old recruiting from seven regions in England between October 2019 and June 2021 and collecting extensive demographic and symptom data. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins using Roche assays processed at UK Health Security Agency laboratories. Prevalence estimates were calculated for six time periods and were standardised by age group, ethnicity and National Health Service region. RESULTS: Post-first wave (June-August 2020), the (anti-spike IgG) adjusted seroprevalence was 5.2%, varying from 0.9% (participants 10-14 years old) to 9.5% (participants 5-9 years old). By April-June 2021, this had increased to 19.9%, varying from 13.9% (participants 0-4 years old) to 32.7% (participants 15-18 years old). Minority ethnic groups had higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity than white participants (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.0), after adjusting for sex, age, region, time period, deprivation and urban/rural geography. In children <10 years, there were no symptoms or symptom clusters that reliably predicted seropositivity. Overall, 48% of seropositive participants with complete questionnaire data recalled no symptoms between February 2020 and their study visit. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one-third of participants aged 15-18 years old had evidence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 prior to the introduction of widespread vaccination. These data demonstrate that ethnic background is independently associated with risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04061382.

2.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285375, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233496

ABSTRACT

UK 'Lockdown' measures introduced in March 2020 aimed to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. Although seeking healthcare was still permitted within restrictions, paediatric emergency department attendances reduced dramatically and led to concern over risks caused by delayed presentation. Our aim was to gain insight into healthcare decisions faced by parents during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and to understand if use of urgent healthcare, self-care, and information needs differed during lockdown as well as how parents perceived risks of COVID-19. We undertook qualitative telephone interviews with a purposive sample of parents living in the North East of England recruited through online advertising. We used a semi-structured interview schedule to explore past and current healthcare use, perceptions of risk and the impact of the pandemic on healthcare decisions. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using Thematic Analysis. Three major themes were identified which concerned (i) how parents made sense of risks posed to, and by their children, (ii) understanding information regarding health services and (iii) attempting to make the right decision. These themes contribute to the understanding of the initial impact of COVID-19 and associated restrictions on parental decisions about urgent healthcare for children. These findings are important to consider when planning for potential future public health emergencies but also in the wider context of encouraging appropriate use of urgent healthcare.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Parents
3.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Glob ; 2022 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061406

ABSTRACT

Background & Objectives: SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which can range from a mild illness to a severe phenotype characterised by acute respiratory distress, needing mechanical ventilation. Children with combined immunodeficiencies might be unable to mount a sufficient cellular and humoral immune response against Covid-19 and have persistent disease. The authors describe a child with combined immunodeficiency, with favorable post-HSCT course following a haploidentical haematopoietic stem cell transplant in the presence of persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods & results: A 13-month-old girl with MHC class II deficiency developed persistent pre-HSCT SARS-CoV-2 infection. Faced with a significant challenge of balancing the risk of progressive infection due to incompetent immune system with the danger of inflammatory pneumonitis peri-immune reconstitution post-HSCT, she underwent a maternal (with a recent history of Covid-19 infection) haploidentical haematopoietic stem cell transplant. The patient received Regdanvimab® (post stem cell infusion) and Remdesivir (pre and post stem cell infusion). We noted a gradual increase in the Ct (cycle threshold) values, implying reduction in viral RNA with concomitant expansion in the CD3 lymphocyte subset and clinical/radiological improvement. Conclusions: Combination of adoptive transfer of maternal CD45RO+ memory add-back T-lymphocytes after haploidentical HSCT, use of Regdanvimab® (SARS-CoV-2 neutralising monoclonal antibody) and Remdesivir may have led to the successful outcome in our patient with severe immunodeficiency, undergoing HSCT. Our case highlights the role of novel antiviral strategies (monoclonal antibodies and CD45RO+ memory T-lymphocytes) in contributing to viral clearance in a challenging clinical scenario.

4.
The journal of allergy and clinical immunology. Global ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2046497

ABSTRACT

Background & Objectives SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which can range from a mild illness to a severe phenotype characterised by acute respiratory distress, needing mechanical ventilation. Children with combined immunodeficiencies might be unable to mount a sufficient cellular and humoral immune response against Covid-19 and have persistent disease. The authors describe a child with combined immunodeficiency, with favorable post-HSCT course following a haploidentical haematopoietic stem cell transplant in the presence of persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods & results A 13-month-old girl with MHC class II deficiency developed persistent pre-HSCT SARS-CoV-2 infection. Faced with a significant challenge of balancing the risk of progressive infection due to incompetent immune system with the danger of inflammatory pneumonitis peri-immune reconstitution post-HSCT, she underwent a maternal (with a recent history of Covid-19 infection) haploidentical haematopoietic stem cell transplant. The patient received Regdanvimab® (post stem cell infusion) and Remdesivir (pre and post stem cell infusion). We noted a gradual increase in the Ct (cycle threshold) values, implying reduction in viral RNA with concomitant expansion in the CD3 lymphocyte subset and clinical/radiological improvement. Conclusions Combination of adoptive transfer of maternal CD45RO+ memory add-back T-lymphocytes after haploidentical HSCT, use of Regdanvimab® (SARS-CoV-2 neutralising monoclonal antibody) and Remdesivir may have led to the successful outcome in our patient with severe immunodeficiency, undergoing HSCT. Our case highlights the role of novel antiviral strategies (monoclonal antibodies and CD45RO+ memory T-lymphocytes) in contributing to viral clearance in a challenging clinical scenario.

5.
Archives of Disease in Childhood ; 107(Suppl 2):A4, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2019810

ABSTRACT

AimsIn March 2020 the World Health Organisation declared COVID-19 as a global pandemic. At this time the UK’s healthcare services were becoming overwhelmed. To relieve the pressures the government initiated the first ever ‘lockdown’, the key message being ‘Stay home, Protect the NHS, Save Lives’.Although seeking healthcare was still permitted, there was an alarming reduction in the number of attendances to paediatric accident and emergency units. The Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health expressed concern in relation to delayed presentation, identifying nine deaths across the UK where delay was a potential factor.We aimed to describe parents’ decision-making regarding use of children’s urgent healthcare services during the first wave of COVID-19 and the experience of those who had accessed services.MethodsThe study was in two phases: 1) Parents were invited, via online platforms, to complete an online survey which collected demographic data and responses about use of, and attitudes towards, accessing urgent paediatric healthcare during the pandemic. 2) A purposive sample of survey respondents were invited to take part in a telephone interview, where a semi-structured topic guide was used to further explore experiences and views. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed according to principles of Thematic Analysis.ResultsIn total 121 parents responded to the online survey, in order to obtain maximum variation we purposely sampled, 21 were then interviewed. The largest represented age group was 35-39 years, with most families having 2 children.When asked if COVID-19 impacted their decision around the use of emergency departments, 8 (38.1%) replied yes, 11 (52.5%) replied no and 2 (9.5%) responses were missing.The interviews identified three main themes: i) Making sense of risks: Parents differentiated between the risk to the child of contracting COVID-19 in the emergency department (ED) and the potential risk of viral transmission from the child to the wider community;it was the latter that commonly took precedence. Most regarded the risk to their child from COVID-19 as small.(ii) Understanding information regarding health service availability: Many parents understood that emergency services were accessible throughout, however some inferred ‘protect the NHS’ meant they should not be used. Parents cited that the overwhelming amount of information and resources available often lead to dissemination of misinformation and made identifying correct guidance difficult.(iii) Attempting to make the right decision: Parents stated it was a perpetual struggle between managing risks and acting within the ‘rules’. They were acutely aware of not applying unnecessary pressure on an already stretched NHS but most stated that ultimately their primary concern would be their childrens’ health.ConclusionThe data provides a real time snapshot of parental views on seeking emergency healthcare for children during the early stages of the pandemic. Our insights into parental decision-making help to explain part of the reduction in ED attendance. This work could be used to formulate future messages and improve communication from governmental and local bodies to the public during public health emergencies. Post-pandemic this may contribute to initiatives encouraging the appropriate use of urgent healthcare.

6.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 809061, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753397

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children is generally described as mild, and SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunocompromised children are observed as generally mild as well. A small proportion of pediatric patients will become critically ill due to (cardio)respiratory failure and require intensive care treatment. We report the case of a teenager with Hodgkin's lymphoma who acquired SARS-CoV-2 (detected by PCR) on the day of her autologous stem cell transplant and developed acute respiratory distress syndrome, successfully treated with a combination of antivirals, immunomodulation with steroids and biologicals, and ECMO.

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