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Cureus ; 14(7), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1990125


Introduction: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) management in the intensive care unit (ICU) has attracted strong interest since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our retrospective study aims to describe the outcomes and predictors of mortality of ARDS associated with COVID-19 within one university-based healthcare system. Methods: We identified 165 patients within our healthcare system during the months of April 2020 through July 2020, who were admitted to our medical ICUs and eligible for our study. Baseline patient characteristics, ICU and hospital course information, ICU interventions, ventilator settings, and hospital complications were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques. Results: Our cohort had an average age of 64. No significant difference in mortality was identified with male vs. female gender or BMI. Most of the patient cohort was identified as black (68.2%). The overall mortality of our cohort was 38.2%. Hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were all associated with higher mortality. There was a significant difference in mortality between those with higher observed ventilator plateau pressures at 24 hours and higher driving pressures at 24 hours. Conclusion: COVID-19-associated ARDS is associated with significant mortality. Physicians should be aware of pre-existing conditions potentially related to worse outcomes so that they receive an appropriate level of care in a timely manner. Ventilator management should focus on maintaining low intra-thoracic pressure changes. Prospective studies are needed to guide COVID-19-associated ARDS management.

JCO Oncol Pract ; 17(12): e1879-e1886, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270943


PURPOSE: Multiple studies have demonstrated the negative impact of cancer care delays during the COVID-19 pandemic, and transmission mitigation techniques are imperative for continued cancer care delivery. We aimed to gauge the effectiveness of these measures at the University of Pennsylvania. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study of SARS-CoV-2 antibody seropositivity and seroconversion in patients presenting to infusion centers for cancer-directed therapy between May 21, 2020, and October 8, 2020. Participants completed questionnaires and had up to five serial blood collections. RESULTS: Of 124 enrolled patients, only two (1.6%) had detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies on initial blood draw, and no initially seronegative patients developed newly detectable antibodies on subsequent blood draw(s), corresponding to a seroconversion rate of 0% (95% CI, 0.0 TO 4.1%) over 14.8 person-years of follow up, with a median of 13 health care visits per patient. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that patients with cancer receiving in-person care at a facility with aggressive mitigation efforts have an extremely low likelihood of COVID-19 infection.

COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion
Nat Med ; 27(7): 1280-1289, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238011


Patients with cancer have high mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and the immune parameters that dictate clinical outcomes remain unknown. In a cohort of 100 patients with cancer who were hospitalized for COVID-19, patients with hematologic cancer had higher mortality relative to patients with solid cancer. In two additional cohorts, flow cytometric and serologic analyses demonstrated that patients with solid cancer and patients without cancer had a similar immune phenotype during acute COVID-19, whereas patients with hematologic cancer had impairment of B cells and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific antibody responses. Despite the impaired humoral immunity and high mortality in patients with hematologic cancer who also have COVID-19, those with a greater number of CD8 T cells had improved survival, including those treated with anti-CD20 therapy. Furthermore, 77% of patients with hematologic cancer had detectable SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses. Thus, CD8 T cells might influence recovery from COVID-19 when humoral immunity is deficient. These observations suggest that CD8 T cell responses to vaccination might provide protection in patients with hematologic cancer even in the setting of limited humoral responses.

CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunophenotyping , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasms/complications , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate