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3.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; 14(3):1663-1674, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-891731

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus – 2 (SARS-CoV-2), an emerging novel coronavirus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, has now rapidly spread to more than 215 countries and has killed nearly 0.75 million people out of more than 20 million confirmed cases as of 10th August, 2020. Apart from affecting respiratory system, the virus has shown multiple manifestations with neurological affections and damaging kidneys. SARS-CoV-2 transmission mainly occurs through close contact of COVID-19 affected person, however air-borne route is also now considered as dominant route of virus spread. The virus has been implicated to have originated from animals. Apart from bats, pangolins and others being investigates to play role in transmitting SARS-CoV-2 as intermediate hosts, the recent reports of this virus infection in other animals (cats, dogs, tigers, lions, mink) suggest one health approach implementation along with adopting appropriate mitigation strategies. Researchers are pacing to develop effective vaccines and drugs, few reached to clinical trials also, however these may take time to reach the mass population, and so till then adopting appropriate prevention and control is the best option to avoid SARS-CoV-2 infection. This article presents an overview on this pandemic virus and the disease it causes, with few recent concepts and advances.

5.
QJM ; 113(8): 551-555, 2020 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Under the unique Japanese policy to restrict reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, a nationwide number of its confirmed cases and mortality remains to be low. Yet the information is lacking on geographical differences of these measures and their associated factors. AIM: Evaluation of prefecture-based geographical differences and associated predictors for the incidence and number of RT-PCR tests for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using regression and correlation analysis. METHODS: We retrieved domestic laboratory-confirmed cases, deaths and the number of RT-PCR testing for COVID-19 from 15 January to 6 April 2020 in 47 prefectures in Japan, using publicly available data by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. We did descriptive analyses of these three measures and identified significant predictors for the incidence and RT-PCR testing through multiple regression analyses and correlates with the number of deaths through correlation analysis. RESULTS: The median prefectural-level incidence and number of RT-PCR testing per 100 000 population were 1.14 and 38.6, respectively. Multiple regression analyses revealed that significant predictors for the incidence were prefectural-level population (P < 0.001) and the number of RT-PCR testing (P = 0.03); and those for RT-PCR testing were the incidence (P = 0.025), available beds (P = 0.045) and cluster infections (P = 0.034). CONCLUSION: Considering bidirectional association between the incidence and RT-PCR testing, there may have been an underdiagnosed population for the infection. The restraint policy for RT-PCR testing should be revisited to meet the increasing demand under the COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospital Bed Capacity/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2
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