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Sci Transl Med ; 14(650): eabn7737, 2022 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807308


The Omicron (B.1.1.529) SARS-CoV-2 variant contains an unusually high number of mutations in the spike protein, raising concerns of escape from vaccines, convalescent serum, and therapeutic drugs. Here, we analyzed the degree to which Omicron pseudo-virus evades neutralization by serum or therapeutic antibodies. Serum samples obtained 3 months after two doses of BNT162b2 vaccination exhibited 18-fold lower neutralization titers against Omicron than parental virus. Convalescent serum samples from individuals infected with the Alpha and Delta variants allowed similar frequencies of Omicron breakthrough infections. Domain-wise analysis using chimeric spike proteins revealed that this efficient evasion was primarily achieved by mutations clustered in the receptor binding domain but that multiple mutations in the N-terminal domain contributed as well. Omicron escaped a therapeutic cocktail of imdevimab and casirivimab, whereas sotrovimab, which targets a conserved region to avoid viral mutation, remains effective. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) decoys are another virus-neutralizing drug modality that are free, at least in theory, from complete escape. Deep mutational analysis demonstrated that an engineered ACE2 molecule prevented escape for each single-residue mutation in the receptor binding domain, similar to immunized serum. Engineered ACE2 neutralized Omicron comparably to the Wuhan strain and also showed a therapeutic effect against Omicron infection in hamsters and human ACE2 transgenic mice. Similar to previous SARS-CoV-2 variants, some sarbecoviruses showed high sensitivity against engineered ACE2, confirming the therapeutic value against diverse variants, including those that are yet to emerge.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mice , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
J Exp Med ; 218(12)2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467277


Adaptive immunity is a fundamental component in controlling COVID-19. In this process, follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are a subset of CD4+ T cells that mediate the production of protective antibodies; however, the SARS-CoV-2 epitopes activating Tfh cells are not well characterized. Here, we identified and crystallized TCRs of public circulating Tfh (cTfh) clonotypes that are expanded in patients who have recovered from mild symptoms. These public clonotypes recognized the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) epitopes conserved across emerging variants. The epitope of the most prevalent cTfh clonotype, S864-882, was presented by multiple HLAs and activated T cells in most healthy donors, suggesting that this S region is a universal T cell epitope useful for booster antigen. SARS-CoV-2-specific public cTfh clonotypes also cross-reacted with specific commensal bacteria. In this study, we identified conserved SARS-CoV-2 S epitopes that activate public cTfh clonotypes associated with mild symptoms.

COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , HLA Antigens/immunology , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Male