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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 2669, 2023 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283128

ABSTRACT

A high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy plays a significant role in providing respiratory support to critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, the dispersion of the virus owing to aerosol generation is a matter of concern. This study aimed to evaluate if HFNC disperses the virus into the air. Among patients with COVID-19 admitted to private rooms with controlled negative pressure, we enrolled those admitted within 10 days of onset and requiring oxygenation through a conventional nasal cannula or HFNC therapy. Of the 17 patients enrolled, we obtained 22 samples (11 in the conventional nasal cannula group and 11 in the HFNC group). Viral RNA was detected in 20 nasopharyngeal swabs, and viable viruses were isolated from three nasopharyngeal swabs. Neither viral RNA nor viable virus was detected in the air sample at 0.5 m regardless of the oxygen-supplementation device. We detected viral RNA in two samples in the conventional nasal cannula group but not in the HFNC therapy group in gelatin filters located 3 m from the patient and the surface of the ventilation. This study directly demonstrated that despite viral RNA detection in the nasopharynx, viruses may not be dispersed by HFNC therapy. This warrants further research to determine if similar results can be obtained under different conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Cannula , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Nasopharynx , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
2.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 1076, 2023 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262859

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has continually been serious threat to public health worldwide. While a few anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics are currently available, their antiviral potency is not sufficient. Here, we identify two orally available 4-fluoro-benzothiazole-containing small molecules, TKB245 and TKB248, which specifically inhibit the enzymatic activity of main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 and significantly more potently block the infectivity and replication of various SARS-CoV-2 strains than nirmatrelvir, molnupiravir, and ensitrelvir in cell-based assays employing various target cells. Both compounds also block the replication of Delta and Omicron variants in human-ACE2-knocked-in mice. Native mass spectrometric analysis reveals that both compounds bind to dimer Mpro, apparently promoting Mpro dimerization. X-ray crystallographic analysis shows that both compounds bind to Mpro's active-site cavity, forming a covalent bond with the catalytic amino acid Cys-145 with the 4-fluorine of the benzothiazole moiety pointed to solvent. The data suggest that TKB245 and TKB248 might serve as potential therapeutics for COVID-19 and shed light upon further optimization to develop more potent and safer anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Protease Inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , Mice , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzothiazoles , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors
3.
iScience ; 26(2): 105969, 2023 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2179844

ABSTRACT

The immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 variants in COVID-19 cases are influenced by various factors including pre-existing immunity via vaccination and prior infection. Elucidating the drivers for upgrading neutralizing activity to SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 cases with pre-existing immunity will aid in improving COVID-19 booster vaccines with enhanced cross-protection against antigenically distinct variants, including the Omicron sub-lineage BA.4/5. This study revealed that the magnitude and breadth of neutralization activity to SARS-CoV-2 variants after breakthrough infections are determined primarily by upper respiratory viral load and vaccination-infection time interval. Extensive neutralizing breadth, covering even the most antigenically distant BA.4/5, was observed in cases with higher viral load and longer time intervals. Antigenic cartography depicted a critical role of the time interval in expanding the breadth of neutralization to SARS-CoV-2 variants. Our results illustrate the importance of dosing interval optimization as well as antigen design in developing variant-proof booster vaccines.

4.
Nature ; 607(7917): 119-127, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915276

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529 lineage) variants possessing numerous mutations has raised concerns of decreased effectiveness of current vaccines, therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and antiviral drugs for COVID-19 against these variants1,2. The original Omicron lineage, BA.1, prevailed in many countries, but more recently, BA.2 has become dominant in at least 68 countries3. Here we evaluated the replicative ability and pathogenicity of authentic infectious BA.2 isolates in immunocompetent and human ACE2-expressing mice and hamsters. In contrast to recent data with chimeric, recombinant SARS-CoV-2 strains expressing the spike proteins of BA.1 and BA.2 on an ancestral WK-521 backbone4, we observed similar infectivity and pathogenicity in mice and hamsters for BA.2 and BA.1, and less pathogenicity compared with early SARS-CoV-2 strains. We also observed a marked and significant reduction in the neutralizing activity of plasma from individuals who had recovered from COVID-19 and vaccine recipients against BA.2 compared to ancestral and Delta variant strains. In addition, we found that some therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (REGN10987 plus REGN10933, COV2-2196 plus COV2-2130, and S309) and antiviral drugs (molnupiravir, nirmatrelvir and S-217622) can restrict viral infection in the respiratory organs of BA.2-infected hamsters. These findings suggest that the replication and pathogenicity of BA.2 is similar to that of BA.1 in rodents and that several therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and antiviral compounds are effective against Omicron BA.2 variants.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cricetinae , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Drug Combinations , Hydroxylamines , Indazoles , Lactams , Leucine , Mice , Nitriles , Proline , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Triazines , Triazoles
5.
Med (N Y) ; 3(4): 249-261.e4, 2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783638

ABSTRACT

Background: The immune profile against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has dramatically diversified due to a complex combination of exposure to vaccines and infection by various lineages/variants, likely generating a heterogeneity in protective immunity in a given population. To further complicate this, the Omicron variant, with numerous spike mutations, has emerged. These circumstances have created the need to assess the potential of immune evasion by Omicron in individuals with various immune histories. Methods: The neutralization susceptibility of the variants, including Omicron and their ancestors, was comparably assessed using a panel of plasma/serum derived from individuals with divergent immune histories. Blood samples were collected from either mRNA vaccinees or from those who suffered from breakthrough infections of Alpha/Delta with multiple time intervals following vaccination. Findings: Omicron was highly resistant to neutralization in fully vaccinated individuals without a history of breakthrough infections. In contrast, robust cross-neutralization against Omicron was induced in vaccinees that experienced breakthrough infections. The time interval between vaccination and infection, rather than the variant types of infection, was significantly correlated with the magnitude and potency of Omicron-neutralizing antibodies. Conclusions: Immune histories with breakthrough infections can overcome the resistance to infection by Omicron, with the vaccination-infection interval being the key determinant of the magnitude and breadth of neutralization. The diverse exposure history in each individual warrants a tailored and cautious approach to understanding population immunity against Omicron and future variants. Funding: This study was supported by grants from the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Postoperative Complications , Vaccination
6.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0061821, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622002

ABSTRACT

The host transmembrane protein MARCH8 is a RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase that downregulates various host transmembrane proteins, such as MHC-II. We have recently reported that MARCH8 expression in virus-producing cells impairs viral infectivity by reducing virion incorporation of not only HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein but also vesicular stomatitis virus G-glycoprotein through two different pathways. However, the MARCH8 inhibition spectrum remains largely unknown. Here, we show the antiviral spectrum of MARCH8 using viruses pseudotyped with a variety of viral envelope glycoproteins. Infection experiments revealed that viral envelope glycoproteins derived from the rhabdovirus, arenavirus, coronavirus, and togavirus (alphavirus) families were sensitive to MARCH8-mediated inhibition. Lysine mutations at the cytoplasmic tails of rabies virus-G, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus glycoproteins, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins, and Chikungunya virus and Ross River virus E2 proteins conferred resistance to MARCH8. Immunofluorescence showed impaired downregulation of the mutants of these viral envelope glycoproteins by MARCH8, followed by lysosomal degradation, suggesting that MARCH8-mediated ubiquitination leads to intracellular degradation of these envelopes. Indeed, rabies virus-G and Chikungunya virus E2 proteins proved to be clearly ubiquitinated. We conclude that MARCH8 has inhibitory activity on a variety of viral envelope glycoproteins whose cytoplasmic lysine residues are targeted by this antiviral factor. IMPORTANCE A member of the MARCH E3 ubiquitin ligase family, MARCH8, downregulates many different kinds of host transmembrane proteins, resulting in the regulation of cellular homeostasis. On the other hands, MARCH8 acts as an antiviral factor when it binds to and downregulates HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein and vesicular stomatitis virus G-glycoprotein that are viral transmembrane proteins. This study reveals that, as in the case of cellular membrane proteins, MARCH8 shows broad-spectrum inhibition against various viral envelope glycoproteins by recognizing their cytoplasmic lysine residues, resulting in lysosomal degradation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Lysine/drug effects , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/pharmacology , Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Blotting, Western , Down-Regulation , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Immunoprecipitation , Lysine/metabolism , Ubiquitination/physiology , Viral Envelope Proteins/drug effects
7.
Nature ; 602(7896): 300-306, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532072

ABSTRACT

During the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a variety of mutations have accumulated in the viral genome of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and, at the time of writing, four variants of concern are considered to be potentially hazardous to human society1. The recently emerged B.1.617.2/Delta variant of concern is closely associated with the COVID-19 surge that occurred in India in the spring of 2021 (ref. 2). However, the virological properties of B.1.617.2/Delta remain unclear. Here we show that the B.1.617.2/Delta variant is highly fusogenic and notably more pathogenic than prototypic SARS-CoV-2 in infected hamsters. The P681R mutation in the spike protein, which is highly conserved in this lineage, facilitates cleavage of the spike protein and enhances viral fusogenicity. Moreover, we demonstrate that the P681R-bearing virus exhibits higher pathogenicity compared with its parental virus. Our data suggest that the P681R mutation is a hallmark of the virological phenotype of the B.1.617.2/Delta variant and is associated with enhanced pathogenicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Membrane Fusion , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cricetinae , Giant Cells/metabolism , Giant Cells/virology , Male , Mesocricetus , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Virulence/genetics , Virus Replication
8.
J Infect Dis ; 224(6): 989-994, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429251

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617 variant emerged in the Indian state of Maharashtra in late 2020. There have been fears that 2 key mutations seen in the receptor-binding domain, L452R and E484Q, would have additive effects on evasion of neutralizing antibodies. We report that spike bearing L452R and E484Q confers modestly reduced sensitivity to BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine-elicited antibodies following either first or second dose. The effect is similar in magnitude to the loss of sensitivity conferred by L452R or E484Q alone. These data demonstrate reduced sensitivity to vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies by L452R and E484Q but lack of synergistic loss of sensitivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Immune Evasion , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Humans , India , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serine Endopeptidases , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 848, 2021 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069106

ABSTRACT

The causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2, is steadily mutating during continuous transmission among humans. Such mutations can occur in the spike (S) protein that binds to the ACE2 receptor and is cleaved by TMPRSS2. However, whether S mutations affect SARS-CoV-2 cell entry remains unknown. Here, we show that naturally occurring S mutations can reduce or enhance cell entry via ACE2 and TMPRSS2. A SARS-CoV-2 S-pseudotyped lentivirus exhibits substantially lower entry than that of SARS-CoV S. Among S variants, the D614G mutant shows the highest cell entry, as supported by structural and binding analyses. Nevertheless, the D614G mutation does not affect neutralization by antisera against prototypic viruses. Taken together, we conclude that the D614G mutation increases cell entry by acquiring higher affinity to ACE2 while maintaining neutralization susceptibility. Based on these findings, further worldwide surveillance is required to understand SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility among humans.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Internalization , Binding, Competitive , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Models, Molecular , Pandemics , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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