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1.
University of Toronto Medical Journal ; 99(2):53-59, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2011309

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could emerge not only as viral pneumonia but also as a cardiovascular disease. Thromboprophylaxis has been recommended by the current guidelines, especially COVID-19 patients who are hospitalized. On the other hand, these drugs might cause serious bleeding complications. Hereby, we aimed to report three cases with spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) developed after being administered thromboprophylaxis for severe COVID-19 pneumonia. In this case series, we draw attention to the rare, but mortal complication of the COVID-19 thromboprophylaxis regimen.

2.
Electroanalysis ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1400091

ABSTRACT

The need for routine and immediate healthcare monitoring has inspired “near-patient testing” or in other words “point-of-care testing (POCT)”. Therefore, POCT can be defined as laboratory tests that are performed at the patient's bedside or in the immediate vicinity of the incident. Among many POCTs, nucleic acid-based testing has attracted enormous attention for the diagnosis of important genetic, inherited and infectious diseases such as cancer and coronavirus. In this review, we outline the integration of nucleic acids into the remarkable electrochemical point-of-care diagnostics including microfluidic, paper and smartphone-based approaches, CRISPR/Cas and liquid biopsy related systems and DNA damage monitoring. © 2021 Wiley-VCH GmbH

3.
Turk Hijyen ve Deneysel Biyoloji Dergisi ; 79(1):59-70, 2022.
Article in English, Turkish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1863186

ABSTRACT

Objective: Hypoxia has an important role in the disruption of intestinal mucosal integrity because of inflammation and apoptosis induced by inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-a (Tumor necrosis factor-alpha), IL-6 and IFN-y, and apoptotic regulatory proteins. Chloroquine (CLQ) is a drug used in the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and is widely used for the treatment of many inflammatory diseases such as malaria and rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, we aimed to reduce the destructive effects of hypoxia-induced inflammation and apoptosis in the intestinal mucosa of rats with CLQ applications. Methods: For this purpose, a total of 24 Wistar Albino rats were randomly divided into three groups;Group I: Control group (n=8), Group II: Hypoxia (n=8) and Group III: Hypoxia + CLQ (n=8). The control group was housed in plexiglass cages to keep the oxygen levels at 10% levels for 28 days, while the hypoxia and hypoxia+CLQ groups were housed in a normal atmospheric environment (21% O2), and the hypoxia+CLQ group was administered CLQ at a dose of 50 mg/kg every day for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, the intestinal tissues of the experimental animals, were extracted under the anesthesia and they were sacrificed. Results: As a result of histopathological evaluations, it was determined that CLQ applications showed healing properties on the histopathological effects induced by hypoxia in the intestine. While an increase in TNF-α expression was observed in the hypoxia group, a statistically significant decrease was detected in the hypoxia+CLQ group. In addition, Bax expression was found to be statistically significantly lower in the hypoxia+CLQ group when compared to the hypoxia group. On the contrary, it was observed that Bcl-2 expression was statistically significantly increased in the hypoxia+CLQ group compared to the Hypoxia group. Conclusion: We observed that hypoxia causes significant damage to the intestinal mucosa and triggers a severe inflammation that drives cells to apoptosis. Considering the curative effects of chloroquine on the intestinal mucosa, we suggest that this anti-inflammatory drug has a potential to use clinically to alleviate the deleterious effects of hypoxia in the intestine. © 2022. All Rights Reserved.

4.
International Journal of Morphology ; 39(4):1123-1131, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1863067

ABSTRACT

Adriamycin (ADR) is an anthracycline antibiotic used for treatment of many types of cancer. However, its applications may damage to healthy tissues. Chloroquine (CLQ) is an anti-inflammatory agent used in treatment of many inflammation associated diseases such as malaria and rheumatoid arthritis. Moreover, it is used in the treatment of pneumonia caused by COVID-19. The aim of this study is to determine possible therapeutic effects of Chloroquine on Adriamycin-induced testicular toxicity in rats. We investigated the effect of CLQ on testicular injury caused by ADR. Rats were divided into four groups: Control, ADR, CLQ, ADR+CLQ. After administrations, animals were sacrificed, and testis tissues were extracted from the animals for the further examinations. Histopathological changes in testis tissues were evaluated and TNF-α and IL-6 immunostaining were performed to determine the expression levels of these cytokines. TUNEL method were used for evaluation of apoptotic index. Moreover, serum testosterone levels were measured by ELISA assay. We observed that ADR group showed histopathological deterioration when compared to the Control group and CLQ treatment ameliorated this damage induced by Adriamycin.An increase in TNF-α and IL-6 immunoreactivities and in the number of apoptotic cells and a decrease in serum testosterone levels were determined in the ADR group compared to the Control and CLQ group. Furthermore, our examinations showed an improvement in testicular tissue in ADR+CLQ group in terms of these parameters when compared to the ADR group. We suggest that CLQ can be used as a protective agent to reduce the toxic effects of Adriamycin as a result of its anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties.

5.
University of Toronto Medical Journal ; 99(2):53-59, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1857156

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could emerge not only as viral pneumonia but also as a cardiovascular disease. Thromboprophylaxis has been recommended by the current guidelines, especially COVID-19 patients who are hospitalized. On the other hand, these drugs might cause serious bleeding complications. Hereby, we aimed to report three cases with spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) developed after being administered thromboprophylaxis for severe COVID-19 pneumonia. In this case series, we draw attention to the rare, but mortal complication of the COVID-19 thromboprophylaxis regimen. © 2022, University of Toronto. All rights reserved.

6.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine ; 15(4):171-178, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1855963

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify effects of various nationwide vaccination protocols on the evolution of new SARS-CoV-2 infections among adult population and to evaluate the safety of mRNA (BioNTech/ Pfizer) vaccine.

7.
2nd Geo Congress - Advances in Monitoring and Sensing, Embankments, Slopes, and Dams, Pavements, and Geo-Education ; 336:505-514, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1777156

ABSTRACT

In this study, the Atterberg limits tests (ASTM D4318 Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils) are visualized by creating a game that presents a virtual soil lab environment via MATLAB App Designer. The environment consists of a graphical user interface (GUI), allowing students to gain hands-on experience on the test. In this environment, a specimen can be prepared by adding water to soils, then placed into a virtual Casagrande apparatus enhanced by animations and sound effects. After that, a groove tool is used, and the apparatus is operated as if it was used in reality. The number of drops is counted to obtain the liquid limit of the soil. While performing these procedures, the virtual laboratory automatically generates some soil properties with randomized features, focusing solely on the processes rather than the measurements and calculations. Moreover, continuous feedback is provided, such as the rotation speed or the suitability of the different specimens with distinct water contents. In determining the plastic limit, kneading and rolling actions are driven by mouse clicks. The plastic limit is obtained after the roll is crumbled. The soil is then classified according to the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) plasticity chart. With its randomized nature, the game aims to create a realistic laboratory experience. The game is inspired by the COVID-19 pandemic, which prevents most students from joining laboratory sessions essential for understanding experimental soil mechanics. The authors believe that this game will allow students to perform each step of an experiment, which sometimes cannot be achieved in laboratories due to time constraints. In addition, the game will likely engage students to a commonly performed soil mechanics test by pre-test quizzes, feedback, and visualizing features. With the advances in computer technology, this game offers a strengthened learning experience interactively.

8.
14th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance, ICEGOV 2021 ; : 517-519, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1650567

ABSTRACT

Pandemics are not only medical phenomenon, but they also influence people and society in many respects. It has an effect on almost all markets all over the world. COVID-19 pandemic, expressed as change, empowerment, or post-traumatic growth, with several negative consequences as well as positive consequences. It also has the potential for opportunities. Years of change in the way companies do business have resulted from the COVID 19 crisis across all industries and regions. The aim of this research is to examine the relationship between different demographic variables, COVID-19's impact on digital transformation and post-traumatic effects. The article reflects in practical terms on whether and how the COVID-19 emergence in organizations accelerates digital transformation. This study is a descriptive quantitative approach research based on general survey model. © 2021 ACM.

9.
Mediterranean Journal of Infection, Microbes and Antimicrobials ; 10, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1614129

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Four scoring models, including the Rapid Emergency Medicine Score (REMS), Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Assessment-II (APACHE-II), and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), were examined. The effectiveness of these scores in mortality prediction of intensive care unit (ICU)-admitted Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients was investigated. Materials and Methods: The present retrospective analysis was conducted in a single center among patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 diagnosis who were admitted to emergency department and then ICU between March and December 2020. The REMS, APACHE-II, CCI, and SOFA were used to evaluate the mortality associated factors. Results: The sample included 411 patients above 18 years of age, with a median age of 71 (interquartile range: 60-80), and made up of 61.6% males. High creatinine, potassium, fraction of inspired oxygen and white blood cell levels as well as low hematocrit levels, pH, mean arterial pressure, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure accounted for a poor prognosis. Statistically significant differences were determined between laboratory values and physiological findings (p<0.05). Comorbidity was found in 368 (89.5%) patients while malignancy and dementia were significantly associated to mortality (p<0.001 and 0.019, respectively). The scoring systems are clearly among the important indicators of in-hospital mortality (p<0.001). Additionally, the receiver operating curve analysis did not reveal significant differences in the scoring systems when considered in terms of discriminative power (p>0.05). Conclusion: The results revealed the effectiveness of REMS, CCI, APACHE-II, and SOFA in the prediction of critical COVID-19 patients' in-hospital mortality;but none of the scoring systems prevailed over others. Therefore, the REMS, APACHE-II, CCI, and SOFA scoring models can guide not only emergency physicians but also all clinicians who contribute to the management of critical COVID-19 cases.

10.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-291777

ABSTRACT

Messenger RNA-based medicines hold immense potential, as evidenced by their rapid deployment as COVID-19 vaccines. However, worldwide distribution of mRNA molecules has been limited by their thermostability, which is fundamentally limited by the intrinsic instability of RNA molecules to a chemical degradation reaction called in-line hydrolysis. Predicting the degradation of an RNA molecule is a key task in designing more stable RNA-based therapeutics. Here, we describe a crowdsourced machine learning competition ("Stanford OpenVaccine") on Kaggle, involving single-nucleotide resolution measurements on 6043 102-130-nucleotide diverse RNA constructs that were themselves solicited through crowdsourcing on the RNA design platform Eterna. The entire experiment was completed in less than 6 months. Winning models demonstrated test set errors that were better by 50% than the previous state-of-the-art DegScore model. Furthermore, these models generalized to blindly predicting orthogonal degradation data on much longer mRNA molecules (504-1588 nucleotides) with improved accuracy over DegScore and other models. Top teams integrated natural language processing architectures and data augmentation techniques with predictions from previous dynamic programming models for RNA secondary structure. These results indicate that such models are capable of representing in-line hydrolysis with excellent accuracy, supporting their use for designing stabilized messenger RNAs. The integration of two crowdsourcing platforms, one for data set creation and another for machine learning, may be fruitful for other urgent problems that demand scientific discovery on rapid timescales.

11.
Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal ; 23(8), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1409740

ABSTRACT

Background: During the Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, palliative care units and nursing homes became risky in terms of infection transmission. The measures that are taken in the general population have also been strictly applied for caregivers. However, to achieve success, the personal compliance of the caregivers is as important as setting the rules. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the demographic characteristics, knowledge levels, and attitudes towards the measures taken for pandemics of the caregivers who were caring for their patients in the palliative care unit. It was also attempted to evaluate the relationship between these parameters and their quality of life (QOL). Methods: The level of knowledge and the level of agreement with the measures with questions prepared by three physicians working in the palliative care unit were assessed in this study. The QOL was also evaluated using the 3-level version of EQ-5D (EQ-5D-3L). Results: Education, employment, smoking, as well as parental and marital status, were found to be related to a high level of knowledge. It has been shown that the level of knowledge is higher in female caregivers and those who were caregiving for less than three years. The caregivers of Alzheimer's disease patients were also revealed to know more about the COVID-19 pandemic. Single, male, employed, smoking, and experienced less than three years caregivers were seemed to have a higher level of agreement with the measures. In addition, it was concluded that the QOL was positively correlated with the level of knowledge and negatively correlated with the compliance of the measures. Conclusion: It is essential to know the characteristics and beliefs of the caregivers in pandemic management in palliative care;accordingly, more studies should be conducted on this issue.

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