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Public Health ; 203: 100-109, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559903


OBJECTIVES: Countries throughout the world are experiencing COVID-19 viral load in their populations, leading to potential transmission and infectivity of asymptomatic COVID-19 cases. The current systematic review and meta-analysis aims to investigate the role of asymptomatic infection and transmission reported in family clusters, adults, children and health care workers, globally. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: An online literature search of PubMed, Google Scholar, medRixv and BioRixv was performed using standard Boolean operators and included studies published up to 17 August 2021. For the systematic review, case reports, short communications and retrospective studies were included to ensure sufficient asymptomatic COVID-19 transmission data were reported. For the quantitative synthesis (meta-analysis), participant data from a collection of cohort studies focusing on groups of familial clusters, adults, children and health care workers were included. Inconsistency among studies was assessed using I2 statistics. The data synthesis was computed using the STATA 16.0 software. RESULTS: This study showed asymptomatic transmission among familial clusters, adults, children and health care workers of 15.72%, 29.48%, 24.09% and 0%, respectively. Overall, asymptomatic transmission was 24.51% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14.38, 36.02) among all studied population groups, with a heterogeneity of I2 = 95.30% (P < 0.001). No heterogeneity was seen in the population subgroups of children and health care workers. The risk of bias in all included studies was assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. CONCLUSIONS: For minimising the spread of COVID-19 within the community, this study found that following the screening of asymptomatic cases and their close contacts for chest CT scan (for symptomatic patients), even after negative nucleic acid testing, it is essential to perform a rigorous epidemiological history, early isolation, social distancing and an increased quarantine period (a minimum of 14-28 days). This systematic review and meta-analysis supports the notion of asymptomatic COVID-19 infection and person-to-person transmission and suggests that this is dependent on the varying viral incubation period among individuals. Children, especially those of school age (i.e. <18 years), need to be monitored carefully and follow mitigation strategies (e.g. social distancing, hand hygiene, wearing face masks) to prevent asymptomatic community transmission of COVID-19.

COVID-19 , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections , Child , Humans , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, Education and Research ; 54(3):137-138, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1000480


Good hand hygiene practices include cleaning of hands either by handwash or by hand rub. In healthcare settings, it is not easy to wash hands with soap after seeing each patient and is time-consuming as doctors are already working overtime. Hence, in hospital settings, it is also recommended to use alcohol-based hand sanitizers that can rapidly kill microorganisms, which spread various contagious diseases. Amidst the COVID-19 outbreak, the demand for essential commodities such as hand sanitizer, masks, etc., increased and hampered the hospital supplies. To address the shortage and limited supply of hand sanitizers to the various medical and paramedical departments of a tertiary hospital, the Department of Community Medicine and School of Public Health in coordination with the Pharmacology and Medical Microbiology Department prepared hands sanitizers following the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The paper discusses the procedure that was followed for the preparation of hand sanitizer to meet the institutional demand and motivate others in similar settings to address the issue of restricted supply during the COVID-19 pandemic.