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1.
Vaccines ; 10(12):2009, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2123919

ABSTRACT

Background: The current study aimed to identify the perceptions and issues regarding the affordability, availability, and accessibility of COVID-19 vaccination and determine the extent of vaccine hesitancy among non-vaccinated individuals. Methods: A Prospective cross-sectional study was conducted among 575 individuals for a period of six months. All the relevant information was collected using the peer-validated survey questionnaire. An independent t-test was applied to check the association between variables. Result: Among 575 participants, 80.8% were vaccinated, and 19.2% were non-vaccinated. Among the vaccinated, 35.1% were vaccinated in private centres and 64.9% in public health centres (PHC). In total, 32% had accessibility issues and 24.5% had availability issues. However, responders vaccinated at PHC were having more issues in comparison to other groups which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Among the 163 privately vaccinated participants, 69.9% found it completely affordable. Another 26.9% and 3.1% found vaccines partly affordable and a little unaffordable. Among the 110 non-vaccinated, 38.1% were found to be vaccine-hesitant. Conclusions: Individuals vaccinated at PHC experienced issues such as long waiting times, unavailability of doses, and registration. Further, a significant level of hesitancy towards COVID-19 vaccines was observed. The safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines contributed to negative attitudes.

3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 994206, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080297

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 vaccination of the healthcare workers (HCWs) is a key priority in the fight against the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. India launched its COVID-19 vaccination program in January 2021. We aimed to understand the trends in willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccines and its associated factors among HCWs in India. Methods: Using a repeated cross-sectional survey design, we collected information from HCWs in three critical time points: before (n = 937, October 2020), during (n = 1346, January 2021); and after (n = 812, May 2021) the introduction of COVID-19 vaccines in India. The third survey coincided with the peak of the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic in India. Findings: Of the study participants, 43.7, 60.2, and 73.2% were willing to receive COVID-19 vaccines during the first, second and third rounds of surveys, respectively. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, participants who trusted the health care system were more likely to report willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine; medical trust emerged as a significant factor in all the three rounds of surveys (First survey-aOR: 2.24, 95% CI: 1.67-2.99; Second survey-aOR: 3.38, 95% CI: 2.64-4.33; Third survey-aOR: 2.54, 95% CI: 1.65-3.91). Having confidence in domestic vaccines (Second survey-aOR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.61-3.02; Third survey-aOR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.24-3.37); and high perceived risk of contracting COVID-19 (Second survey-aOR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.13-1.93; Third survey-aOR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.31-3.13) were found to be associated with willingness to receive vaccines. Among socio-demographic characteristics, being married (aOR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.08-2.71) and having high socio-economic status (aOR: 3.01, 95% CI: 1.65-5.51) emerged as significant factors associated with willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccines in the third round of the surveys. Interpretation: Willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccine increased with time, as the severity of the pandemic increased. To increase COVID-19 acceptance and coverage among HCWs, it is important to instill confidence in domestic vaccines and assist in accurate assessment of risk toward contracting COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Health Personnel
5.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 17: 101113, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966421

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccine hesitancy is of considerable concern as it threatens the great potential of a vaccine against COVID-19. This study aims to determine factors associated with community health workers' willingness to participate in clinical trials of COVID-19 vaccine, and their vaccination intention, in India. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 377 community health workers using self-administered anonymous questionnaire during the lockdown periods in India. Participant's socio-demographics, willingness-to-participate in COVID-19 vaccine trials, intention to accept COVID-19 vaccine were recorded in a Likert scale. Data were analysed descriptively, and a multivariate logistic regression model was used to investigate factors associated with willingness to participate and accept the vaccine. Results: Among 377 CHWs, 70 (19%) intended to participate in COVID-19 vaccine trial, 151 (40%) responded positively regarding their intention to get vaccinated. Those with knowledge on development of COVID-19 vaccine [aOR 3.05 (95% CI: 1.18-7.88), p = 0.021], and men [aOR 3.69 (95% CI: 1.51-8.97), p = 0.004] were more willing to participate in clinical-trial, while an undergraduate degree, and trust in domestic vaccines were identified as deterrents for the same. Perceiving COVID-19 as risk [aOR 2.31 (95% CI: 1.24-4.31), p = 0.009], and male gender [aOR 2.39 (95% CI: 1.17-4.88), p = 0.017] were factors associated with intention to get vaccinated. Respondents who had knowledge about COVID-19 virus were less likely to uptake the hypothetical vaccine [aOR 0.32 (95% CI: 0.12-0.88), p = 0.027]. Conclusions: Increasing knowledge regarding COVID-19 is not enough to improve vaccine acceptance rates. Targeted interventions addressing socio-demographic determinants related to COVID-19 vaccination should help improve acceptance.

6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 870880, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963604

ABSTRACT

Background: Responding to the fast transmission rates and increasing fatality rates, countries across the world expedited the development and deployment of the vaccine for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Evaluation of individuals' willingness to pay (WTP) would provide pertinent information regarding future demand and financing preferences, which shall help to devise the effective payment strategy for COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: A nationwide, cross-sectional, and self-administered online survey using a structured questionnaire was conducted to identify the sociodemographic determinants of willingness and extent to pay for COVID-19 vaccine in India. A non-probability convenience sampling followed by snowball sampling was employed to recruit participants (n = 3,341). The likelihood of sociodemographic determinants to predict willingness and extent to pay was modeled using the multivariate binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Out of 3,371 participants, 68% (n = 2,271) were willingness to pay for COVID-19 vaccine. Results showed significantly higher odds for willingness to pay among participants who were single [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.394, p < 0.01] and having a family size of 4 members (aOR = 1.346, p < 0.01). The adjusted odds ratio sizably increased from 1.396 for participants whose monthly income was between INR 10,000 and 20,000/month to 2.240 for participants whose monthly income was above INR 50,000/month. Further, out of 2,271 of those participants who were willingness to pay for COVID-19 vaccine, majority (n = 1,246, 54.9%) of participants were willingness to pay below 50% of COVID-19 vaccine cost. This study found that those who are single (aOR = 0.688, p < 0.01), having an income between INR 20,000 and 50,000/month (aOR = 0.686, p < 0.05), and those who belonged to socially disadvantaged category (aOR = 0.450, p < 0.01) were estimated to have significantly lower odds of willingness to pay more than 50% of COVID-19 vaccine cost. Conclusion: This study observed that majority of those participants who willingness to pay for COVID-19 vaccine were willingness to pay only up to 50% of COVID-19 vaccine and income was observed as a precursor predictor of the willingness and extent to pay for COVID-19 vaccine. The understanding on the willingness and extent to pay for COVID-19 vaccine and its sociodemographic determinants will be helpful for making the strategic decisions related to the financing of COVID vaccine in India.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination
7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 806702, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952356

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite the success of adult vaccination against COVID-19, providing vaccines to children remains a challenge for policymakers globally. As parents are primary decision-makers for their children, we aimed to assess parents' perceptions and intentions regarding COVID-19 vaccination in India. Methods: A cross-sectional web-based study was designed, parents or caregivers (N = 770) were recruited through snowball sampling using Google form. Cross-tabulation was performed by parents' intention to vaccinate their children against COVID-19 virus with sociodemographic characteristics and their risk perception toward COVID-19, trust in the healthcare system, and their history of vaccine hesitancy behavior. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to compute the predictors of child vaccination intention among Indian parents. Results: Seven hundred and seventy parents across the country have completed the survey. Of the 770 participants, 258 (33.5%) have shown intent to vaccinate their children. The stated likelihood of child vaccination was greater among parents who had a bachelor's degree or higher education (aOR: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.15-3.51); as well as among parents who intended to vaccinate themselves (aOR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.30-4.67). Parental concerns centered around vaccine safety and side effects. Conclusion: Indian parents reported high knowledge of the COVID-19 virus and were aware of the development of a vaccine. However, about one-third of parents intended to vaccinate their children, and about half of them were not sure whether to vaccinate their children or not against the COVID-19 virus. The study highlighted the need for health promotion strategies that promote vaccine uptake among parents.

8.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1897914

ABSTRACT

Background Responding to the fast transmission rates and increasing fatality rates, countries across the world expedited the development and deployment of the vaccine for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Evaluation of individuals' willingness to pay (WTP) would provide pertinent information regarding future demand and financing preferences, which shall help to devise the effective payment strategy for COVID-19 vaccination. Methods A nationwide, cross-sectional, and self-administered online survey using a structured questionnaire was conducted to identify the sociodemographic determinants of willingness and extent to pay for COVID-19 vaccine in India. A non-probability convenience sampling followed by snowball sampling was employed to recruit participants (n = 3,341). The likelihood of sociodemographic determinants to predict willingness and extent to pay was modeled using the multivariate binary logistic regression analysis. Results Out of 3,371 participants, 68% (n = 2,271) were willingness to pay for COVID-19 vaccine. Results showed significantly higher odds for willingness to pay among participants who were single [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.394, p < 0.01] and having a family size of 4 members (aOR = 1.346, p < 0.01). The adjusted odds ratio sizably increased from 1.396 for participants whose monthly income was between INR 10,000 and 20,000/month to 2.240 for participants whose monthly income was above INR 50,000/month. Further, out of 2,271 of those participants who were willingness to pay for COVID-19 vaccine, majority (n = 1,246, 54.9%) of participants were willingness to pay below 50% of COVID-19 vaccine cost. This study found that those who are single (aOR = 0.688, p < 0.01), having an income between INR 20,000 and 50,000/month (aOR = 0.686, p < 0.05), and those who belonged to socially disadvantaged category (aOR = 0.450, p < 0.01) were estimated to have significantly lower odds of willingness to pay more than 50% of COVID-19 vaccine cost. Conclusion This study observed that majority of those participants who willingness to pay for COVID-19 vaccine were willingness to pay only up to 50% of COVID-19 vaccine and income was observed as a precursor predictor of the willingness and extent to pay for COVID-19 vaccine. The understanding on the willingness and extent to pay for COVID-19 vaccine and its sociodemographic determinants will be helpful for making the strategic decisions related to the financing of COVID vaccine in India.

9.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(1): 305-311, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726371

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical features of patients attending the screening clinic of a dedicated COVID-19 hospital (DCH), including COVID-19 RT-PCR test positivity rate, symptom predictors for COVID-19 positivity, the proportion of recovery, and the mortality among COVID-19 positive cases. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of the patients who reported in the screening clinic of a DCH. Data were retrieved from medical records. Step-wise binary logistic regression was applied to determine the symptom predictors for determining the likelihood of the suspects turning out to be COVID-19 positive. Results: A total of 573 patients reported to the screening clinic were enrolled, and their median age was 36 ± 14 years. Of the total patients, 237 (41%) were females and 112 (20%) patients were COVID-19 suspects. Fifty (45%) suspects tested COVID-19 positive. The majority of the positives had complaints of cough, fever, and sore throat. Running nose (OR = 7.951) and history of contact with a COVID-19-positive case (OR = 169.9) were found to be statistically significant symptom predictors for COVID-19 positivity. All patients recovered with nil case fatality. Conclusion: Running nose and history of contact with COVID-positive patients were significant predictors for COVID-19 positivity. In this pandemic state, patients who present with any of the upper respiratory infection (URI) symptoms such as cough, sore throat, running nose, headache, and loss of taste/smell should be tested for COVID-19 for early identification and isolation to break the chain of transmission. The public should be encouraged to undergo COVID-19 testing if they develop any of the URI symptoms.

10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 735902, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605548

ABSTRACT

Background: Students act as messengers in delivering effective messages for better uptake of health-promoting behavior. Understanding their knowledge about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), intentions to use the COVID-19 vaccine, and its associated factors will help develop promising strategies in vaccine promotion concerning the current COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was carried out among students in the healthcare and non-healthcare sectors to assess their intentions to get vaccinated against the COVID-19. A non-probability snowball sampling technique was used to recruit study participants (N = 655) through social media platforms and emails. Study participants were recruited across the country, including six major geographical regions (Eastern, Western, Northern, Southern, North-east, and Central) in India between November 2020 and January 2021 before the introduction of the COVID-19 vaccine. Descriptive statistics were used to present the sociodemographic, and vaccine-related behaviors of the study participants. Key determinants that likely predict vaccine acceptance among students were modeled using logistic regression analysis. For each analysis, p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 655 students were recruited, 323 from healthcare and 332 from non-healthcare sectors, to assess their intentions to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Of the 655 students, 63.8% expressed intentions to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. The acceptance was higher among non-healthcare students (54.07 vs. 45.93%). At the time of the study, 27.8% of the students indicated that they had been exposed to a confirmed COVID-19 patient. A vast majority (93.4%) of the students knew about the COVID-19 virus, and most (89.3%) of them were aware of the development of a COVID-19 vaccine. The history of vaccine hesitancy was found to be low (17.1%). Only one-third (33.4%) of the students showed concern about contracting COVID-19. Trust in the healthcare system [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 4.13; (95% CI: 2.83-6.04), p < 0.00] and trust in domestic vaccines [aOR: 1.46; (95% CI: 1.02-2.08), p < 0.05] emerged as the significant predictors of student's intention to get vaccinated. Higher acceptance for vaccine was observed among students in the non-healthcare [aOR: 1.982; 95% CI: 1.334-2.946, p < 0.00]. Conclusion: This study shows that the Indian college students had relatively high levels of positive intentions to receive COVID-19 vaccines, although about one-third were not sure or unwilling to receive the vaccine, highlighting possible vaccine hesitancy. Informational campaigns and other strategies to address vaccine hesitancy are needed to promote uptake of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intention , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Vaccination
11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 715982, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399195

ABSTRACT

Background: Adherence to novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) appropriate behavior plays a crucial element in the management of the infections of COVID-19. Despite the importance of transmission-reducing behaviors among healthcare professionals, there is a lack of literature in this area of research explicitly relating to respiratory therapists (RTs). Therefore, it is essential to assess the adherence level to COVID-19 transmission-reducing behaviors among the RTs in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A web-based online survey was conducted using questions based on the risk assessment guidelines of WHO. A random representative sample of RTs (N = 215) residing in Saudi Arabia was recruited for the study. Descriptive and inferential statistics were computed using STATA software. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify key factors that are associated with adherence to COVID-19 appropriate behavior among the study participants. Results: Of the 215 participants, 59.5% were aged between 26 and 35 years, and 40.9% were women. Most (85.5%) participants had a bachelor's degree while 12.0% had a master's degree. About 56.2% of RTs provided direct care to a confirmed patient of COVID-19 during the study periods. The study showed 80.9% of RTs in Saudi Arabia adhered to personal protective equipment (PPE) at the workplace and 65.0% at home. Moreover, the findings of the study indicated that senior RTs (with >5 years of experience) demonstrated a higher adherence level to the guidelines than RTs with <5 years of experience. High-risk perception [aOR:2.32; 95% CI: 1.09-3.27], and work history of <5 years [aOR:2.00; 95% CI: 1.14-3.15], were found to be the strongest predictors in explaining the adherence to appropriate behavior among the RTs at the workplace. Whereas the high-risk perception [aOR:2.32; 95% CI: 1.09-3.27] and being married [aOR:1.85; 95% CI: 1.08-3.82] were found to be the strongest predictors at home. Conclusion: Adherence ("Always" or "Most times") to COVID-19 appropriate behavior was found to be high at hospital settings among the study participants. However, the same practice was found to be inconsistence in non-healthcare settings among the RTs. Considering the paramount role of COVID-19 appropriate behavior in reducing the transmissions the policy focus, therefore, needs to be on creating a well-spread behavior change communication that is curtailing the adoption of appropriate behavior in the non-healthcare settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 698106, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305704

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is considered a major global public health threat affecting across the life course and socioeconomic aspects of life. Global acceptance to an effective vaccine is the most anticipated resolution. This study aims to evaluate intent to be vaccinated among public in Saudi Arabia during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional web-based study was designed in Saudi Arabia. Study participants (N = 658) were recruited through snowball sampling. The SurveyMonkey platform was used to record the response. Cross-tabulation was performed by participants' intention to vaccinate against COVID-19 virus with sociodemographic characteristics and respondents' risk perception toward COVID-19, trust in the healthcare system, and their history of vaccine hesitancy behavior. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to compute the predictors of vaccination intention among the study participants. Results: Six hundred fifty-eight participants completed the survey (females = 47.4%). Of the 658 participants, 351 (53.3%) have shown intent to be vaccinated. Five hundred nineteen (78.8%) of the participants were reported to be at high risk of COVID-19, and 307 (46.6%) were reported to trust the healthcare system in the country. The multivariable analysis shows respondents with a high-risk perception (OR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.49-3.48); higher trust in the healthcare system (OR: 3.24, 95% CI: 2.32-4.61) was found to be the significant factor affecting the decision in acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion: Participants reported high knowledge toward COVID-19 virus, and vaccine developments. About half (46.6%) of the study participants reported refusal/hesitancy toward the vaccine during the second wave of the pandemic in Saudi Arabia. The study highlighted that higher risk perception and higher trust in the healthcare system were found to be the main reasons for participants' intentions behind the vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Demography , Female , Humans , Internet , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
13.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 13: 1657-1663, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954995

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine hesitancy is a potential threat to global public health. Since there is an unprecedented global effort to develop a vaccine against the COVID-19 pandemic, much less is known about its acceptance in the community. Understanding key determinants that influence the preferences and demands of a future vaccine by the community may help to develop strategies for improving the global vaccination program. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine and their determinants among people in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A web-based, cross-sectional study was conducted using snowball sampling strategy under a highly restricted environment. A bilingual, self-administered anonymous questionnaire was designed and sent to the study participants through social media plat-forms and email. Study participants were recruited across the country, including the four major cities (Riyadh, Dammam, Jeddah, and Abha) in Saudi Arabia. Key determinants that predict vaccine acceptance among respondents were modelled using logistic regression analysis. Of the 1000 survey invitees, 992 responded to the survey. RESULTS: Of the 992 respondents, 642 showed interest to accept the COVID-19 vaccine if it is available. Willingness to accept the future COVID-19 vaccine is relatively high among older age groups, being married participants with education level postgraduate degree or higher (68.8%), non-Saudi (69.1%), employed in government sector (68.9%). In multivariate model, respondents who were above 45 years (aOR: 2.15; 95% CI: 1.08-3.21) and married (aOR: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.28-2.50) were significantly associated with vaccine acceptance (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Addressing sociodemographic determinants relating to the COVID-19 vaccination may help to increase uptake of the global vaccination program to tackle future pandemics. Targeted health education interventions are needed to increase the uptake of the future COVID-19 vaccine.

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