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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8840, 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35614310

ABSTRACT

Aim of the study was to assess: (a) the prevalence and type of strabismus, ptosis and eyelid dynamic disorders features, (b) the prevalence of refractive errors, amblyopia and, (c) their association with ocular/systemic syndromes in a cohort of patients. This is a retrospective observational multicenter cohort study. Patients with coexisting ocular motility disorders, comitant and incomitant strabismus, ptosis and dynamic eyelid disorders who have never undergone surgery were enrolled throughout a 3-years a study period. 137 out of 19,089 patients were enrolled, of which 97 with uniocular and 40 with binocular disease. Isolated congenital ptosis was observed in 84 patients. A polymalformative syndrome was present in almost one third of cases, whilst among strabismus type, esotropia was slightly more prevalent. Most patients were hypermetropic. In monocular disease, myopia mainly affected older patients, who were characterized by a worse ptosis margin reflex distance and levator function, and significantly higher astigmatism. Amblyopia occurred in 67.4% of the study sub-population. Of note, in monocular disease this was mild in 25.8%, moderate in 24.2% and severe in 11.3% of cases, whilst in binocular disease it was mild in 25%, moderate in 41.7% and severe in 16.7%. All patients with coexisting eyelid and ocular motility dysfunctions in pediatric age need ophthalmologic and systemic evaluation to accurately assess amblyopia, refractive errors and systemic/ocular disorders.


Subject(s)
Amblyopia , Blepharoptosis , Refractive Errors , Strabismus , Amblyopia/epidemiology , Blepharoptosis/congenital , Child , Cohort Studies , Eyelids , Humans , Refractive Errors/complications , Refractive Errors/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Strabismus/epidemiology , Strabismus/surgery , Syndrome
2.
J Scleroderma Relat Disord ; 6(3): 256-263, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35387218

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Cardiac autonomic neuropathy is among the known cardiovascular complications of systemic sclerosis and may affect the whole prognosis of the disease. The aim of our study was to assess cardiac autonomic neuropathy prevalence in our cohort of systemic sclerosis patients and compare its main features with clinical and epidemiological data, particularly with the severity of microvascular damage, as detected by nailfold videocapillaroscopy. Methods: Twenty-six patients with definite systemic sclerosis were consecutively enrolled at our outpatient rheumatology clinic. All patients underwent physical examination, nailfold videocapillaroscopy, and autonomic neuropathy diagnostic tests (orthostatic hypotension test, deep breathing test, lying-to-standing, and Valsalva maneuvers). Results: Cardiac autonomic neuropathy prevalence was 50% (13 cases). On univariate analysis, cardiac autonomic neuropathy was shown to be significantly associated with an active pattern on nailfold videocapillaroscopy (odds ratio 5.86, 95% confidence interval 1.59-9.24; p = 0.032), whereas anti-Scl-70 positivity (odds ratio, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.03-2.12; p = 0.049) and C-reactive protein (odds ratio, 19.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.79-56.71; p = 0.036) reached only a borderline statistical association. The time-dependent Cox multivariate regression model showed cardiac autonomic neuropathy development to be independently associated with an active pattern on nailfold videocapillaroscopy (odds ratio, 7.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.87-8.96; p = 0.042) and anti-Scl-70 positivity (odds ratio, 5.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-18.43; p = 0.048). Conclusions: Severe microvascular damage, as detected by nailfold videocapillaroscopy, may suggest the coexistence of autonomic dysfunction and should be considered as a red flag for the identification of patients particularly at risk of cardiac morbidity and mortality.

3.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 23(3): 106, 2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35345273

ABSTRACT

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is associated with an elevated incidence of cardiovascular and renal diseases, responsible for mortality rates significantly higher than in the general population. The management of both cardiovascular risk and progression of kidney disease thus seem crucial in the treatment of the diabetic patient. The availability of new classes of drugs which positively affect both cardiovascular and renal risk, regardless of the glycemic control, represents a revolution in the treatment of T2DM and shifts the attention from the intensive glycemic control to a holistic management of the diabetic patient. Among these, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) have been associated with a remarkable reduction of cardiovascular and renal mortality, lower hospitalization rates for heart failure and lower progression of renal damage and albuminuria. Thus, their use in selected subpopulations seems mandatory. Aim of this review was the assessment of the current evidence on SGLT2i and their related impact on the cardiovascular and renal profiles.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Heart Failure , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Female , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Male , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects
4.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 809186, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35187074

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous studies have demonstrated persistent dyspnoea and impairment of respiratory function in the follow-up of patients who have recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia. However, no studies have evaluated the clinical and functional consequences of COVID-19 pneumonia complicated by pulmonary embolism. Objective: The aim of our study was to assess the pulmonary function and exercise capacity in COVID-19 patients 3 months after recovery from pneumonia, either complicated or not by pulmonary embolism. Methods: This was a retrospective, single-centre, observational study involving 68 adult COVID-19 patients with a positive/negative clinical history of pulmonary embolism (PE) as a complication of COVID-19 pneumonia. Three months after recovery all patients underwent spirometry, diffusion capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and 6 minute walk test (6MWT). In addition, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lung was carried out and CT-pulmonary angiography was conducted only in the PE+ subgroup. Patients with a previous diagnosis of PE or chronic lung diseases were excluded from the study. Results: Of the 68 patients included in the study, 24 had previous PE (PE+) and 44 did not (PE-). In comparison with the PE- subgroup, PE+ patients displayed a FVC% predicted significantly lower (87.71 ± 15.40 vs 98.7 ± 16.7, p = 0.009) and a significantly lower DLCO% predicted (p = 0.023). In addition, a higher percentage of patients were dyspnoeic on exercise, as documented by a mMRC score ≥1 (75% vs 54.3%, p < 0.001) and displayed a SpO2 <90% during 6MWT (37.5% vs 0%, p < 0.001). HRCT features suggestive of COVID-19 pneumonia resolution phase were present in both PE+ and PE- subjects without any significant difference (p = 0.24) and abnormalities at CT pulmonary angiography were detected in 57% of the PE+ subgroup. Conclusion: At the 3 month follow-up, the patients who recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia complicated by PE showed more dyspnoea and higher impairment of pulmonary function tests compared with those without PE.

5.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 15: 17534666211042533, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565246

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to assess the effect of a short-term treatment with low-moderate corticosteroid (CS) doses by both a quantitative and qualitative assessment of chest HRCT of COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: CORTICOVID is a single-center, cross-sectional, retrospective study involving severe/critical COVID-19 patients with mild/moderate ARDS. Lung total severity score was obtained according to Chung and colleagues. Moreover, the relative percentages of lung total severity score by ground glass opacities, consolidations, crazy paving, and linear bands were computed. Chest HRCT scores, P/F ratio, and laboratory parameters were evaluated before (pre-CS) and 7-10 days after (post-CS) methylprednisolone of 0.5-0.8 mg/kg/day. FINDINGS: A total of 34 severe/critical COVID-19 patients were included in the study, of which 17 received Standard of Care (SoC) and 17 CS therapy in add-on. CS treatment disclosed a significant decrease in HRCT total severity score [median = 6 (IQR: 5-7.5) versus 10 (IQR: 9-13) in SoC, p < 0.001], as well in single consolidations [median = 0.33 (IQR: 0-0.92) versus 6.73 (IQR: 2.49-8.03) in SoC, p < 0.001] and crazy paving scores [mean = 0.19 (SD = 0.53) versus 1.79 (SD = 2.71) in SoC, p = 0.010], along with a significant increase in linear bands [mean = 2.56 (SD = 1.65) versus 0.97 (SD = 1.30) in SoC, p = 0.006]. GGO score instead did not significantly differ at the end of treatment between the two groups. Most post-CS GGO, however, derived from previous consolidations and crazy paving [median = 1.5 (0.35-3.81) versus 2 (1.25-3.8) pre-CS; p = 0.579], while pre-CS GGO significantly decreased after methylprednisolone therapy [median = 0.66 (0.05-1.33) versus 1.5 (0.35-3.81) pre-CS; p = 0.004]. CS therapy further determined a significant improvement in P/F levels [median P/F = 310 (IQR: 235.5-370) versus 136 (IQR: 98.5-211.75) in SoC; p < 0.001], and a significant increase in white blood cells, lymphocytes, and neutrophils absolute values. CONCLUSION: The improvement of all chest HRCT findings further supports the role of CS adjunctive therapy in severe/critical COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
6.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256903, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520465

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During COVID-19 pandemic, the use of several drugs has represented the worldwide clinical practice. However, though the current increase of knowledge about the disease, there is still no effective treatment for the usage of drugs. Thus, we retrospectively assessed use and effects of therapeutic regimens in hospitalized patients on in-hospital mortality. METHODS: COVOCA is a retrospective observational cohort study on 18 COVID centres throughout Campania Region Hospitals. We included adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, discharged/dead between March/June 2020. RESULTS: 618 patients were included, with an overall in-hospital cumulative mortality incidence of 23.1%. Most prescribed early treatments were antivirals (72%), antibiotics (65%) and hydroxychloroquine/anticoagulants (≈50%). Tocilizumab, indeed, was largely prescribed late during hospitalization. Multivariable models, with a cut-off at day 2 for early COVID-19 therapy administration, did not disclose any significant association of a single drug administration on the clinical outcome. DISCUSSION: COVOCA represents the first multicenter database in Campania region. None drug class used during the pandemic significantly modified the outcome, regardless of therapy beginning, both overall and net of those already in non-invasive ventilation (NIV)/ orotracheal intubation (OTI) at hospitalization. Our cumulative incidence of mortality seems lower than other described during the same period, particularly in Northern Italy.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiratory Therapy , Retrospective Studies
7.
Eur J Intern Med ; 94: 27-33, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474958

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Very limited data are available on the long-term outcome of infective endocarditis (IE) and its determinants. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of long-term mortality in patients affected by left sided IE (LSIE). METHODS: This was an historical retrospective observational study on prospectively collected data from patients with LSIE hospitalized in our Unit (January 2000-December 2017). Multiple variables relevant to history, physical examination, laboratory tests, echocardiography, comorbidities, complications and outcome were analysed by Cox regression to identify predictors of long-term mortality. RESULTS: 414 patients were included, and followed up for a median of 39 months [IQR 11-74]. Median age was 59 years [range 3-89], and most patients were male. Over 50% showed at least one comorbidity. Hyperglycaemia, increased creatinine and an indication for surgery predicted in-hospital mortality, while a prior myocardial infarction, chronic kidney disease (CKD) on hemodialysis and a larger vegetation were independent predictors of 1-year mortality. At multivariate analysis, peripheral arterial disease (p= 0.017), hyperglycemia on admission (p=0.013) and a higher BMI (p=0.009) were independent predictors of long-term mortality in 1-year survivors. At multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression, peripheral arterial disease (p=0.002), hyperglycemia (p=0.041) and CKD on hemodialysis (p=0.025) confirmed to be independently associated with an increased risk of long-term mortality in the overall 414 patient cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular and metabolic risk signals, specifically peripheral arterial disease and hyperglicemia, affect long-term mortality of LSIE. An active and long-term follow up seems warranted in IE survivors showing these conditions at outset.


Subject(s)
Endocarditis, Bacterial , Endocarditis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 695792, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34277669

ABSTRACT

Individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) disclose a higher incidence and a poorer prognosis of heart failure (HF) than non-diabetic people, even in the absence of other HF risk factors. The adverse impact of diabetes on HF likely reflects an underlying "diabetic cardiomyopathy" (DM-CMP), which may by exacerbated by left ventricular hypertrophy and coronary artery disease (CAD). The pathogenesis of DM-CMP has been a hot topic of research since its first description and is still under active investigation, as a complex interplay among multiple mechanisms may play a role at systemic, myocardial, and cellular/molecular levels. Among these, metabolic abnormalities such as lipotoxicity and glucotoxicity, mitochondrial damage and dysfunction, oxidative stress, abnormal calcium signaling, inflammation, epigenetic factors, and others. These disturbances predispose the diabetic heart to extracellular remodeling and hypertrophy, thus leading to left ventricular diastolic and systolic dysfunction. This Review aims to outline the major pathophysiological changes and the underlying mechanisms leading to myocardial remodeling and cardiac functional derangement in DM-CMP.

10.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 178: 108959, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280467

ABSTRACT

A hyperglycemic state, also in non-diabetic subjects, may be associated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Aim of this review is to describe the pathophysiologic association between ACS and hyperglycemic state, the protective mechanisms of a tight glycaemic control in ACS on CV outcomes, and the supporting clinical evidence. Several mechanisms may be responsible of a poor CV outcome in subjects with hyperglycemia during ACS. Endothelial NAPDH oxidase-2 (NOX2) activation in response to high glucose alters the balance between Raf/MAPK-dependent vasoconstriction and PI3K/Akt-dependent vasodilation in favour of constriction. Hyperglycaemia induces an overproduction of superoxide by the mitochondrial electron transport chain through different molecular mechanisms. Moreover, hyperglycaemia increases the size of the infarct by causing myocardial cell death through apoptosis and reducing the collateral blood flow. High FFA concentrations lead to toxicity mechanisms in acutely ischemic myocardium. On the other hand, a tight glycaemic control in ACS exerts a cardioprotective action by anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms, anti-oxidative stress, endothelium protection, FFA reduction, anti-glucotoxic effect, IR and cardiac fuel metabolisms improvement, heart stem cells protection and reduced activation of adrenergic system. Unfortunately, the clinical studies supporting the above pathophysiological background are few and sometimes controversial, more likely due the risk of hypoglycemia linked to the insulin therapy generally used during ACS. Intriguingly, GLP-1 RA and SGLT2i, demonstrated highly effective in the cardiovascular prevention in high-risk subjects without the risk of hypoglycemia, might keep this cardioprotective effect even in acute conditions such as ASC.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Hyperglycemia , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Glycemic Control , Humans , Insulin , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
11.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 145, 2021 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271948

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple modifiable risk factors for late complications in patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD), including hyperglycemia, hypertension and dyslipidemia, increase the risk of a poor outcome. DKD is associated with a very high cardiovascular risk, which requires simultaneous treatment of these risk factors by implementing an intensified multifactorial treatment approach. However, the efficacy of a multifactorial intervention on major fatal/non-fatal cardiovascular events (MACEs) in DKD patients has been poorly investigated. METHODS: Nephropathy in Diabetes type 2 (NID-2) study is a multicentre, cluster-randomized, open-label clinical trial enrolling 395 DKD patients with albuminuria, diabetic retinopathy (DR) and negative history of CV events in 14 Italian diabetology clinics. Centres were randomly assigned to either Standard-of-Care (SoC) (n = 188) or multifactorial intensive therapy (MT, n = 207) of main cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure < 130/80 mmHg, glycated haemoglobin < 7%, LDL, HDL and total cholesterol < 100 mg/dL, > 40/50 mg/dL for men/women and < 175 mg/dL, respectively). Primary endpoint was MACEs occurrence by end of follow-up phase. Secondary endpoints included single components of primary endpoint and all-cause death. RESULTS: At the end of intervention period (median 3.84 and 3.40 years in MT and SoC group, respectively), targets achievement was significantly higher in MT. During 13.0 years (IQR 12.4-13.3) of follow-up, 262 MACEs were recorded (116 in MT vs. 146 in SoC). The adjusted Cox shared-frailty model demonstrated 53% lower risk of MACEs in MT arm (adjusted HR 0.47, 95%CI 0.30-0.74, P = 0.001). Similarly, all-cause death risk was 47% lower (adjusted HR 0.53, 95%CI 0.29-0.93, P = 0.027). CONCLUSION: MT induces a remarkable benefit on the risk of MACEs and mortality in high-risk DKD patients. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00535925. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00535925.


Subject(s)
Albuminuria/therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Diabetic Nephropathies/therapy , Diabetic Retinopathy/therapy , Healthy Lifestyle , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Hypolipidemic Agents/therapeutic use , Risk Reduction Behavior , Aged , Albuminuria/diagnosis , Albuminuria/mortality , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Diabetic Nephropathies/diagnosis , Diabetic Nephropathies/mortality , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnosis , Diabetic Retinopathy/mortality , Diet, Sodium-Restricted , Exercise , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Hypolipidemic Agents/adverse effects , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070765

ABSTRACT

Heart failure (HF) affects up to over 20% of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), even more in the elderly. Although, in T2DM, both hyperglycemia and the proinflammatory status induced by insulin resistance are crucial in cardiac function impairment, SGLT2i cardioprotective mechanisms against HF are several. In particular, these beneficial effects seem attributable to the significant reduction of intracellular sodium levels, well-known to exert a cardioprotective role in the prevention of oxidative stress and consequent cardiomyocyte death. From a molecular perspective, patients' exposure to gliflozins' treatment mimics nutrient and oxygen deprivation, with consequent autophagy stimulation. This allows to maintain the cellular homeostasis through different degradative pathways. Thus, since their introduction in the clinical practice, the hypotheses on SGLT2i mechanisms of action have changed: from simple glycosuric drugs, with consequent glucose lowering, erythropoiesis enhancing and ketogenesis stimulating, to intracellular sodium-lowering molecules. This provides their consequent cardioprotective effect, which justifies its significant reduction in CV events, especially in populations at higher risk. Finally, the updated clinical evidence of SGLT2i benefits on HF was summarized. Thus, this review aimed to analyze the cardioprotective mechanisms of sodium glucose transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) in patients with HF, as well as their clinical impact on cardiovascular events.


Subject(s)
Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Insulin Resistance/genetics , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2/genetics , Aged , Autophagy/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Erythropoiesis/drug effects , Erythropoiesis/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Heart Failure/genetics , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Failure/pathology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Sodium/metabolism , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2/metabolism , Survival Analysis
13.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(8): 2345-2353, 2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Beyond type 2 diabetes, even a condition of prediabetes is associated with an increased cardiovascular (CV) risk, and HCV infection coexistence represents an exacerbating factor. CV prognosis improvement in prediabetes represents a challenge, due to the increasing prevalence of this metabolic condition worldwide. Hence, we aimed to prospectively assess how direct acting antivirals (DAAs) could affect major cardiovascular events (MACE) in a prediabetic HCV positive cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this prospective multicenter study, we enrolled HCV patients with overt prediabetes. We compared a subgroup of patients treated with DAAs with untreated prediabetic controls. We recorded all CV events occurred during an overall median follow-up of 24 months (IQR 19-34). 770 HCV positive prediabetic patients were enrolled, 398 untreated controls and 372 DAAs treated patients. Overall, the CV events annual incidence was much higher among prediabetic treated patients (1.77 vs. 0.62, p < 0.001), and HCV clearance demonstrated to significantly reduce CV events (RR: 0.411, 95%CI 0.148-1.143; p < 0.001), with an estimated NNT for one additional patient to benefit of 52.1. Moreover, an independent association between a lower rate of CV events and HCV clearance after DAAs was observed (OR 4.67; 95%CI 0.44-53.95; p = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: HCV eradication by DAAs allows a significant reduction of MACEs in the prediabetic population, and therefore represents a primary objective, regardless of the severity of liver disease and CV risk factors.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Prediabetic State/epidemiology , Aged , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Female , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prediabetic State/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Protective Factors , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
14.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 176: 108856, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965449

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Peripheral neuropathy (PN) affects two-thirds of type 2 diabetes patients (T2DM). According to diabetic PN length-dependent pattern, neurophysiological evaluation of foot-sole nerves might increase NCS diagnostic sensitivity, hence allowing early diagnosis of PN. Thus, we aim to assess the ability of whole plantar nerve (WPN) conduction in diabetic PN early diagnosis. METHODS: This is a single center prospective observational cohort study on 70 T2DM patients referred to Internal Medicine Unit of A.O.U. "Luigi Vanvitelli" between October 2019/October 2020. Primary endpoint was WPN efficacy assessment in PN early detection. As secondary, we evaluated (i) a potential cut-off of SNAPs amplitude by WPN and (ii) WPN diagnostic accuracy vs. gold-standard distal sural nerve conduction. RESULTS: ROC curve analysis allowed to establish two potential cut-offs for people aged ≤60 years (AUROC: 0.83, 95%CI: 0.69-0.96, p < 0.001) and ≤60 years (AUROC: 0.76, 95%CI: 0.59-0.93, p = 0.017). In depth, we fixed a cut-off of WPN-SNAP amplitude of 4.55 µV and 2.65 µV, respectively, with subsequent 48 patients classified as PN-T2DM. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support WPN conduction study reliability in characterizing the most distal sensory nerve fibers at lower limbs. Thus, WPN may represent an extremely useful diagnostic tool for diabetic PN early detection.


Subject(s)
Diabetic Neuropathies/diagnosis , Foot/innervation , Neural Conduction/physiology , Sural Nerve/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diabetic Neuropathies/physiopathology , Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine , Early Diagnosis , Electromyography , Female , Foot/physiopathology , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neurologic Examination/methods , Peripheral Nerves/physiopathology , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Skin Temperature
15.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 7(10): 1264-1273, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933405

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to retrospectively assess long-term outcome and the prognostic role of electrophysiological study (EPS) for risk stratification of drug-induced type 1 Brugada syndrome (BrS) patients. BACKGROUND: BrS is a hereditary cardiac disease, predisposing to sudden cardiac death. Few real-world data are available on long-term outcomes of drug-induced type 1 BrS patients, and questions about risk stratification still remain unanswered. METHODS: The IBRYD (Italian Brugada Syndrome) study is a multicenter observational retrospective study. A total of 226 drug-induced type 1 BrS patients were enrolled from 9 Italian tertiary referral institutions. Primary endpoint was a composite of appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy and sudden cardiac death. The authors further assessed clinical predictors to ICD implantation, as well as for arrhythmia induction at EPS, along with EPS as potential risk factor for the outcomes of interest. RESULTS: 142 patients (62.8%) received an ICD due to syncope and/or inducible ventricular tachyarrhythmias at EPS. During a median follow-up of 106 months, 11 patients (4.9%) experienced primary outcome events. The ICD therapy median annual incidence over 8 years was 0.38% (interquartile range: 0% to 1.47%). Ventricular tachyarrhythmia inducibility during EPS was not predictive of arrhythmic events in ICD recipients versus non-ICD patients and in symptomatic versus asymptomatic subgroups, showing a low positive predictive value (9.6% and 8.9%, respectively) versus a high negative predictive value (96.6% and 95%, respectively). The authors reported 29 ICD-related complications and 4.9% inappropriate shocks. CONCLUSIONS: Drug-induced type 1 BrS patients have a very low arrhythmic risk. Clinical decision for implantation is supported by syncope and/or EPS positivity, though they fail to stratify high-risk patients. A better risk-to-benefit ratio should be pursued, considering both arrhythmic risk and ICD-related complications.


Subject(s)
Brugada Syndrome , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Brugada Syndrome/chemically induced , Brugada Syndrome/epidemiology , Electrocardiography , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
17.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(2)2021 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673215

ABSTRACT

The clinical significance of albuminuria in diabetic subjects and the impact of its reduction on the main cardiorenal outcomes by different drug classes are among the most interesting research focuses of recent years. Although nephrologists and cardiologists have been paying attention to the study of proteinuria for years, currently among diabetics, increased urine albumin excretion ascertains the highest cardio-renal risk. In fact, diabetes is a condition by itself associated with a high-risk of both micro/macrovascular complications. Moreover, proteinuria reduction in diabetic subjects by several treatments lowers both renal and cardiovascular disease progression. The 2019 joint ESC-EASD guidelines on diabetes, prediabetes and cardiovascular (CV) disease assign to proteinuria a crucial role in defining CV risk level in the diabetic patient. In fact, proteinuria by itself allows the diabetic patient to be staged at very high CV risk, thus affecting the choice of anti-hyperglycemic drug class. The purpose of this review is to present a clear update on the role of albuminuria as a cardio-renal risk marker, starting from pathophysiological mechanisms in support of this role. Besides this, we will show the prognostic value in observational studies, as well as randomized clinical trials (RCTs) demonstrating the potential improvement of cardio-renal outcomes in diabetic patients by reducing proteinuria.

18.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 631148, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33585520

ABSTRACT

Most recent studies have stressed a high risk of thromboembolism in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, particularly in those with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Counterbalance between angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 activities in COVID-19 disease may be crucially involved in the thrombo-inflammatory process. Currently, no study has investigated ACE I/D polymorphism involvement in COVID-19 disease complicated by pulmonary embolism, hence the aim of the present pilot study. This is a retrospective, single-center observational case-control study, conducted at the Sub-Intensive Care Unit of A.O.R.N. Ospedali dei Colli, Cotugno Hospital, Naples (Italy). We included 68 subjects with severe/critical COVID-19 pneumonia. COVID-19 patients were divided according to occurrence of PE (PE+, n = 25) or absence of thromboembolic complications (PE-, n = 43). Assessment of ACE I/D polymorphisms showed a statistically significant difference between PE+ and PE- patients (p = 0.029). Particularly, prevalence of D/D homozygous polymorphism was significantly higher in PE+ COVID-19 patients than in PE- (72 vs. 46.5%; p = 0.048), while heterozygote I/D polymorphism was significantly lower expressed in PE+ patients than in PE- (16 vs. 48.8%; p = 0.009). Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography showed predominantly mono/bilateral sub-segmental embolisms. In conclusion, our findings let us hypothesize a genetic susceptibility to thromboembolism in COVID-19 disease. ACE D/D polymorphism might represent a genetic risk factor, although studies on larger populations are needed.

19.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(2)2021 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578702

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic syndrome (MS) are two different entities sharing common clinical and physio-pathological features, with insulin resistance (IR) as the most relevant. Large evidence leads to consider it as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, regardless of age, sex, smoking habit, cholesterolemia, and other elements of MS. Therapeutic strategies remain still unclear, but lifestyle modifications (diet, physical exercise, and weight loss) determine an improvement in IR, MS, and both clinical and histologic liver picture. NAFLD and IR are bidirectionally correlated and, consequently, the development of pre-diabetes and diabetes is the most direct consequence at the extrahepatic level. In turn, type 2 diabetes is a well-known risk factor for multiorgan damage, including an involvement of cardiovascular system, kidney and peripheral nervous system. The increased MS incidence worldwide, above all due to changes in diet and lifestyle, is associated with an equally significant increase in NAFLD, with a subsequent rise in both morbidity and mortality due to both metabolic, hepatic and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the slowdown in the increase of the "bad company" constituted by MS and NAFLD, with all the consequent direct and indirect costs, represents one of the main challenges for the National Health Systems.

20.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 15(6): 643-656, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445990

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes a systemic infection inducing hepatic and extrahepatic diseases. These latter involve cardiovascular system, kidney, brain, endocrine, glucose, and lipid metabolism, and the immune system. HCV infection is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality for both hepatic and extrahepatic events. Direct-acting antivirals (DAA), introduced in the most recent years for HCV treatment, are effective in up to 99% of cases and have changed the clinical scenarios and management of these patients. AREAS COVERED: The literature on the impact of HCV clearance by DAA on both hepatic and extrahepatic disease outcomes has been analyzed and discussed in this review in order to summarize the full therapeutic potential and its weaknesses. EXPERT OPINION: Patients achieving HCV clearance have improved hepatic and extrahepatic diseases, quality of life and survival. They have lower incidence of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, kidney damage, and immuno-mediated manifestations. However, the improvements are related to the degree of pre-treatment organ damage. Therefore, a significant percentage of patients with advanced disease remains at risk of morbidity and mortality and must be monitored in the post-treatment. In addition, data emphasize the importance of starting treatment during the early stages of HCV infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis C, Chronic/mortality , Humans , Quality of Life , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
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