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1.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705449

ABSTRACT

Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and active tuberculosis in prisoners are higher than the general population and are two public health concerns, especially in low- and middle-income countries. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and the factors associated with LTBI among the inmate population detained in three Southern Italian penitentiaries. Tuberculin intradermal reaction skin test was performed on the inmates who agreed to participate in the study. In case of positivity, the QuantiFERON-TB test was performed. In those positive to QuantiFERON, chest X-ray films were performed, and treatment initiated. A total of 381 inmates accepted to participate. The prevalence of LTBI was 4.2%. In the analysis, LTBI was associated with no self-reported contact with active tuberculosis patients within the prisons, and 10% of subjects admitted the use of inhaled drugs. No HIV coinfections were found. No cases of active symptomatic tuberculosis were identified during the study period. Our results confirm that incarceration increases the risk of tuberculous infection. Non-EU nationality and a history of drug addiction appear to be major risk factors for tuberculosis infection in the penitentiary setting. Reinforcing tuberculosis control is essential to prevent its transmission in prisons.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256903, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406751

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During COVID-19 pandemic, the use of several drugs has represented the worldwide clinical practice. However, though the current increase of knowledge about the disease, there is still no effective treatment for the usage of drugs. Thus, we retrospectively assessed use and effects of therapeutic regimens in hospitalized patients on in-hospital mortality. METHODS: COVOCA is a retrospective observational cohort study on 18 COVID centres throughout Campania Region Hospitals. We included adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, discharged/dead between March/June 2020. RESULTS: 618 patients were included, with an overall in-hospital cumulative mortality incidence of 23.1%. Most prescribed early treatments were antivirals (72%), antibiotics (65%) and hydroxychloroquine/anticoagulants (≈50%). Tocilizumab, indeed, was largely prescribed late during hospitalization. Multivariable models, with a cut-off at day 2 for early COVID-19 therapy administration, did not disclose any significant association of a single drug administration on the clinical outcome. DISCUSSION: COVOCA represents the first multicenter database in Campania region. None drug class used during the pandemic significantly modified the outcome, regardless of therapy beginning, both overall and net of those already in non-invasive ventilation (NIV)/ orotracheal intubation (OTI) at hospitalization. Our cumulative incidence of mortality seems lower than other described during the same period, particularly in Northern Italy.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiratory Therapy , Retrospective Studies
3.
Life (Basel) ; 11(4)2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194689

ABSTRACT

To describe epidemiological and clinical features of patients confirmed as having SARS-CoV-2 infection and managed in isolation at home. We performed a multicenter retrospective study enrolling all SARS-CoV-2-positive adults evaluated from 28 February to 31 May 2020 at one of nine COVID-19 Units in southern Italy: we included patients receiving care at home and those admitted to hospital. We defined patients with not-severe disease if they were asymptomatic or experienced a mild infection that did not need oxygen (O2) therapy and those with a severe infection if hospitalized and required O2 therapy. We enrolled 415 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection: 77 were managed in isolation at home, 338 required hospital management. The 77 patients in home isolation were less frequently male than hospitalized patients (55% vs. 64%; <0.01) and were younger (median age 45 years (IQR:19) vs. 62 (IQR 22); p < 0.01), had a lower Charlson comorbidity index (median 0 (IQR2) vs. 6 (IQR 3); p < 0.01), and included fewer subjects with an underlying chronic disease (36% vs. 59%; p < 0.01). According to a binomial logistic regression analysis, a younger age (OR: 0.96 (95% IC: 0.94-0.98), p < 0.01) and a low Charlson comorbidity index (OR: 0.66 (95% IC: 0.54-0.83); p < 0.01) were independent factors associated with at-home management. The identification of subjects with SARS-CoV-2 infection who could be managed in home isolation is useful in clinical practice. A younger age and no comorbidities were identified as factors independently associated with home management.

4.
Future Sci OA ; 7(1): FSO635, 2020 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992952

ABSTRACT

AIM: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) represents the diagnostic gold standard. We explored the value of chest ultrasonography to predict positivity to SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR in suspected COVID-19 cases. PATIENTS & METHODS: Consecutive patients with suspect COVID-19 were included if they had fever and/or history of cough and/or dyspnea. Lung ultrasound score (LUSS) was computed according to published methods. RESULTS: A total of 76 patients were included. A 3-variable model based on aspartate transaminase (AST) > upper limit of normal, LUSS >12 and body temperature >37.5°C yielded an overall accuracy of 91%. CONCLUSION: A simple LUSS-based model may represent a powerful tool for initial assessment in suspected cases of COVID-19.

5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(21)2020 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983332

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The emergency linked to the spread of COVID-19 in Italy has led to inevitable consequences on the penitentiary system. The risks of this emergency in prisons is mainly related to the problem of persistent overcrowding that makes social distancing difficult and the isolation of any contagion hard to arrange. The Department of Protection for Adults and Minors of the ASL Salerno Criminal Area has taken steps in order to perform screening operations and minimize the risks for prisoners and operators. (2) Methods: We conducted a two-phase observational study. In the first phase, we offered and then executed serum COVID-19 screening to all the convicted inmates. For those who had a doubtful or positive result, a swab was executed in the shortest time possible. In the second phase, a pharyngeal swab was offered and executed to all the police officers, the penitentiary administrative staff and the medical personnel working in the prison. (3) Results: In the first phase, we executed 485 COVID-19 blood tests on prisoners, 3 (0.61%) of which were positive. The three positive inmates underwent nasopharyngeal swabbing, which ultimately were negative. After that, we executed 276 nasopharyngeal swabs on the prison personnel, penitentiary administrative staff and medical personnel-all were negative. (4) Conclusion: All tests (blood tests and swabs) that were carried out on the prisoners and on the staff were negative for COVID-19. We believe that all prisons in Italy and in the world should take action to ensure preventive and control measures in order to safeguard the health of the prison population and of all the people who work there.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Prisoners , Risk Management/methods , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Italy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prisons , SARS-CoV-2
6.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243700, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Italy has been the first Western country to be heavily affected by the spread of SARS-COV-2 infection and among the pioneers of the clinical management of pandemic. To improve the outcome, identification of patients at the highest risk seems mandatory. OBJECTIVES: Aim of this study is to identify comorbidities and clinical conditions upon admission associated with in-hospital mortality in several COVID Centers in Campania Region (Italy). METHODS: COVOCA is a multicentre retrospective observational cohort study, which involved 18 COVID Centers throughout Campania Region, Italy. Data were collected from patients who completed their hospitalization between March-June 2020. The endpoint was in-hospital mortality, assessed either from data at discharge or death certificate, whilst all exposure variables were collected at hospital admission. RESULTS: Among 618 COVID-19 hospitalized patients included in the study, 143 in-hospital mortality events were recorded, with a cumulative incidence of about 23%. At multivariable logistic analysis, male sex (OR 2.63, 95%CI 1.42-4.90; p = 0.001), Chronic Liver Disease (OR 5.88, 95%CI 2.39-14.46; p<0.001) and malignancies (OR 2.62, 95%CI 1.21-5.68; p = 0.015) disclosed an independent association with a poor prognosis, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Respiratory Severity Scale allowed to identify at higher mortality risk. Sensitivity analysis further enhanced these findings. CONCLUSION: Mortality of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 appears strongly affected by both clinical conditions on admission and comorbidities. Originally, we observed a very poor outcome in subjects with a chronic liver disease, alongside with an increase of hepatic damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Chronic Disease , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
7.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 17(21):8033, 2020.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-896478

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The emergency linked to the spread of COVID-19 in Italy has led to inevitable consequences on the penitentiary system. The risks of this emergency in prisons is mainly related to the problem of persistent overcrowding that makes social distancing difficult and the isolation of any contagion hard to arrange. The Department of Protection for Adults and Minors of the ASL Salerno Criminal Area has taken steps in order to perform screening operations and minimize the risks for prisoners and operators. (2) Methods: We conducted a two-phase observational study. In the first phase, we offered and then executed serum COVID-19 screening to all the convicted inmates. For those who had a doubtful or positive result, a swab was executed in the shortest time possible. In the second phase, a pharyngeal swab was offered and executed to all the police officers, the penitentiary administrative staff and the medical personnel working in the prison. (3) Results: In the first phase, we executed 485 COVID-19 blood tests on prisoners, 3 (0.61%) of which were positive. The three positive inmates underwent nasopharyngeal swabbing, which ultimately were negative. After that, we executed 276 nasopharyngeal swabs on the prison personnel, penitentiary administrative staff and medical personnel—all were negative. (4) Conclusion: All tests (blood tests and swabs) that were carried out on the prisoners and on the staff were negative for COVID-19. We believe that all prisons in Italy and in the world should take action to ensure preventive and control measures in order to safeguard the health of the prison population and of all the people who work there.

8.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(2): 471-476, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813360

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to explore the role of lung ultrasound (LUS) in the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and to verify its utility in the prediction of lung disease's severity and outcome. Fifty-three consecutive patients presenting to the Emergency Department of Santa Maria delle Grazie Hospital with high suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection underwent diagnostic test for SARS-CoV-2 on samples obtained from nasopharyngeal swab as well as complete proper diagnostic work-up that included clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, blood gas analyses, chest CT and LUS. A semiquantitative analysis of B-lines distribution was performed to calculate the LUS score. Patients were divided into two groups according to the results of both SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test and other exams (Group A = pneumonia due to SARS-CoV2 infection vs Group B = no SARS-CoV2 infection and another definite diagnosis). LUS showed an excellent accuracy in predicting the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection (area under the ROC curve of 0.92 with a sensibility of 73% and a specificity of 89% a the cut-off of 12.5). LUS score was more impaired in SARS-CoV-2 patients (18.1 ± 6.0 vs 7.6 ± 5.9, p < 0.00001) and it is significantly negatively correlated with PF ratio values (r = - 0.719, p < 0.0001). An intrahospital mortality rate of 46% was found; patients with adverse outcome had significant higher value of LUS, PF, LDH, and APACHE II score. None of these parameters was predictive of mortality. LUS is a useful tool for the early detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection and for the evaluation of the disease severity, but does not predict mortality. Further studies with repeated evaluations of LUS score are needed to further explore the role of LUS in the assessment of severity in SARS-CoV-2 disease and in the monitoring of the response to treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
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