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1.
Le infezioni in medicina ; 30(3):372-391, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2033937

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Monkeypox is a rare viral infection, endemic in many central and western African countries. The last international outbreak of monkeypox reported outside Africa occurred back in 2003. However, monkeypox has reemerged at a global scale with numerous confirmed cases across the globe in 2022. The rapid spread of cases through different countries has raised serious concerns among public health officials worldwide prompting accelerated investigations aimed to identify the origins and cause of the rapid expansion of cases. The current situation is reminiscent of the very early stages of the still ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Overlapping features between these, two seemingly alike viral entities include the possibility for airborne transmission and the currently unexplained and rapid spread across borders. Early recognition of cases and timely intervention of potential transmission chains are necessary to contain further outbreaks. Measures should include rapid and accurate diagnosis of cases meeting case definitions, active surveillance efforts, and appropriate containment of confirmed cases. Governments and health policymakers must apply lessons learned from previous outbreaks and start taking active steps toward limiting the recent global spread of monkeypox. Herein, we discuss the status of the current monkeypox outbreaks worldwide, the epidemiological and public health situation at a global scale and what can be done to keep at bay its further expansion and future global implications.

2.
Le infezioni in medicina ; 30(3):353-361, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2033744

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Several clusters and individual cases of acute hepatitis have been reported in the US, Europe and recently in Asia and Central America since October 2021. A laboratory investigation of the common viral hepatitis agents (HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV and HEV) yielded negative results prompting the use of the term “acute non HepA-E hepatitis” to describe this condition. As of 24 June of 2022, WHO have reported 920 probable cases of severe acute hepatitis of unknown origin among pediatrics in 33 countries in five WHO regions. Since the previous reports on 27 May 2022, 270 new probable cases have been increased, including from four new countries, some of whom were also found to be positive for SARS-CoV-2. All the patients showed symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice, and abdominal pain. The patients’ liver enzymes were remarkably increased. No connection with SARS-CoV-2 or its vaccine has been found so far. However, the suspected cause is adenovirus, including its genomic variations, because its pathogenesis and laboratory investigations have been positively linked. Until further evidence emerges, hygiene precautions could be helpful to prevent its spread.

3.
Journal of Anesthesia, Analgesia and Critical Care ; 2(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999392

ABSTRACT

Background Krebs von den Lungen 6 (KL-6) is a high-molecular-weight mucin-like glycoprotein, which is also known as MUC1. KL-6 is mainly produced by type 2 pneumocytes and bronchial epithelial cells, and, therefore, elevated circulating KL-6 levels may denote disorders of the alveolar epithelial lining. The objective of this study is to verify if KL-6 serum level might support ICU physicians in predicting mortality, risk stratifying and triaging severe COVID-19 patients. Methods A retrospective cohort study, including all the COVID-19 patients who measured KL-6 serum values at least once during their ICU stay, was performed. The study sample, 122 patients, was divided in two groups, according to the median KL-6 value at ICU admission (median log-transformed KL-6 value: 6.73 U/ml;group A: KL-6 lower than the median and group B: KL-6 higher than the median). Results One-hundred twenty-two ICU patients were included in this study. Mortality was higher in group B than in group A (80 versus 46%;p < 0.001);both linear and logistic multivariate analyses showed ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (P/F) significantly and inversely related to KL-6 values. Conclusion At ICU admission, KL-6 serum level was significantly higher in the most hypoxic COVID-19 patients and independently associated with ICU mortality.

4.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 217: 114827, 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1983535

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection evokes various systemic alterations that push patients not only towards severe acute respiratory syndrome but causes an important metabolic dysregulation with following multi-organ alteration and potentially poor outcome. To discover novel potential biomarkers able to predict disease's severity and patient's outcome, in this study we applied untargeted lipidomics, by a reversed phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-trapped ion mobility mass spectrometry platform (RP-UHPLC-TIMS-MS), on blood samples collected at hospital admission in an Italian cohort of COVID-19 patients (45 mild, 54 severe, 21 controls). In a subset of patients, we also collected a second blood sample in correspondence of clinical phenotype modification (longitudinal population). Plasma lipid profiles revealed several lipids significantly modified in COVID-19 patients with respect to controls and able to discern between mild and severe clinical phenotype. Severe patients were characterized by a progressive decrease in the levels of LPCs, LPC-Os, PC-Os, and, on the contrary, an increase in overall TGs, PEs, and Ceramides. A machine learning model was built by using both the entire dataset and with a restricted lipid panel dataset, delivering comparable results in predicting severity (AUC= 0.777, CI: 0.639-0.904) and outcome (AUC= 0.789, CI: 0.658-0.910). Finally, re-building the model with 25 longitudinal (t1) samples, this resulted in 21 patients correctly classified. In conclusion, this study highlights specific lipid profiles that could be used monitor the possible trajectory of COVID-19 patients at hospital admission, which could be used in targeted approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lipidomics , Biomarkers , Humans , Ion Mobility Spectrometry , Lipids
5.
J Pers Med ; 12(7)2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911444

ABSTRACT

In the ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic, male sex is a risk factor for severe disease and death, and the reasons for these clinical discrepancies are largely unknown. The aim of this work is to study the influence of sex on the course of infection and the differences in prognostic markers between genders in COVID-19 patients. Our cohort consisted of 64 adult patients (n = 34 men and n = 30 women) with PCR-proven SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further, a group of patients was characterized by a different severity degree (n = 8 high- and n = 8 low-grade individuals for both male and female patients). As expected, the serum concentrations of LDH, fibrinogen, CRP, and leucocyte count in men were significantly higher than in females. When serum concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, IL-2, IP-10 and IL-4 and chemokines like MCP-1, were measured with multiplex ELISA, no significant differences between male and female patients were found. In COVID-19 patients, we recently attributed a new prognostic value to BPIFB4, a natural defensin against dysregulation of the immune responses. Here, we clarify that BPIFB4 is inversely related to the disease degree in men but not in women. Indeed, higher levels of BPIFB4 characterized low-grade male patients compared to high-grade ones. On the contrary, no significant difference was reported between low-grade female patients and high-grade ones. In conclusion, the identification of BPIFB4 as a biomarker of mild/moderate disease and its sex-specific activity would open an interesting field for research to underpin gender-related susceptibility to the disease.

6.
Neurol Sci ; 43(7): 4069-4079, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899195

ABSTRACT

Guillain-Barrè syndrome (GBS) is an acute immune-mediated neuropathy, possibly triggered by a recent infection or vaccination, and driven by an immune attack targeting the peripheral nervous system. GBS typically leads to ascending limb weakness, often with sensory and cranial nerve involvement 1-2 weeks after immune stimulation, but emergency and neurology physicians should be aware of its important clinical heterogeneity. In rare cases, bilateral facial nerve palsy can be the main clinical manifestation, as the case of the variant formerly known as bilateral facial weakness with paresthesias. An increasing number of case reports of GBS in patients receiving COVID-19 vaccination have been reported both during the pre-clinical phase and after large-scale authorities' approval. We report two cases of bifacial palsy with paresthesias, a rare variant of GBS, both occurring after the first dose of COVID-19 vaccine Vaxzevria™ (formerly COVID-19 vaccine AstraZeneca), showing a favorable outcome after high-dose immunoglobulin therapy, and discuss the literature of GBS post-COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Facial Paralysis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Facial Paralysis/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Paresthesia , Vaccination/adverse effects
7.
Infez Med ; 30(2): 180-193, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893779

ABSTRACT

The priority of the Sustainable Development Goals for 2022 is to reduce all causes related to mortality. In this regard, microbial bioactive compounds with characteristics such as optimal compatibility and close interaction with the host immune system are considered a novel therapeutic approach. The fermentation process is one of the most well-known pathways involved in the natural synthesis of a diverse range of postbiotics. However, some postbiotics are a type of probiotic response behavior to environmental stimuli that usually play well-known biological roles. Also, postbiotics with unique structure and function are key mediators between intestinal microbiota and host cellular processes/metabolic pathways that play a significant role in maintaining homeostasis. By further understanding the nature of parent microbial cells, factors affecting their metabolic pathways, and the development of compatible extraction and identification methods, it is possible to achieve certain formulations of postbiotics with special efficiencies, which in turn will significantly improve the performance of health systems (especially in developing countries) toward a wide range of acute/chronic diseases. The present review aims to describe the fundamental role of postbiotics as the key mediators of the microbiota-host interactions. Besides, it presents the available current evidence regarding the interaction between postbiotics and host cells through potential cell receptors, stimulation/improvement of immune system function, and the enhancement of the composition and function of the human microbiome.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e227970, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798064

ABSTRACT

Importance: During the COVID-19 pandemic, urgent clinical management of patients has mainly included drugs currently administered for other diseases, referred to as repositioned drugs. As a result, some of these drugs have proved to be not only ineffective but also harmful because of adverse events associated with drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Objective: To identify DDIs that led to adverse clinical outcomes and/or adverse drug reactions in patients with COVID-19 by systematically reviewing the literature and assessing the value of drug interaction checkers in identifying such events. Evidence Review: After identification of the drugs used during the COVID-19 pandemic, the drug interaction checkers Drugs.com, COVID-19 Drug Interactions, LexiComp, Medscape, and WebMD were consulted to analyze theoretical DDI-associated adverse events in patients with COVID-19 from March 1, 2020, through February 28, 2022. A systematic literature review was performed by searching the databases PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane for articles published from March 1, 2020, through February 28, 2022, to retrieve articles describing actual adverse events associated with DDIs. The drug interaction checkers were consulted again to evaluate their potential to assess such events. Findings: The DDIs identified in the reviewed articles involved 46 different drugs. In total, 575 DDIs for 58 drug pairs (305 associated with at least 1 adverse drug reaction) were reported. The drugs most involved in DDIs were lopinavir and ritonavir. Of the 6917 identified studies, 20 met the inclusion criteria. These studies, which enrolled 1297 patients overall, reported 115 DDI-related adverse events: 15 (26%) were identifiable by all tools analyzed, 29 (50%) were identifiable by at least 1 of them, and 14 (24%) remained nonidentifiable. Conclusions and Relevance: The main finding of this systematic review is that the use of drug interaction checkers could have identified several DDI-associated adverse drug reactions, including severe and life-threatening events. Both the interactions between the drugs used to treat COVID-19 and between the COVID-19 drugs and those already used by the patients should be evaluated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , COVID-19/drug therapy , Databases, Factual , Drug Interactions , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
9.
Microb Pathog ; 165: 105506, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763898

ABSTRACT

Since its first appearance, the SARS-CoV-2 has spread rapidly in the human population, reaching the pandemic scale with >280 million confirmed infections and more than 5 million deaths to date (https://covid19.who.int/). These data justify the urgent need to enhance our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 effects in the respiratory system, including those linked to co-infections. The principal aim of our study is to investigate existing correlations in the nasopharynx between the bacterial community, potential pathogens, and SARS-CoV-2 infection. The main aim of this study was to provide evidence pointing to possible relationships between components of the bacterial community and SARS-CoV-2 in the nasopharynx. Meta-transcriptomic profiling of the nasopharyngeal microbial community was carried out in 89 SARS-Cov-2 positive subjects from the Campania Region in Italy. To this end, RNA extracted from nasopharyngeal swabs collected at different times during the initial phases of the pandemic was analyzed by Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS). Results show a consistently high presence of members of the Proteobacteria (41.85%), Firmicutes (28.54%), and Actinobacteria (16.10%) phyla, and an inverted correlation between the host microbiome, co-infectious bacteria, and super-potential pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In depth characterization of microbiota composition in the nasopharynx can provide clues to understand its potential contribution to the clinical phenotype of Covid-19, clarifying the interaction between SARS-Cov-2 and the bacterial flora of the host, and highlighting its dysbiosis and the presence of pathogens that could affect the patient's disease progression and outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Microbiota , Bacteria/genetics , Coinfection/epidemiology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Microbiota/genetics , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
10.
J Clin Med ; 11(5)2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732083

ABSTRACT

AIM: Despite huge efforts in developing specific drugs, vaccination represents the only effective strategy against COVID-19. Efficacy and safety of the COVID-19 vaccines were established during clinical trials. Nonetheless, it is very important to perform continuous surveillance. This observational study aimed to report potential Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI) following the first dose of two different COVID-19 vaccines, BNT162b2 and AZD1222. METHODS AND RESULTS: Subjects who underwent vaccination at the vaccine center of the University Hospital of Salerno, Italy, were interviewed using an ad hoc questionnaire. AZD-vac group (n = 175) who received AZD1222 had a higher number of AEFI than the BNT-vac group (n = 1613) who received BNT162b2 (83% vs. 42%). The most frequent AEFI associated with AZD1222 and BNT162b2 were fever and pain at the injection site, respectively. The AZD-vac group used drugs to contrast AEFI more frequently than the BNT-vac group. In the BNT-vac group, there was a higher incidence of AEFI in women than in men (26.2% vs. 15.8%, p = 0.01), while no gender-related difference was observed in the AZD-vac group. CONCLUSIONS: AZD1222 and BNT162b2 vaccines show a good safety profile. Based on our results and literature data, there are no reasons to justify the reluctance that persists towards immunization.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322939

ABSTRACT

Background: One of the most challenging aspects related to Covid-19 is to establish which are the characteristics that may explain clinical variability among patients. To achieve this objective, we compared serum metabolomic profiles of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers to patients affected by mild and severe symptoms. Methods: : All subjects underwent quantitative assays for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection. Serum samples for metabolomic analysis were obtained from 109 healthy controls;15 seroconverted, asymptomatic subjects (AS);16 Covid-19 patients with mild symptomatology (MI) and 12 patients with severe symptomatology (SE). Metabolites were identified using Mass Spectrometry coupled to Gas Chromatography. Uni- and multivariate approaches were used to select the most relevant metabolites. Results: : Anti SARS-CoV-2 IgG showed an increasing trend from controls to asymptomatic and mild severity patients. Tyrosine, phenylalanine, acetoacetate and fumarate showed a decreased concentration in MI compared to both CTRL and AS subjects;on the contrary, mandelic acid showed an increased concertation. The shortest route among these metabolites resulted the Tyrosine metabolism. Aspartic acid, alanine, isoleucine, valine and proline were decreased in MI patients, while methionine and oxo-leucine resulted increased. An increased concertation of fatty acids lauric and myristic acid, phospholipids (phosphatidyl myo-inositol and lyso-phosphatidyl inositol) and histamine were recorded in MI and SE. Conclusion: The reported metabolite levels could be explained by an increase production of L-DOPA, resulting in a following increased production of noradrenaline and adrenaline that could, at least partially, explain the different clinical presentation of the infection.

12.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 2275-2283, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604831

ABSTRACT

From December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has spread rapidly, leading to a global pandemic. Little is known about possible relationships between SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses in the respiratory system affecting patient prognosis and outcomes. This study aims to characterize respiratory virome profiles in association with SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease severity, through the analysis in 89 nasopharyngeal swabs collected in a patient's cohort from the Campania region (Southern Italy). Results show coinfections with viral species belonging to Coronaviridae, Retroviridae, Herpesviridae, Poxviridae, Pneumoviridae, Pandoraviridae, and Anelloviridae families and only 2% of the cases (2/89) identified respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nasopharynx , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Virome
13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293102

ABSTRACT

Rationale Krebs von den Lungen 6 (KL-6) is a high molecular weight mucin-like glycoprotein produced by type II pneumocytes and bronchial epithelial cells. Elevated circulating levels of KL-6 may denote disorder of the alveolar epithelial lining. Objective Aim of this study was to verify if KL-6 values may help to risk stratify and triage severe COVID-19 patients. Methods We performed a retrospective prognostic study on 110 COVID-19 ICU patients, evaluating the predictive role of KL-6 for mortality. Measurements and Main Results The study sample was divided in two groups related according to the median KL-6 value [Group A (KL-6 lower than the log-transformed median (6.73)) and Group B (KL-6 higher than the log-transformed median)]. In both linear and logistic multivariate analyses, ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (P/F) was significantly and inversely related to KL-6. Death rate was higher in group B than in group A (80.3 versus 45.9%) (p<0.001), Accordingly, the Cox regression analysis showed a significant prognostic role of KL-6 on mortality in the whole sample as well as in the subgroup with SOFA lower than its median value. Conclusions At ICU admission, KL-6 serum level was significantly lower in the survivors group. Our findings shown that, in severe COVID19 patients, elevated KL-6 was strongly associated with mortality in ICU.

14.
Expert Opin Drug Discov ; 17(1): 9-18, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366950

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Remdesivir (RDV) is an inhibitor of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases that are active in some RNA viruses, including the Ebola virus and zoonotic coronaviruses. When severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified as the etiologic agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), several investigations have assessed the potential activity of RDV in inhibiting viral replication, giving rise to hope for an effective treatment. AREAS COVERED: In this review, the authors describe the main investigations leading to the discovery of RDV and its subsequent development as an antiviral agent, focusing on the main clinical trials investigating its efficacy in terms of symptom resolution and mortality reduction. EXPERT OPINION: RDV is the most widely investigated antiviral drug for the treatment of COVID-19. This attention on RDV activity against SARS-CoV-2 is justified by promising in vitro studies, which demonstrated that RDV was able to suppress viral replication without significant toxicity. Such activity was confirmed by an investigation in an animal model and by the results of preliminary clinical investigations. Nevertheless, the efficacy of RDV in reducing mortality has not been clearly demonstrated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 76(10): 1775-1783, 2021 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358442

ABSTRACT

Aging and comorbidities make individuals at greatest risk of COVID-19 serious illness and mortality due to senescence-related events and deleterious inflammation. Long-living individuals (LLIs) are less susceptible to inflammation and develop more resiliency to COVID-19. As demonstrated, LLIs are characterized by high circulating levels of BPIFB4, a protein involved in homeostatic response to inflammatory stimuli. Also, LLIs show enrichment of homozygous genotype for the minor alleles of a 4 missense single-nucleotide polymorphism haplotype (longevity-associated variant [LAV]) in BPIFB4, able to counteract progression of diseases in animal models. Thus, the present study was designed to assess the presence and significance of BPIFB4 level in COVID-19 patients and the potential therapeutic use of LAV-BPIFB4 in fighting COVID-19. BPIFB4 plasma concentration was found significantly higher in LLIs compared to old healthy controls while it significantly decreased in 64 COVID-19 patients. Further, the drop in BPIFB4 values correlated with disease severity. Accordingly to the LAV-BPIFB4 immunomodulatory role, while lysates of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells induced an inflammatory response in healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro, the co-treatment with recombinant protein (rh) LAV-BPIFB4 resulted in a protective and self-limiting reaction, culminating in the downregulation of CD69 activating-marker for T cells (both TCD4+ and TCD8+) and in MCP-1 reduction. On the contrary, rhLAV-BPIFB4 induced a rapid increase in IL-18 and IL-1b levels, shown largely protective during the early stages of the virus infection. This evidence, along with the ability of rhLAV-BPIFB4 to counteract the cytotoxicity induced by SARS-CoV-2 lysate in selected target cell lines, corroborates BPIFB4 prognostic value and open new therapeutic possibilities in more vulnerable people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Longevity/immunology , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line , Cytokines/blood , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic/drug effects , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/immunology , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/blood , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/immunology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Prognosis , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
16.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309824

ABSTRACT

We describe the case of a 63-year-old man who is reported to have the first confirmed case of COVID-19 reinfection in Campania Region, Italy. We found that the two episodes were caused by virus strains with clearly different genome sequences. The patient, a retired nurse, had a very low level of antibodies IgG directed against the spike protein 14 days after his first Pfizer/BioNTek vaccine shot.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Pers Med ; 11(7)2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295869

ABSTRACT

Data supporting the use of Tocilizumab (TCZ) in COVID-19 are contrasting and inconclusive. This meta-analysis aimed to assess TCZ effectiveness in reducing the mortality rate in COVID-19 patients. PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane, WILEY, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched to evaluate observational studies and RCTs. The outcome was the mortality rate. Forty observational studies and seven RCTs, involving 9640 and 5556 subjects treated with Standard Therapy (ST) + TCZ or ST alone, respectively, were included. In patients treated with ST+TCZ, a higher survival (Log odds ratio = -0.41; 95% CI: -0.68 -0.14; p < 0.001) was found. Subgroups analyses were performed to better identify the possible interference of some parameters in modifying the efficacy of TCZ therapy on COVID-19 mortality. Separating observational from RCTs, no statistically significant (p = 0.70) TCZ-related reduction of mortality regarding RCTs was found, while a significant reduction (Log odds ratio = -0.52; 95% CI: -0.82 -0.22, p < 0.001) was achieved regarding the observational studies. Stratifying for the use of Invasive Mechanic Ventilation (IMV), a higher survival was found in patients treated with TCZ in the No-IMV and IMV groups (both p < 0.001), but not in the No-IMV/IMV group. Meta-regression analyses were also performed. The meta-analysis of observational studies reveals that TCZ is associated with reducing the mortality rate in both severe and critically ill patients. Although the largest RCT, RECOVERY, is in line with this result, the meta-analysis of RCTs failed to found any difference between ST + TCZ and ST. It is crucial to personalize the therapy considering the patients' characteristics.

18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 695242, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282388

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has reached direct and indirect medical and social consequences with a subset of patients who rapidly worsen and die from severe-critical manifestations. As a result, there is still an urgent need to identify prognostic biomarkers and effective therapeutic approaches. Severe-critical manifestations of COVID-19 are caused by a dysregulated immune response. Immune checkpoint molecules such as Programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) play an important role in regulating the host immune response and several lines of evidence underly the role of PD-1 modulation in COVID-19. Here, by analyzing blood sample collection from both hospitalized COVID-19 patients and healthy donors, as well as levels of PD-L1 RNA expression in a variety of model systems of SARS-CoV-2, including in vitro tissue cultures, ex-vivo infections of primary epithelial cells and biological samples obtained from tissue biopsies and blood sample collection of COVID-19 and healthy individuals, we demonstrate that serum levels of PD-L1 have a prognostic role in COVID-19 patients and that PD-L1 dysregulation is associated to COVID-19 pathogenesis. Specifically, PD-L1 upregulation is induced by SARS-CoV-2 in infected epithelial cells and is dysregulated in several types of immune cells of COVID-19 patients including monocytes, neutrophils, gamma delta T cells and CD4+ T cells. These results have clinical significance since highlighted the potential role of PD-1/PD-L1 axis in COVID-19, suggest a prognostic role of PD-L1 and provide a further rationale to implement novel clinical studies in COVID-19 patients with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors.


Subject(s)
B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Female , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Up-Regulation
19.
Health Promot Perspect ; 11(2): 171-178, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273805

ABSTRACT

Background: To end the COVID-19 pandemic, a large part of the world must be immune to the virus by vaccination. Therefore, this study aimed to gauge intent to be vaccinated against COVID-19 among ordinary people and to identify attitudes towards vaccines and barriers for vaccine acceptance. Methods: The study population comprises 1880 people residing in different countries that answer a prepared questionnaire. The questionnaire topics are demographics, historical issues, participants' attitudes and beliefs regarding vaccines, concerns, and vaccine hesitancy. Results: Attitudes and beliefs relating to vaccines in general, and the COVID-19 vaccine, were ascertained. Overall, 66.81% of the contributors would like to be vaccinated against COVID-19, while %33.19 did not intend to be vaccinated. Reasons for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy included concern regarding vaccine side effects, fear of getting sick from the uptake of the vaccine, and the absence of accurate vaccine promotion news. Individuals with higher education believe that India (68.6%) produces the best vaccine (P <0.001), while healthcare workers think the Chinese vaccine (44.2%) is the best (P =0.020). Individuals with higher education have not been vaccinated, not be healthcare workers, and females were the most contributors to effective of the vaccine in reducing mortality from COVID-19 disease. Conclusion: Given the degree of hesitancy against COVID-19 vaccination, a multifaceted approach to facilitate vaccine uptake that includes vaccine education, behavioral change strategies, and health promotion, is paramount.

20.
Health Promot Perspect ; 11(1): 5-11, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129923

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) dissemination occurred from December 2019 and quickly spread to all countries. Infected patients with COVID-19 have had a wide range of symptoms, ranging from mild to severe illness. The most mortality was observed in patients with underlying disease and over 45 years. World statistics have shown that the COVID-19 outbreak is most expanded in Middle Eastern, West Asian, European, North, and South American countries, and is least expanded in African countries. Therefore, the aim of the paper was the evaluation of six African countries including Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Guinea, Togo, and Djibouti to find why this disease is least expanded in African countries. Study was conducted by Questioner for countries health organizers to define their different aspect exposure and fight with COVID-19 including epidemiology, clinical aspects of the disease, case definitions, diagnosis laboratory confirmation, and referral of cases by the portal of entry, case management, and disease prevention in these countries. According to this opinion review, due to the low international flights and low domestic travel, the spread, and prevalence of COVID-19 was low and the return of the immigrants of these countries has caused the spread of COVID-19 among these countries. Experience, preparation, and impact of previous infections epidemic such as the Ebola virus epidemic would have beneficial, which have promoted certain reflexes among people that cause low dissemination in these countries.

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