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1.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 4(5): e307-e308, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937375
4.
Curr Opin Pharmacol ; 65: 102243, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814289

ABSTRACT

Many patients with systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) require immunosuppression to reduce disease activity, but this also has important possible detrimental impacts on immune responses following vaccination. The phase III clinical trials for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines did not include those who are immunosuppressed. Fortunately, we now have a clearer idea of how immune responses following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has for the immunosuppressed, with much of the data being within a year of its introduction. Here, we summarize what is known in this rapidly evolving field about the impact immunosuppression has on humoral immunogenicity including waning immunity and additional doses, breakthrough infection rates and severity, disease flare rates, along with additional considerations and remaining unanswered questions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Flare Up , Vaccination
7.
The Lancet. Rheumatology ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1749352
8.
ACR Open Rheumatol ; 4(5): 457-463, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712012

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Patients with anti-melanoma-differentiation-associated 5 (anti-MDA5)-positive dermatomyositis (DM) share several striking similarities to patients with SARS-CoV-2. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of anti-angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies, found in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2, in two independent anti-MDA5-positive DM cohorts. METHODS: Anti-ACE2 IgM antibodies were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in two anti-MDA5-positive DM cohorts: a predominantly outpatient North American cohort (n = 52) and a Japanese cohort enriched for new-onset disease (n = 32). Additionally, 118 patients with SARS-CoV-2 with a spectrum of clinical severity were tested for anti-MDA5 antibodies by ELISA. RESULTS: Five of fifty-two (9.6%) North American patients and five of thirty-two (15%) Japanese patients were positive for anti-ACE2 IgM. In the North American cohort, all five patients with anti-ACE2 IgM antibodies had proximal muscle weakness, had interstitial lung disease, were significantly more likely to receive pulse dose methylprednisolone (80% vs 30%, P = 0.043), and had worse forced vital capacity (median 59% predicted vs 78%, P = 0.056) compared with the anti-ACE2-IgM-negative group. In the Japanese cohort, all five anti-ACE2-IgM-positive patients also required pulse dose methylprednisolone, and three of five (60%) patients died. Japanese patients with anti-ACE2 IgM had significantly worse oxygenation, as defined by a lower partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio (233 vs 390, P = 0.021), and a higher alveolar-arterial oxygenation gradient (91 vs 23 mm Hg, P = 0.024) than the IgM-negative group. CONCLUSION: We describe anti-ACE2 IgM autoantibodies in two independent cohorts with anti-MDA5-positive DM. These autoantibodies may be biomarkers for severe disease and provide insight into disease pathogenesis.

9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(3): 427-436, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions taking immunomodulatory/suppressive medications may have higher risk of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Chronic disease care has also changed for many patients, with uncertain downstream consequences. METHODS: We included participants with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions followed by specialists at Johns Hopkins. Participants completed periodic surveys querying comorbidities, disease-modifying medications, exposures, COVID-19 testing and outcomes, social behaviors, and disruptions to healthcare. We assessed whether COVID-19 risk is higher among those on immunomodulating or suppressive agents and characterized pandemic-associated changes to care and mental health. RESULTS: In total, 265 (5.6%) developed COVID-19 over 9 months of follow-up (April-December 2020). Patient characteristics (age, race, comorbidity, medications) were associated with differences in social distancing behaviors during the pandemic. Glucocorticoid exposure was associated with higher odds of COVID-19 in models incorporating behavior and other potential confounders (odds ratio [OR]: 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08, 1.89). Other medication classes were not associated with COVID-19 risk. Diabetes (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.73), cardiovascular disease (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.24, 2.28), and kidney disease (OR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.97) were associated with higher odds of COVID-19. Of the 2156 reporting pre-pandemic utilization of infusion, mental health or rehabilitative services, 975 (45.2%) reported disruptions therein, which disproportionately affected individuals experiencing changes to employment or income. CONCLUSIONS: Glucocorticoid exposure may increase risk of COVID-19 in people with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions. Disruption to healthcare and related services was common. Those with pandemic-related reduced income may be most vulnerable to care disruptions.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 74(1): 28-32, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340236

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate disease flare and postvaccination reactions (reactogenicity) in patients with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) following 2-dose SARS-CoV-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccination. METHODS: RMD patients (n = 1,377) who received 2-dose SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination between December 16, 2020 and April 15, 2021 completed questionnaires detailing local and systemic reactions experienced within 7 days of each vaccine dose (dose 1 and dose 2), and 1 month after dose 2, detailing any flares of RMD. Associations between demographic/clinical characteristics and flares requiring treatment were evaluated using modified Poisson regression. RESULTS: Among the patients, 11% reported flares requiring treatment; there were no reports of severe flares. Flares were associated with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 2.09, P = 0.02), flares in the 6 months preceding vaccination (IRR 2.36, P < 0.001), and the use of combination immunomodulatory therapy (IRR 1.95, P < 0.001). The most frequently reported local and systemic reactions included injection site pain (87% after dose 1, 86% after dose 2) and fatigue (60% after dose 1, 80% after dose 2). Reactogenicity increased after dose 2, particularly for systemic reactions. No allergic reactions or SARS-CoV-2 diagnoses were reported. CONCLUSION: Flares of underlying RMD following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were uncommon. There were no reports of severe flares. Local and systemic reactions typically did not interfere with daily activity. These early safety data can help address vaccine hesitancy in RMD patients.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Musculoskeletal Diseases/immunology , Rheumatic Diseases/immunology , /administration & dosage , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Symptom Flare Up
19.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 3(9): e607-e609, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301110
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