Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 10 de 10
Filter
2.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760845

ABSTRACT

Pathogenesis of viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) is poorly understood, and this is partly due to the limitations of currently used preclinical models. Brain organoid models can overcome some of these limitations, as they are generated from human derived stem cells, differentiated in three dimensions (3D), and can mimic human neurodevelopmental characteristics. Therefore, brain organoids have been increasingly used as brain models in research on various viruses, such as Zika virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, human cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus. Brain organoids allow for the study of viral tropism, the effect of infection on organoid function, size, and cytoarchitecture, as well as innate immune response; therefore, they provide valuable insight into the pathogenesis of neurotropic viral infections and testing of antivirals in a physiological model. In this review, we summarize the results of studies on viral CNS infection in brain organoids, and we demonstrate the broad application and benefits of using a human 3D model in virology research. At the same time, we describe the limitations of the studies in brain organoids, such as the heterogeneity in organoid generation protocols and age at infection, which result in differences in results between studies, as well as the lack of microglia and a blood brain barrier.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain/pathology , Humans , Organoids , Zika Virus Infection/pathology
3.
Radiology ; 303(1): 182-183, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752922
4.
Matern Child Health J ; 26(6): 1312-1321, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605785

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Italy was affected greatly by Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), emerging mainly in the Italian province of Lombardy. This outbreak led to profound governmental interventions along with a strict quarantine. This quarantine may have psychosocial impact on children and parents in particular. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of 8 weeks COVID-19 quarantine on psychosocial functioning of Italian parents and their children. METHODS: In this cross-sectional survey, we included parents and children resided in Italy during the 8 weeks COVID-19 quarantine. We evaluated social and emotional functioning, clinical symptoms possibly related to emotional distress, and change in perspectives using a questionnaire. RESULTS: The majority of 2315 parents (98% mothers) frequently experienced fear of getting ill (92%) and fluctuating moods (84%), the latter showing correlation to experiencing stress due to being in continuous close vicinity to their children (77%, r = 0.33). Parents reported a positive effect on the relationship with their partner (79%) and their children (89%). Irritability in children was frequent (74%) and correlated to parental fluctuating moods (r = 0.40). The vast majority of the participants (91%) reported that their perspectives for the future had changed. CONCLUSIONS FOR PRACTICE: Our findings suggest a profound impact of the COVID-19 quarantine on emotional functioning of parents and their children in Italy. Despite the protective measure of quarantine against national viral spread and subsequent infection, health care professionals should be aware of this emotional impact, in order to develop protective or therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Parents/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(12)2021 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572692

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies are secreted into human milk of infected or vaccinated lactating women and might provide protection to the breastfed infant against COVID-19. Differences in antibody response after these types of exposure are unknown. In this longitudinal cohort study, we compared the antibody response in human milk following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination or infection. We analyzed 448 human milk samples of 28 lactating women vaccinated with the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine BNT162b2 as well as 82 human milk samples of 18 lactating women with a prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. The levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA in human milk were determined over a period of 70 days both after vaccination and infection. The amount of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA in human milk was similar after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and infection. After infection, the variability in IgA levels was higher than after vaccination. Two participants with detectable IgA prior to vaccination were analyzed separately and showed higher IgA levels following vaccination compared to both groups. In conclusion, breastfed infants of mothers who have been vaccinated with the BNT162b2 vaccine receive human milk with similar amounts of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies compared to infants of previously infected mothers.

6.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0073121, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410324

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients produce circulating and mucosal antibodies. In adults, specific saliva antibodies have been detected. Nonetheless, seroprevalence is routinely investigated, while little attention has been paid to mucosal antibodies. We therefore assessed SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody prevalence in serum and saliva in children in the Netherlands. We assessed SARS-CoV-2 antibody prevalence in serum and saliva of 517 children attending medical services in the Netherlands (irrespective of COVID-19 exposure) from April to October 2020. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S), receptor binding domain (RBD), and nucleocapsid (N)-specific IgG and IgA were evaluated with an exploratory Luminex assay in serum and saliva and with the Wantai SARS-CoV-2 RBD total antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in serum. Using the Wantai assay, the RBD-specific antibody prevalence in serum was 3.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]. 1.9 to 5.3%). With the Luminex assay, we detected heterogeneity between antibodies for S, RBD, and N antigens, as IgG and IgA prevalence ranged between 3.6 and 4.6% in serum and between 0 and 4.4% in saliva. The Luminex assay also revealed differences between serum and saliva, with SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG present in saliva but not in serum for 1.5 to 2.7% of all children. Using multiple antigen assays, the IgG prevalence for at least two out of three antigens (S, RBD, or N) in serum or saliva can be calculated as 3.8% (95% CI, 2.3 to 5.6%). Our study displays the heterogeneity of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response in children and emphasizes the additional value of saliva antibody detection and the combined use of different antigens. IMPORTANCE Comprehending humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2, including in children, is crucial for future public health and vaccine strategies. Others have suggested that mucosal antibody measurement could be an important and more convenient tool to evaluate humoral immunity compared to circulating antibodies. Nonetheless, seroprevalence is routinely investigated, while little attention has been paid to mucosal antibodies. We show the heterogeneity of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, in terms of both antigen specificity and differences between circulating and mucosal antibodies, emphasizing the additional value of saliva antibody detection next to detection of antibodies in serum.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Saliva/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Prevalence , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies
7.
J Hum Lact ; 37(3): 485-491, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325271

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human milk contains antibodies against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) following Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). These antibodies may serve as protection against COVID-19 in infants. However, the evolution of these human milk antibodies over time is unclear. RESEARCH AIM: To elucidate the evolution of immunoglobulin A (IgA) against SARS-CoV-2 in human milk after a SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: This longitudinal follow-up study included lactating mothers (N = 24) who had participated in the COVID MILK study. To assess the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, serum and human milk samples were collected 14-143 days after the onset of clinical symptoms related to COVID-19. Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay was used to detect antibodies against the ectodomain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 antibodies remain present up to 5 months (143 days) in human milk after onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Overall, SARS-CoV-2 IgA in human milk seems to gradually decrease over time. CONCLUSION: Human milk from SARS-CoV-2 convalescent lactating mothers contains specific IgA antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein up to at least 5 months post-infection. Passive viral immunity can be transferred via human milk and may serve as protection for infants against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Breast Feeding , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Lactation , Milk, Human , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
8.
J Hum Lact ; 37(3): 477-484, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285158

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines are being administered around the world; however, lactating women were excluded from SARS-CoV-2 vaccine trials. Therefore, knowledge about the effect of vaccination in this specific group is limited. This information is essential to empower lactating women to make a well-informed decision on their choice for vaccination. After natural infection, SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies are present in human milk, which might offer protection for her newborn. The dynamics of these antibodies in human milk following vaccination remain to be elucidated. RESEARCH AIM: To determine the effect of vaccination with BNT162b2 on the levels of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgA in human milk. METHODS: In this prospective longitudinal study, we included lactating women who received the BNT162b2 vaccine. Human milk samples were collected prior to vaccination and 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 days after both vaccine doses. Samples were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: In total, 366 human milk samples from 26 lactating women were analyzed. A biphasic response was observed, with SARS-CoV-2 specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) starting to increase between day 5 and 7 after the first dose of the vaccine. After the second dose, an accelerated IgA antibody response was observed. CONCLUSION: After vaccination with the mRNA-based BNT162b2 vaccine, a SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody response was observed in human milk. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgA after vaccination is important as antibodies are transferred via human milk, and thereby might provide protection to infants against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Breast Feeding , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Lactation , Longitudinal Studies , Milk, Human , Prospective Studies , Vaccination
9.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227048

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many put their hopes in the rapid availability of effective immunizations. Human milk, containing antibodies against syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), may serve as means of protection through passive immunization. We aimed to determine the presence and pseudovirus neutralization capacity of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgA in human milk of mothers who recovered from COVID-19, and the effect of pasteurization on these antibodies. METHODS: This prospective case control study included lactating mothers, recovered from (suspected) COVID-19 and healthy controls. Human milk and serum samples were collected. To assess the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies we used multiple complementary assays, namely ELISA with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (specific for IgA and IgG), receptor binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid (N) protein for IgG in serum, and bridging ELISA with the SARS-CoV-2 RBD and N protein for specific Ig (IgG, IgM and IgA in human milk and serum). To assess the effect of pasteurization, human milk was exposed to Holder (HoP) and High Pressure Pasteurization (HPP). RESULTS: Human milk contained abundant SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 83% of the proven cases and in 67% of the suspected cases. Unpasteurized milk with and without these antibodies was found to be capable of neutralizing a pseudovirus of SARS-CoV-2 in (97% and 85% of the samples respectively). After pasteurization, total IgA antibody levels were affected by HoP, while SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody levels were affected by HPP. Pseudovirus neutralizing capacity of the human milk samples was only retained with the HPP approach. No correlation was observed between milk antibody levels and neutralization capacity. CONCLUSIONS: Human milk from recovered COVID-19-infected mothers contains SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies which maintained neutralization capacity after HPP. All together this may represent a safe and effective immunization strategy after HPP.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Lactation , Milk, Human/immunology , Pasteurization , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Female , Humans
10.
J Hum Lact ; 37(3): 469-476, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226833

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that human milk from mothers who have been infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contains antibodies against the virus, which could play an important role in protecting the recipient infant against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Seroconversion is measured frequently around the world, but the milk conversion rate is unknown. RESEARCH AIMS: To determine (1) the prevalence and (2) the dynamics of immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in human milk amongst lactating mothers in the Netherlands. METHODS: In this large prospective cohort study, lactating mothers (N = 2312) were included between October 12, 2020 and February 24, 2021. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine levels of IgA antibodies in human milk and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in serum against the ectodomain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. RESULTS: A total of 691 (30.6%) participants had SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies in human milk and/or serum. Of these participants, 524 (23.1%) had IgA antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in human milk, and 356 (15.7%) had IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in serum. A total of 199 (8.8%) participants had antibodies in both human milk and serum. SARS-CoV-2 specific IgA antibodies in human milk remain present at least 10 months after a polymerase chain reaction confirmed infection. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of IgA antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in human milk was 23.1% in our cohort. This high prevalence of antibodies in human milk might lead to passive immunity in many breastfed infants and may serve as protection against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Breast Feeding , Female , Humans , Infant , Lactation , Milk, Human , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL